Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120140001&lang=es vol. 34 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Application of fats in some food products</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society. <![CDATA[<b>Phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of propolis (<i>Apis mellifera</i> L.) from Algarve, South Portugal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees to seal honeycomb, which has been used in folk medicine due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In the present study, water and methanol were used to extract phenols and flavonoids from propolis collected in thirteen different areas in the Algarve region during the winter and spring. The ABTS•+, DPPH•, and O2•- scavenging capacity, and metal chelating activity were also evaluated in the propolis samples. Methanol was more effective than water in extracting total phenols (2.93-8.76 mg/mL) (0.93-2.81 mg/mL). Flavones and flavonols were also better extracted with methanol (1.28-2.76 mg/mL) than with water (0.031-0.019 mg/mL). The free radical scavenging activity, ABTS (IC50=0.006-0.036 mg/mL), DPPH (IC50=0.007-0.069 mg/mL) and superoxide (IC50=0.001-0.053 mg/mL), of the samples was also higher in methanolic extracts. The capacity for chelating metal ions was higher in aqueous extracts (41.11-82.35%) than in the methanolic ones (4.33-29.68%). Propolis from three locations of Algarve region were richer in phenols and had better capacity for scavenging free ABTS and DPPH radicals than the remaining samples. These places are part of a specific zone of Algarve known as Barrocal. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of iron bioavailability in a mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration")</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Iron bioavailability was evaluated in three mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains ("Human Ration"): light, regular, and homemade provided to rats. The animals received an iron depletion diet for 21 days, followed by a repletion diet containing 12 mg·kg-1 of iron for 14 days. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiency and the relative biological value did not differ between the light mixture and control group. The iron bioavailability of the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains and the control group were 99.99±27.62 and 80.02±36.63, respectively, while the regular and homemade mixtures of cereals, seeds, and grains showed lower iron bioavailability, 50.12±35.53 and 66.66±15.44, respectively; the iron content of the diet with light cereal mixture light was statistically similar to that of the control (ferrous sulfate 99.99±27.62). The high content of tannin (202.81±19.53 mg·100-1) in the diet with the regular cereal mixture may have contributed to its low iron bioavailability. The higher intake of soluble fiber by the animals fed the light mixture (21.15±0.92 g) was moderately correlated (r=0.5712, p=0.0018) with the concentration of propionate in the caecal bulk (65.49±11.08 µmol/g). The short chain fatty acids produced by soluble fiber fermentation, associated with the low-content of tannin may have improved iron solubility and absorption in the light cereal mixture diet. The iron bioavailability in the light mixture of cereals, seeds, and grains was similar to that of ferrous sulfate. <![CDATA[<b>Alterations of palm oil (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i>) in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm) of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*). The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Development and optimization of a HPLC-RI method for the determination of major sugars in apple juice and evaluation of the effect of the ripening stage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The sugars in apple juice prove its authenticity and its sensory and nutritional properties. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI) to determinate and quantify the sugars sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-sorbitol polyol in apple juices, as well as to analyze the juices from the Fuji suprema and Lis Gala cultivars at three ripening stages. The analytical performance parameters evaluated indicated that the method was specific for the compounds analyzed, and the linearity of the calibration curves of sugars showed high correlation coefficients (close to 1.0). The limits of detection and quantification are consistent with recommendations available in the literature for this type of matrix. Sample preparation is simple and generates small amount of residues. Over 70% of the sugars were determined in the juices of apples at the pre-ripe stage, with an increase during senescence. This method is applicable for the determination of sugars in juices and evaluation of apple ripening. <![CDATA[<b>Salted lamb meat blanket of Petrolina-Pernambuco, Brazil</b>: <b>process and quality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Salted lamb meat blanket, originated from boning, salting, and drying of whole lamb carcass, was studied aiming at obtaining information that support the search for guarantees of origin for this typical regional product from the city of Petrolina-Pernambuco-Brazil. Data from three processing units were obtained, where it was observed the use of a traditional local technology that uses salting, an ancient preservation method; however, with a peculiar boning technique, resulting in a meat product with great potential for exploitation in the form of meat blanket. Based on the values of pH (6.22 ± 0.22), water activity (0.97 ± 0.02), and moisture (69.86 ± 2.26) lamb meat blanket is considered a perishable product, and consequently it requires the use of other preservation methods combined with salt, which along with the results of the microbiological analyses (absence of Salmonella sp, score <10 MPN/g of halophilic bacteria, total coliforms between 6.7 × 10³ and 5.2 × 10(6) FUC/g, and Staphylococcus from 8.1 × 10³ CFU/g at uncountable) reinforce the need of hygienic practices to ensure product safety. These results, together with the product notoriety and the organization of the sector are important factors in achieving Geographical Indication of the Salted lamb Meat blanket of Petrolina. <![CDATA[<b>Frog meat microbiota (<i>Lithobates catesbeianus</i>) used in infant food</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Captive breeding of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is of great economic potential, mainly for its thighs and leather. The nutritional quality of frog meat includes properly balanced amino acids with a protein profile of high biological value, low fat and low cholesterol, and high digestibility due to its short chain molecule structure. It is recommended by doctors and nutritionists, especially for protein restricted children or malnourished children. Aiming to aggregate value to the segment and offer a product with nutritional properties that meet the need of children aged six months and above, a meat