Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120160001&lang=en vol. 36 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Alternatives to reduce sodium in processed foods and the potential of high pressure technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In most industrialized countries, the sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. In this sense the search for healthier foods has led the food industry to review their formulations in relation to food components such as salt, which is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. As a result, different strategies for reducing salt levels in processed foods have been investigated. Among the technological options available, the high-pressure processing has stood out by presenting intrinsic technological advantages that can contribute to optimization of food formulations with low / reduced sodium contents. This review provides a brief overview of the key strategies and use of high pressure in the development of reduced-salt products. <![CDATA[Effect of different stress conditions on the stability of quercetin-loaded lipid microparticles produced with babacu ( <em>Orbignya speciosa</em> ) oil: evaluation of their potential use in food applications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lipid micro and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as carriers for hydrophobic bioactives in food systems because they can simultaneously increase the dispersibility of these lipophilic substances and help improve their bioavailability. In this study, lipid microparticles of babacu oil and denatured whey protein isolate were produced, and their ability to protect quercetin against degradation was evaluated over 30 days of storage. Additionally, the lipid microparticles were subjected to the typical stress conditions of food processing (presence of sucrose, salt, and thermal stresses), and their physico-chemical stability was monitored. The data show that the babacu microparticles efficiently avoided the oxidation of quercetin because 85% of the initial amount of the flavonoid was preserved after 30 days. The particles were notably stable up to a temperature of 70 °C for 10 minutes at relatively high concentrations of salt and sucrose. The type of stirring (mechanical or magnetic) also strongly affected the stability of the dispersions. <![CDATA[Multivariate study of Nile tilapia byproducts enriched with omega-3 and dried with different methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present work aimed at studying the effect of different drying methods applied to tilapia byproducts (heads, viscera and carcasses) fed with flaxseed, verifying the contents of omega-3 fatty acids. Two diets were given to the tilapia: a control and a flaxseed formulation, over the course of 60 days. After this period, they were slaughtered and their byproducts (heads, viscera and carcasses) were collected. These fish parts were analyzed in natura, lyophilized and oven dried. Byproducts from tilapia fed with flaxseed presented docosapentaenoic, eicopentaenoic and docosahexanoic fatty acids as a result of the enzymatic metabolism of the fish. The byproducts from the oven drying process had lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the multivariate analysis, the byproducts from fish fed with flaxseed had a greater composition of fatty acids. The addition of flaxseed in fish diets, as well as the utilization of their byproducts, may become a good business strategy. Additionally, the byproducts may be dried to facilitate transport and storage. <![CDATA[Microbiological and sensory evaluation of Jambu (<em>Acmella oleracea</em> L.) dried by cold air circulation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and sensory quality of the Jambu (Acmella oleracea L.) in natura and dried by cold air, and the determination of its drying curve. The microbiological analysis were performed to Salmonella spp, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and coliforms in the both Jambu samples, at 45 °C. Tacacá, the typical food dish of Pará state, Brazil, has showed good consumer global acceptance in the sensory evaluation of Jambu in natura (score of 8.00 ± 1.46) and dried (score of 8.67 ± 0.66). Both samples, Jambu in natura and dried by cold air, were by the current legislation regarding the microbiological aspects, this is the absence of Salmonella spp, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus &lt;1×101 CFU/g, and coliforms &lt;3 MPN/g, at 45 °C. Thus, considering sensory and health aspects, the commercialization of dried Jambu becomes viable, facilitating its transportation and handling, as well as for reducing its vegetable mass. <![CDATA[Effect of Amaranth addition on the nutritional composition and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified maize snacks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the nutrient content and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified (PVA) maize snacks. Flours of four varieties of PVA maize were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w) substitution of, respectively, and extruded into snacks. The ash content of the snacks increased from 0.53 g/100 g-0.58 g/100 g to 0.650 g/100g-89 g/100 g and protein content increased from 9.12 g/100 g-10.94 g/100 g when Amaranth was increased from 0% to 3%. Similarly, lysine content increased from 0.10 g/100 g to 0.17 g/100 g, whilst methionine increased from 0.14 g/100 g to 0.19 g/100 g. The provitamin A content of the snacks ranged from 1.29 µg/g to 1.40 µg/g at 0% Amaranth and 1.54 µg/g to 1.78 