Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> vol. 37 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Obtainment, quantification and use of lactulose as a functional food – a review]]> Abstract Whey (milk serum) is produced by the dairy industry during the manufacture of cheese. In addition to being a valuable source of functional and nutritional proteins, whey also presents almost all the lactose from the original whole milk. However, many industries still consider the whey as an effluent, which can cause serious environmental problems when not properly treated. Therefore, it is important to develop alternatives for the adequate use of whey. The lactose obtained from whey permeate can be converted into lactulose, a prebiotic which may be metabolized in the intestine by probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp., through enzymatic isomerization or by using alkaline catalysts, with minimal secondary reactions and high yield. This manuscript provides information about various techniques used to produce lactulose, its purification and analysis, as well as its mechanisms of action and alternative applications in food products and medicines. <![CDATA[Effect of the roasting temperature and time of cocoa beans on the sensory characteristics and acceptability of chocolate]]> Abstract The aim of this work was to study the impact of the roasting temperature (80, 120 and 160 °C) and time (20, 40 and 60 min) of cocoa beans on the sensory acceptability of chocolate using response surface methodology. The results revealed that there was higher impact of roasting temperature and no influence of roasting time (in the studied levels). Lower score of consumers’ sensory acceptability was found at higher roasting temperature of cocoa beans (160 °C). The chocolate samples presented undesirable burnt odor and flavor. Roasting temperatures range 90 to 110 °C were found optimum for higher consumer’s acceptability scores (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall quality attributes). Ten trained assessors consensually defined fifteen descriptors showing similarities and differences among the chocolate samples, using the methodology based on Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The Principal Component Analysis showed that A, B and C treatments (80 °C) were characterized primarily by the brown color, sweet aroma and flavor attributes. The treatments D, E and F (120 °C) were characterized by reddish brown color, bitterness, burnt aroma and flavor, astringency attributes. <![CDATA[Nutritional value of huitlacoche, maize mushroom caused by <em>Ustilago maydis</em>]]> Abstract Smutty maize cobs, caused by Ustilago maydis ((DC) Corda.), a fungus belonging to Basidiomycetes, can be seen wherever maize is grown. It is considered as a fungal disease limiting maize yield worldwide. However, in Mesoamerica, it is called as “huitlacoche” and evaluated as an edible mushroom. The present study was conducted to examine nutritional characteristics of this mushroom. In the study, smutty cobs naturally infected by U. maydis were randomly gleaned from plants in maize producing areas in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, in 2015. Huitlacoche was analyzed in terms of proximate composition, fatty acids, mineral elements, total phenolic and flavonoid matters and antioxidant activity. Average protein content was 12%, while fatty acids ranged from 0.44 to 42.49% (dry basis). Of the 11 fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids had the highest percentages. Phosphorus (342.07 mg/kg) and magnesium (262.69 mg/kg) were found in high quantities. As for total phenolic and flavonoid matters were 113.11 mg GAE/kg and 28.51 mg CE/kg, respectively. The study suggests that huitlacoche has numerous good nutritional features for human diet, thus, it can be evaluated as a valuable food source in international cuisines. <![CDATA[Seasonal variability of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in prickly pear cladodes of O<em>puntia</em> and <em>Nopalea</em> genres]]> Abstract The prickly pear is a cactaceae that have chemical compounds that act as natural antioxidants. In addition, the prickly pear is a plant widely used in semiarid region as it’s considered very important forage for animal feed, especially in the dry season. The objectives of this research were to characterize the main classes of phytochemicals, determine the phenols content, flavonoids and anthocyanins and evaluate the antioxidant activity of the prickly pear cultivars Opuntia and Nopalea grown in the semiarid region of Pernambuco in two collection periods (dry and rainy). In the work crude ethanol extracts from cladodes of cultivars (IPA-20, Elephant Ear Mexican, F-08, V-19, Small palm, F-21 and IPA-Sertânia) were used. As for the class of phytochemical compounds from ethanol extract only the flavonoids and steroids were detected in all prickly pear cultivars, in both periods analyzed. The content of phenolic compounds ranges from 1.24 to 5.41 mg GAE g-1 DM, flavonoids 0.90 to 3.43 mg QE g-1 DM, anthocyanins from 0.05 to 0.34 µg QE 100 g-1 DM and antioxidant activity 39.59 to 217.17 µM TEAC g-1 DM. The occurrence of chemical variability and antioxidant activity were observed, both among the botanical cultivars studied and among the collection periods. <![CDATA[Assessment of radio frequency heating on composition, microstructure, flowability and rehydration characteristics of milk powder]]> Abstract Radio frequency heating (RFH) provides higher efficiency and more uniform heating zone compared with conventional method. The aim of present work is to evaluate the effect of RFH (at 90 °C for 5 or 10 min) on the changes in composition (protein oxidation and fat distribution), microstructure, flow characteristic and rehydration property of infant milk powder. The results indicate that the concentration of protein dityrosine was slightly enhanced, more free fat appeared on powder surfaces (&gt; 50% increase), and porosity in powder matrix as tested by SEM was increased after RFH treatment. For powder flowability, raw sample had low cohesiveness (specific energy = 4.39 mJ/g), and RFH provided better flowability and decreased compressibility. Moreover, RFH had some negative impacts on wettability and solubility of powder particles with contact angle increase at least 5% and solubility decrease of 2%~4%, indicating worse rehydration abilities. Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was applied to fit moisture vapor sorption isotherms, and longer RFH duration leading to higher c values (about 63% increase at 10 min). In addition, the RFH initiated browning reaction as CIE a* values increased from -1.8 to -1.3. <![CDATA[Screening for quality indicators and phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest in honey samples from six species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)]]> Abstract Honey from stingless bees of the genus Melipona is a well sought product. Nevertheless lack of legal frameworks for quality assessment complicates the evaluation of food safety and marketing of these products. Seeking to assess the quality of honey from the bees of this genus, physical and chemical analyses, identification of phenolic compounds, and microbiological evaluation from six species of stingless bees was performed. The honey samples showed high reducing sugars, low protein levels and a balanced microbiota. High total phenols and flavonoids and higher antioxidant activity were also recorded. Different phenolic compounds of great biotechnological potential were identified and of these apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin were identified for the first time in honey. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works describing a detail characterization of melipona honey together with identification of the phenolic compounds of significant therapeutic value. <![CDATA[Investigation of phytochemical contents, <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant and antibacterial behavior and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory potential of <em>Ecballium elaterium</em> methanol fruits extract]]> Abstract Ecballium elaterium species are mostly used as therapeutic agents and food ingredient. The current work was designed to investigate phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol fruits extract of Ecballium elaterium. Good antioxidant activity was observed with IC50 values of 156 ± 4 and 377 ± 6 μg/mL for DPPH and ABTS, respectively, and EC50 of 126 ± 4 µg/mL for FRAP assays, which is related with their richness in total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The results of antibacterial activity showed the effectiveness of methanol extract against Bacillus cereus with value of inhibition zone diameter of 15 ± 0 mm and a MIC and MBC values of 6 ± 0 and 12 ± 0 mg/mL, respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects have been also studied by carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay and the results revealed that a dose of 75 mg/kg induced a significant inhibition of 66.4% at 2 h. FT-IR spectral data justified the presence of biological functional groups such as ─OH, C─H, C─O, C─C and C=O. These results highlighted the potential using of Ecballium elaterium fruits extract as natural antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for food applications and for the pharmaceutical industry. <![CDATA[Ascorbic acid and phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and flavonoids composition of Brazilian Savannah native fruits]]> Abstract Brazilian Savannah native fruits have been investigated as potential sources of antioxidant substances. Cagaita, cerrado cashew and gabiroba were characterized with regard to the ascorbic acid and phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and flavonoids composition. Gabiroba presented higher contents of ascorbic acid (61.5 mg.100 g–1), total phenolic compounds (1,222.59 mg GAE.100 g–1), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays) than cagaita and cerrado cashew. The correlation coefficients between total ascorbic acid or total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity were strong and significant (0.970 ≤ r ≤ 0.998). Quercetin derivatives were found in cagaita (1.94 mg.100 g–1) and myricetin derivatives in cerrado cashew (1.2 mg.100 g–1). Peonidin 3-glucoside was the main anthocyanin in cerrado cashew, and its flavonoids composition was first identified in this study. Gabiroba showed relevant catechin content (23.32 mg.100 g–1). These Brazilian native fruits may be considered as important sources of bioactive compounds, notably gabiroba, since it presents high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. <![CDATA[Performance of <em>Pleurotus pulmonarius</em> mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran]]> Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB) and maize flour (MF). A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR). The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP) was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE). With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended. <![CDATA[Effects of CO<sub>2</sub> pretreatment on the volatile compounds of dried Chinese jujube (<em>Zizyphus jujuba</em> Miller)]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether anaerobic metabolites could induce volatile compounds and improve aroma of dried jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller). Jujube fruits were incubated in a polyvinyl chloride bag containing 5% CO2 and 95% N2 for up to 168 h at 25 °C and 3 samples were randomly removed every 6 h and oven dried to a moisture content of ≅ 20%. The volatile compounds of control and 5% CO2-pretreated Chinese jujube fruits were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The acetaldehyde and ethanol contents were determined by gas chromatography (GC). The results indicated that a large accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol caused changes in aroma composition of dried jujube products and 5% CO2 pretreatment led to an increase in the levels of some compounds, particularly esters, acetaldehydes, and ethanol, whereas the amount of acids were decreased significantly. Principal component analysis showed that integrative scores of 5% CO2 pretreatment at 120 h were the highest, and aroma quality was better than that of the control. Relatively low concentrations of anaerobic respiration metabolites are good for jujube fruit aroma composition. <![CDATA[Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (<em>Vitis vinifera</em> L.) cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film]]> Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white) of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones. <![CDATA[Variation of structures of ingredients of desiccated coconut during hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid at low temperature]]> Abstract Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut. <![CDATA[Sonication enhances quality and antioxidant activity of blueberry juice]]> Abstract Effect of sonication on the blueberry juice was studied by evaluating the pH, viscosity, electric conductivity, color, total sugars, soluble solids, polyphenol, anthocyanidin, and radical scavenging activities. There were not any remarkable (p &gt; 0.05) change in pH and electric conductivity. However, viscosity and color of blueberry juice markedly (p &lt; 0.05) enhanced with the extension of sonication time. Meanwhile, total sugars, soluble solids, polyphenol, and anthocyanidin were obviously enhanced (p &lt; 0.05). Moreover, prominent increase (p &lt; 0.05) was observed on DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities of sonicated blueberry juice. The current results exhibited sonication effectively improved blueberry juice quality and enhanced its antioxidant activity. <![CDATA[Influence of different drying techniques on drying parameters of mango]]> Abstract This research inspected the effects of freeze, microwave (120 and 350 W) and hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C) drying techniques on the color, drying characteristics, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of mango slices. Midilli et al., Two-term and Page models which exemplify drying characteristics are superior than alternative models. All of the color values (a, b, L, C, α and ΔE) were altered notably based on the used drying technique and colors nearest to the fresh sample were attained with freeze drying. In comparison to the fresh sample, the dried samples showed a decrease of 18.4-54.6% in antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic content value was notably highest one for the microwave dried sample at 350 W and the lowest one for a hot air dried sample at 80 °C (P&lt;0.05). This research showed that microwave drying at 350 W is able to yield high-quality mango slices with the extra advantage of shortened drying time in relation to hot air and freeze drying. <![CDATA[Production and characterization of nanocapsules encapsulated linalool by ionic gelation method using chitosan as wall material]]> Abstract Linalool has been extensively applied in various fields, such as flavoring agent, perfumes, cosmetics and medical science. However, linalool is unstable, volatile and readily oxidizable. A sensitive substance can be encapsulated in a capsule, so encapsulation technology can solve these problems. In this paper, linalool-loaded nanocapsules (Lin-nanocapsules) were prepared via the ionic gelation method and Lin-nanocapsules were characterized. The results of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that linalool was successfully encapsulated in the wall materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated that the shapes of Lin-nanocapsules, with smooth surfaces, were nearly spherical. Lin-nanocapsule average particle size was 352 nm and its polydispersity index (PDI) was proved to be 0.214 by the results of dynamic light scattering (DLC). Thermogravimetric results indicated that linalool loading capacity (LC) was 15.17%, and encapsulation could decrease linalool release and increase linalool retaining time under the high temperature. Oscillatory shear and steady-state shear measurements of Lin-nanocapsule emulsions were systematically investigated. The results of steady-state shear showed that Lin-nanocapsule emulsion, which was Newtonian only for high shear rate, was non-Newtonian. It was proved by oscillatory shear that when oscillation frequency changed from low to high, Lin-nanocapsules emulsion changed from viscous into elastic. <![CDATA[Effect of pre-emulsified sesame oil on physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters]]> Abstract Physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters as affected by replacing pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil were investigated. Replacement of pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil, improved L* value, moisture and protein content, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, declined a* value, fat content and energy, but not affect cooking yield. When used pre-emulsified sesame oil to replace pork back-fat 50%, the sample had the highest L* value and texture. According to the results of dynamic rheological, replaced pork back-fat by pre-emulsified sesame oil increased the storage modulus (G') values at 80 °C, and formed firm gel. The result of Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) shown that the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil had higher water holding capacity than the control. Overall, the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil enabled lowering of fat and energy contents, making the pork batter had better texture. <![CDATA[Chemical characterization, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour]]> Abstract Quinoa can be used as a functional ingredient in food formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on proximate composition, stability during storage, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour at 1, 3 and 5 g 100 mL-1. A product without supplementation was used as control. Products were assessed for moisture, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, total dietary fibre (TDF), ashes and minerals. The pH, acidity and syneresis of yogurts were measured after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage and a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried out. Applying hedonic scale, 102 consumers analyzed the overall acceptability, color, texture, flavor and aroma of yogurts. Supplemented products showed significant higher protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. Hardness and adhesiveness showed a negative association whereas a positive one was found between springiness and cohesiveness. Yogurt is not necessarily the adequate matrix for hauling quinoa compounds since the addition of greater amounts of 1 g 100 mL-1 quinoa flour had undesirable effects on gel stability (syneresis and increases in total acidity) and consumer acceptability. <![CDATA[Anti-nutritional factors and digestibility of protein in <em>Cayocar brasiliense</em> seeds]]> Abstract The Brazilian Cerrado presents a wide variety of natural products, including the Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense). The important factor that determines the dietary and nutritional ideality of protein is degestitibility. This work aims to evaluate the protein digestibility of Pequi seeds and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The protein Pequi almonds were extracted, toasted and untoasted. Evaluation digestibility was structurally characterized by SDS-PAGE 15%, which can be used to analyze simulated gastric fluid (SFG) and digestion in intestinal fluid (SFI) in the presence of pepsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin. The extract from Pequi almonds showed inhibitory activity and was not detected hemagglutination. The intensity of the bands according to 2S albumins, after heat treatment, did not decrease in comparison to the condition native, significantly. In the crisp crude extract, which was incubated under SGF and SIF, the intensity of the corresponding bands at 8 and 3 kDa was resistant to SGF and indigestible after 4 hours under SIF. The characterization of Pequi almonds demonstrated that the product of the crude extract has anti-nutritional factors, which were confirmed by evaluating digestibility. <![CDATA[Syneresis and chemical characteristics of fermented rice extract with probiotic bacteria and waxy maize starch]]> Abstract The objective of this work was to elaborate fermented extracts using rice bran and broken rice grains (proportion 8:92) with probiotic bacteria and different concentrations of waxy maize starch (WMS) in order to obtain products with low level of syneresis and desirable physical-chemical characteristics, and to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and chemical composition of the extract selected and flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup. A randomized design was used with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 g 100 g–1 of WMS) and four replications. The fermented rice extract had increased soluble solids (from 12.97 to 14.23 °Brix) and total acidity (from 0.29 to 0.30 g 100 g–1), whereas total soluble sugars (from 9.24 to 8.73 g 100 g–1) and syneresis (from 10.16 to 0.99 g 100 g–1) decreased with gradual increments of waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract containing 12 g 100 g–1 WMS reduced the syneresis by 89% compared to the control without waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract with 12 g 100 g-1 of waxy maize starch flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup shows high nutritional value, antioxidant capacity, content of total phenolic compounds, and marketing potential, particularly for consumers with special needs, such as those allergic to lactose or soybean proteins, as an alternative food ready for consumption. <![CDATA[Anti-<em>Escherichia coli</em> effect of <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> L. in a meat model]]> Abstract Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is used in traditional medicine because of its bioactive properties, such as antioxidant and antibacterial. Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacteria and as an indicator of contamination in food. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-Escherichia coli effect and the change in pH on the control of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, using hydroethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa L. in different concentrations in a meat model, verifying its potential as food additive for microbiological stability on ground beef during cooling storage. For the preparation of the treatments, the meat experimental units were elaborated with different concentrations of the vegetal extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%), ground beef and contaminated with E. coli. For pH evaluation, the meat experimental units were added different percentages of hydroethanolic extract. The H. sabdariffa L. antibacterial action reduced two logarithmic levels in practically all treatments. The best pH result was obtained in the meat containing 30% of the extract. The hydroethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. showed anti-Escherichia coli activity in the presence of refrigerated ground beef. Analyzing the pH results and the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, it is possible this extract to be used as a natural food additive. <![CDATA[Chemical composition of different muscle zones in pirarucu (<em>Arapaima gigas</em>)]]> Abstract Identifying potential patterns in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) composition, as a function of the different fish muscle zones (dorse, venter, ventrecha and tail), was the main objective of this research. For such, the different pirarucu muscle zones were evaluated, in order to obtain proximate composition and minerals content. It was also determined amino acids and fatty acids contents in fish muscle. The dorsal, ventral and tail muscle zones presented similar moisture (76.5-78.2%), protein (17.8-18.9%), total lipids (1.0-1.5%) and ash (0.9-1.2%) contents. On the other hand, the ventrecha zone presented 25.8% of protein and the major total lipids content (17.1%). The main minerals found in fish muscle were K (183.5-288.6 mg/100 g muscle) and Na (65.1-175.5 mg/100 g). Glutamic acid (3027.6 mg/100 g muscle) was the main amino acid found in fish muscle, which presented 48% of essential amino acids in the protein fraction. Lipids content showed 57.3% of unsaturated fatty acids and 42.7% of saturated fatty acids. <![CDATA[Physical and chemical characteristics of cashew nut flour stored and packaged with different packages]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical changes in cashew nut flour under different packaging and storage conditions. The flour samples were characterized according to their chemical composition, packaged in polystyrene trays associated with covering chloride polyvinyl (PVC), plastic pot of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), plastic packaging polyethylene (POL) and without coating polystyrene trays (CON). All packages were stored for 225 days, evaluating every 45 days the moisture content of the flour as well as extracting their oil by the cold method for characterization on the following indexes: acidity, saponification, iodine, peroxide and refraction. There was slight and gradual increase in the moisture content from the 45th to the 225th day, especially for products packaged in PVC and without coating polystyrene trays (CON). The oil saponification indexes showed gradual decrease during storage, especially in flour without packaging (CON). There was a gradual increase in the iodine index until the 135th day, followed by decay. The acidity and peroxide indexes increased along with the storage time. However packages with lower oxygen and moisture permeability, such as PET and POL, minimized such changes, being therefore the most suitable for long-term storage. <![CDATA[Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]]> Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C) for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days). The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C. <![CDATA[Limit growth of ice crystals under different temperature oscillations levels in nile Tilapia]]> Abstract The degenerative effect of temperature fluctuations during storage time is a critical condition that needs to be quantitatively characterized in products where drip losses are appreciable. In this work, real storage conditions were reproduced using freezers modified to cause 3 levels of temperature fluctuation (± 0, ± 3, ± 5; ± 7) during storage of Tilapia (Oreochromis sp), at temperature of –18 °C. The fast frozen tilapia muscle (freezing cabinet) was chosen to quantify the growth of ice crystals according to temperature fluctuations. The identification of crystals in the optical microscope as well as histological treatments and measurements using specific software has shown that the growth of ice crystals in the first days of storage follows an asymptote, whose final value is conditioned only by the level of temperature fluctuations regardless of initial diameter, which begins storage. It has also been found that the growth of crystals formed during rapid freezing rapidly develops according to temperature fluctuations to which the product has been subjected. This work also identified statistically significant differences in the equivalent diameter of crystals formed at the four proposed levels of temperature fluctuation with significance level of p &lt; 0.05. <![CDATA[In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic]]> Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP) was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P &gt; 0.05). With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P &gt; 0.05). The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P &lt; 0.05). In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P &lt; 0.05), and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P &lt; 0.05). BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.