µg/g at 3% Amaranth. The acceptability of the snacks decreased with increasing Amaranth concentration, only a very small proportion (2-8%) of the panel liked the snacks extremely. PVA maize with added Amaranth leaf powder has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks, but the consumer acceptability of the snacks should be improved. <![CDATA[Evaluation of pesticide residues in oranges from São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pesticides in “PERA” orange samples (N = 57) from São Paulo City, Brazil were assessed and the pesticide intake contribution was estimated for chronic risk assessment. Seventy-six pesticides were evaluated by the gas chromatography multi-residue method, including isomers and metabolites (4.332 determinations). The mean recoveries at the limit of quantification level were in the range of 72-115% and the relative standard deviation for five replicate samples was 1-11%. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg.kg−1 and from 0.01 to 0.8 mg.kg−1, respectively. Pesticides were found in 42.1% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.06 to 2.9 mg.kg−1. Of the contaminated samples, 3.5% contained residues (bifenthrin and clofentezine) above the maximum residue level and 12.3% contained unauthorized pesticides (azinphos-ethyl, parathion, myclobutanil, profenofos, and fenitrothion). The estimated risk characterization for orange intake by adults and children, respectively, ranged from 0.04 to 6.6% and from 0.1 to 26.5% of the acceptable daily intake. The detection of irregular residues emphasizes the need for better implementation of Good Agriculture Practices and greater control of formulated products. Other pesticides surveyed did not pose a health risk due to consumption. <![CDATA[Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of powdered juices]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100049&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Powdered juices are widely consumed by the population especially because of their convenient preparation, availability in various fruit flavors and low cost when compared to other industrialized beverages. They have complex formulation, consisting of several classes of food additives. However, there are no scientific studies on the toxicity of these foods. Thus, this study evaluated the toxicity at the cellular level of industrialized powdered juices of orange and guava flavors of three different food companies. This analysis was made using root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, and two concentrations, 30 g/1000 mL, considered ideal for consumption according to the label of the products, and 30 g/500 mL. Both flavors of juices, of the three companies, in both concentrations and the two exposure times promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristem cells and caused a statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei in cells of the test system used. Therefore, under the studied conditions, all the samples of juice powder exhibited cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. <![CDATA[Characterization of polyphenol oxidase in two cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivars produced in the south of Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100056&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The reactions leading to the formation of precursors of chocolate flavor are performed by endogenous enzymes present in the cocoa seed. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) presence and activity during fermentation of cocoa beans is responsible for the development of flavor precursors and is also implicated in the reduction of bitterness and astringency. However, the reliability of cocoa enzyme activities is complicated due to variations in different genotypes, geographical origins and methods of fermentation. In addition, there is still a lack of systematic studies comparing different cocoa cultivars. So, the present study was designed to characterize the activity of PPO in the pulp and seeds of two cocoa cultivars, PH 16 and TSH 1188. The PPO activity was determined spectrophotometrically and characterized as the optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature and the results were correlated with the conditions during the fermentation process. The results showed the specificity and differences between the two cocoa cultivars and between the pulp and seeds of each cultivar. It is suggested that specific criteria must be adopted for each cultivar, based on the optimal PPO parameters, to prolong the period of maximum PPO activity during fermentation, contributing to the improvement of the quality of cocoa beans. <![CDATA[Rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with oil and protein isolates from sesame (<em>Sesamum Indicum</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100064&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, food emulsions of oil in water from sesame (Sesamum indicum) protein isolates and their oil were formulated and standardised. The effect of the concentrations of sesame (Sesamum indicum) protein isolates and base oil and the speed of the emulsification process for the food emulsion stability was studied. The protein isolates were achieved from the defatted sesame flour (DSF), obtaining a percentage of 80% ± 0.05% of protein. Emulsions were formulated through a factorial design 23. The rheological behaviour of sesame (Sesamum indicum) protein isolates-stabilised emulsions and microstructural composition were investigated. Stable emulsions with suitable rheological properties and microstructure were formulated at a concentration of 10% sesame oil and different concentrations of protein isolates, between 1.5% and 2.5%, with the best droplet distribution characteristics being shown for the 2.5% sesame protein isolates. The emulsions showed a non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, adjusting the Sisko model. <![CDATA[Automated sugar analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100070&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson) are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (&lt;0.3%). Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment. <![CDATA[Fresh pasta enrichment with protein concentrate of tilapia: nutritional and sensory characteristics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100076&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract With the goal of developing and characterizing the nutritional and sensory aspects of fresh pasta supplemented with tilapia protein concentrate, four types of pasta were prepared, with inclusion of 0, 10, 20, or 30% of tilapia protein concentrate. Linear effects were observed (P &lt; 0.01) in crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrate, and caloric values; these parameters increased with increasing amounts of tilapia protein concentrate in the pasta. The concentration of Na, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn increased linearly (P &lt; 0.01) in correlation with the increase in protein concentrate content, while Fe content decreased linearly (P &lt; 0.01). In the sensory analysis, texture, overall impression, and the acceptance index demonstrated a cubic regression (P &lt; 0.05), with the inclusion of 20% protein concentrate yielding the best scores. Including up to 30% of tilapia protein concentrate in pasta yields an increased nutritional value, but based on the sensory results, 20% of tilapia protein concentrate in pasta is the recommended maximum level. <![CDATA[Effect of different proportions of brea gum in the functional characteristics of wheat flour starch: impact on the physical quality of bread]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100083&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this work was to study the changes induced by BG in the behaviour of wheat starch, and observe the influence of these variations on the quality of a basic white bread. The effect of four BG addition levels in the wheat flour functional characteristics (WAI, WSI, and pasting properties) and bread quality (physical parameters, crumb grain structure, moisture and hardness) was investigated. The highest levels of BG (1% and 2%) decreased the peak viscosity, and increased the stability and setback of the flour. This was due to a lower gelatinization of the starch granules, caused by a competition for water between the hydrocolloid and starch. These changes influenced the bread quality. The loaves added with 1% and 2% of BG presented smaller alveoli: this resulted in more compact, hard and less airy crumbs. Nevertheless, the moisture of the samples at 1% and 2% of added gum was higher than the control bread. However, the incorporation of BG at 0.5% did not affect the pasting parameters and bread quality, but increased moisture of crumb, so this concentration would be most recommended for baking, since higher humidity could favour the shelf- life of the product. <![CDATA[Development of a rapid method for the determination of antibiotic residues in honey using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100090&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract An accurate, reliable and fast multianalyte/multiclass ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of 23 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different classes amphenicols, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, in honey samples. The method developed consists of ultrasonic extraction followed by UPLC–ESI–MS/MS with electrospray ionization in both positive mode and negative mode. The influence of the extraction solvents and mobile phase composition on the sensitivity of the method, and the optimum conditions for sample weight and extraction temperature in terms of analyte recovery were extensively studied. The identification of antibiotics is fulfilled by simultaneous use of chromatographic separation using an Acquity BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) analytical column with a gradient elution of mobile phases and tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization. Finally, the method developed was applied to the determination of target analytes in honey samples obtained from the local markets and several beekeepers in Muğla, Turkey. Ultrasonic-extraction of pharmaceuticals from honey samples is a well-established technique by UPLC–ESI–MS/MS, the uniqueness of this study lies in the simultaneous determination of a remarkable number of compounds belonging to 23 drug at the sub-nanogram per kilogram level. <![CDATA[Heating effects on physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil (<em>Linum usitatissimum L</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100097&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of heating on some quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and Cox value decreased during heating. Heating process led to considerable increase in saponification value (SV), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), oxidative value (OV) and specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm. There was a significant decrease in oil stability during heating process (1.4-1.0 h). Fuel properties of flaxseed hull oil were also changed after heating treatment. Heating process caused loss of total phenolic acids, total flavanoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments. Phospholipids (PL) content were less changed compared to other bioactive compounds. Antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil decreased during heating process. <![CDATA[Optimization of the HS-SPME-GC/MS technique for the analysis of volatile compounds in caprine Coalho cheese using response surface methodology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Caprine Coalho cheese presents great potential for a typical protected designation of origin, considering that this traditional Brazilian cheese presents a slightly salty and acid flavor, combined with a unique texture. This study optimized the HS-SPME-GC-MS methodology for volatile analysis of Coalho cheese, which can be used as a tool to help in the identification of the distinctive aroma profile of this cheese. The conditions of equilibrium time, extraction temperature and time were optimized using the statistical tool factorial experimental design 23, and applying the desirability function. After the evaluation, it was concluded that the optimum extraction conditions comprised equilibrium and extraction time of 20 and 40 minutes, respectively; and ideal extraction temperature of 45 °C. The optimum extraction of volatile compounds in goat Coalho cheese captured 32 volatile compounds: 5 alcohols, 5 esters, 3 ketones, 6 acids, 3 aldehydes, 3 terpenes, and 7 hydrocarbons. <![CDATA[Effect of ultrasound treatment on quality and microbial load of carrot juice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100111&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Effect of ultrasound treatment on carrot juice was investigated through measuring pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity, visual color, total soluble solids, total sugars, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid contents and microbial load. No significant effect (p&gt;0.05) of ultrasound treatment on pH of carrot juice was observed. Electrical conductivity, viscosity and color values gradually increased (p&lt;0.05) with treatment time increase. Total soluble solids, total sugars, total carotenoids and ascorbic acid contents of carrot juice were significantly improved (p&lt;0.05) due to ultrasound treatment. Moreover, significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in microbial load of sonicated carrot juice was observed. Results from present study suggested that ultrasound treatment could improve quality and safety of carrot juice. <![CDATA[Enrichment of nutritional value of <em>Phyllanthus emblica</em> fruit juice using the probiotic bacterium, <em>Lactobacillus paracasei</em> HII01 mediated fermentation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100116&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The fermented herbal juices are capable of curing and preventing diseases and reducing the aging progress. The present study was performed to investigate the fermentation of Phyllanthus emblica fruit by Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 with respect to carbon sources, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties. The physical changes, for instance, color, odor, taste, turbidity and gas formation, throughout the fermentation process was manually monitored. The fermented product was rich in polyphenolic content. The acid content and pH of the product were under the norms of Thai community product standards. Antioxidant properties of the fermented product were proved using ABTS, and FRAP assays. Chelation based study suggested that fermented P. emblica fruit juices are healthy enough to stabilize the oxidized form of the metal ion. The optimum fermentation period was 15 days. All the results supported that studied carbon sources did not interfere with the quality of the product. This report is the prelude study on the use of probiotic starter culture for the production of P. emblica fruit based lactic acid bacteria fermented beverages (LAFB) enriched with bioactive compounds. Further research on the impact of different carbon sources and upstream processes on the quality of LAFB is currently in progress. <![CDATA[Assessing the use of frozen pork meat in the manufacture of cooked ham]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100124&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C) and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen) of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in sensory acceptance. The hardness and chewiness parameters showed significant differences when compared to the control sample (ham made from chilled meat). Light microscopy of cooked ham samples showed that changes in the tissues were caused by freezing and thawing the meat. The effect of exudate was significant on the sodium content and compression force parameters, but this difference was not perceived in the sensory analysis, confirming that frozen pork meat can be used to produce cooked ham without loss of quality. <![CDATA[Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (<em>Punica granatum</em> L.)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100132&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid) and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52%) was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO), punicic acid (55%) was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO). Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively) were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively). Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils. <![CDATA[Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart) and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm) on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100140&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.) and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm) fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA), porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated. <![CDATA[Energy efficiency and moisture diffusivity of apple slices during convective drying]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100145&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present study aimed at investigating the influences of drying air temperature and flow rate on energy parameters and dehydration behaviour of apple slices. For this purpose, apple slices were dried in a convective dryer at air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 °C, and air velocities of 1, 1.5 and 2 m s–1. Dehydration rate increased as the air temperature and flow rate increased from 50 to 70 °C and 1 to 2 m s–1, respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined to be in the range of 6.75×10–10-1.28×10–9 m2 s–1. Results of data analysis showed that the maximum energy consumption (23.94 kW h) belonged to 50 °C and 2 m s–1 and the minimum (13.89 kW h) belonged to 70 °C and 1 m s–1 treatment. Energy efficiency values were in the range of 2.87-9.11%. Moreover, the results indicated that any increment in the air temperature increases thermal and drying efficiencies while any increment in the air flow rate decreases both of them. <![CDATA[Chemical, morphological, and thermogravimetric of Terminalia catappa Linn]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100151&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, morphology, and the thermogravimetric behavior of the pulp of Terminalia catappa, also known as tropical almond. The analytical results show, based mainly on its lipid content, that this fruit has a considerable energy value. Its fiber content contributes to enhance the functional properties of the fruit. Morphological characteristics show a spongy-like structure with dispersion of starch granules and high concentration of fiber bundles, confirming the results of the chemical composition analysis. The thermogravimetric behavior exhibited by this fruit pulp when submitted to progressive temperature increase under dynamic air atmosphere shows that this raw material has great potential for industrial use due to its high absorption rate of water soluble and/or lipid-based compounds, allowing its use as a dietary complement or supplement ingredient in food products. <![CDATA[Lactose hydrolysis potential and thermal stability of commercial β-galactosidase in UHT and skimmed milk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100159&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The commercial enzyme (E.C. = 3.2.1.23) from Kluyveromyces lactis (liquid) and Aspergillus oryzae(lyophilized) was investigated for its hydrolysis potential in lactose substrate, UHT milk, and skimmed milk at different concentrations (0.7; 1.0 and 1.5%), pH values (5.0; 6.0; 6.5 and 7.0), and temperature (30; 35; 40 and 55 ºC). High hydrolysis rates were observed for the enzyme from K. lactis at pH 7.0 and 40 ºC, and from A. oryzae at pH 5.0 and 55 ºC. The enzyme from K. lactis showed significantly higher hydrolysis rates when compared to A. oryzae. The effect of temperature and β-galactosidase concentration on the lactose hydrolysis in UHT milk was higher than in skimmed milk, for all temperatures tested. With respect to the thermal stability, a decrease in hydrolysis rate was observed at pH 6.0 at 35 ºC for K. lactisenzyme, and at pH 6.0 at 55 ºC for the enzyme from A. oryzae. This study investigate the hydrolysis of β-galactosidase in UHT and skimmed milk. The knowledge about the characteristics of the β-galactosidase fromK. lactis and A. oryzae enables to use it most efficiently to control the enzyme concentration, temperature, and pH in many industrial processes and product formulations. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100166&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro. <![CDATA[Impact of different drying parameters on color, β-carotene, antioxidant activity and minerals of apricot (<em>Prunus armeniaca</em>L.)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612016000100171&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Apricot is one of the fruits dried by using different methods, such as sun, convective or microwave drying. The effects of drying methods on the components of this fruit differ depending upon the temperature or time parameters. In this research, the impacts of convective, microwave and microwave–convective drying techniques on color, β-carotene, minerals and antioxidant activity of apricots were investigated. The color values (L*, b*,ΔEab, h° and C*ab) of dried fruit were decreased, while the a* values increased. Compared with a fresh sample, the dried apricots showed a 1.4-3.9-fold proportional increase in β-carotene based on the increment of dry matter. The samples dried at high temperature and microwave levels, at 75 °C+90 watt and 75 °C+160 watt, showed lower antioxidant activity. Of the different drying treatments, the microwave-convective method (50 °C+160 watt) obtained a higher β-carotene content while maintaining antioxidant activity with a short drying time.