product based on the composition of frog meat was developed experimentally. To ensure raw material quality after bleaching and deboning, the microbiota present in the frog meat was determined. The analyses were performed according to Brazilian laws. It was observed that the resident and transient microbiota met the standards set by regulations. The results found were: mesophyll 4.5 x 10(4) CFU/g; Staphylococcus coagulase positive 2.0 x 10² CFU/g; negative for Salmonella sp. and Aeromonas spp. The findings indicate that the raw material showed satisfactory sanitation even in terms of family industry. <![CDATA[<b>Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and <i>in vivo</i> digestibility</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart.) is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein), tests (bacuri almond flours) and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV), (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds) when compared to the control group (92.3%). The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond. <![CDATA[<b>Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs. <![CDATA[<b>Color, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of honey from Roraima, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The total phenolic and flavonoid content, color, and antioxidant activity were evaluated from ten honey samples from Apis mellifera L. collected from Roraima State, Brazil. The total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged from 250 to 548 mg gallic acid kg-1 of honey. The total flavonoid content was obtained using two methods: total flavones/flavonols were determined with aluminum chloride, and flavonones/dihydroflavonols were determined with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The results ranged from 9 to 48.6 mg of quercetine kg-1 of honey and 1805 to 2606 mg of pinocembrin kg-1 of honey, respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers, and the results of the IC50 ranged from 3.17 to 8.79 mg/mL. Statistical analysis demonstrated positive correlations between color intensity, flavone and flavonol content, and phenolic content and negative correlations with antioxidant capacity. <![CDATA[<b>Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and </b><b>α</b><b>-linolenic acid (LNA) in pacu fillets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality. <![CDATA[<b>Quality of eggs sold in different commercial establishments and the study of the conditions of storage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of storage conditions on the physicochemical (mass, albumen height, pH, and Haugh unit) and microbiological (Salmonella spp., determination of the Total and Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Counting of the Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria) quality of eggs. In the first experiment, a questionnaire was applied, and 33 samples of eggs were collected for the Salmonella spp analysis. In the second experiment, the eggs were collected from supermarkets, open markets, and distributors for physicochemical analysis. In the third experiment, 175 eggs were collected from the distributor, packaged in cardboard boxes lined with plastic wrapping, stored at 5 °C and 28 °C, and the physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed at 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. In the first experiment, 100% of the samples analyzed showed no Salmonella spp. In the second experiment, it was found that the values of physicochemical parameters were in agreement with those in the literature. However, in the third experiment, the physicochemical parameter results showed statistical difference during storage and temperatures studied. Salmonella spp. were found in the samples stored at room temperature and in the refrigerated samples. Mesophilic microorganisms with values ranging from <10 CFU g- 1 (estimated) to 8.0 × 10³ CFU g- 1 and coliforms to 4 NMP.g- 1 were also found, but the presence of E. coli was not confirmed. <![CDATA[<b>Hydration kinetics, physicochemical composition, and textural changes of transgenic corn kernels of flint, semi-flint, and dent varieties</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The hydration kinetics of transgenic corn types flint DKB 245PRO, semi-flint DKB 390PRO, and dent DKB 240PRO was studied at temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 67 °C. The concentrated parameters model was used, and it fits the experimental data well for all three cultivars. The chemical composition of the corn kernels was also evaluated. The corn cultivar influenced the initial rate of absorption and the water equilibrium concentration, and the dent corn absorbed more water than the other cultivars at the four temperatures analyzed. The effect of hydration on the kernel texture was also studied, and it was observed that there was no significant difference in the deformation force required for all three corn types analyzed with longer hydration period. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of beetroot (<i>Beta vulgaris L.</i>) leaves during its developmental stages</b>: <b>a chemical composition study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Beetroot leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) are commonly cut off and discarded before using its bulb due to lack of knowledge of how to use them. Aiming at using these leaves, in the present study, in natura and dehydrated beetroot leaves were chemically characterized in terms of fatty acid composition, proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and antioxidant activity by DPPH• in different stages (60, 80, and 100 days) of development. The beetroot leaves showed significant levels of protein and lipids in all developmental stages, and all proximate composition nutrients decreased during these maturation stages; the highest content was observed at 60 days. The Fe content decreased during the developmental stages (from 342.75 to 246.30 mg.kg-1), while the content of K increased (from 13,367.64 to 20,784.90 mg.kg-1). With regard to to fatty acid composition, linolenic acid was present in the greatest quantity, and it increase up to 2.58 mg.g-1 (in natura) and 40.11 mg.g-1 (dehydrated) at 100 days of development. The n-6/n-3 ratios were low in all stages. The TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH• changed during the developmental stages. The TPC was highest in the 100-day dehydrated leaves (15.27±0.12 mg GAE.g-1 FW), and the 50% inhibition of DPPH• (IC50 89.52 µg.mL-1) were better in the 60-day in natura leaves. This study shows that all developmental stages produced satisfactory results, and therefore, these leaves can be reused as food. The antioxidant activity and the chemical constituents, mainly the ω-3fatty acid, increased during the stages of development. <![CDATA[<b>Safety criteria for the acquisition of meat in Brazilian University restaurants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The present study's objective was to analyze the procedures aimed at guaranteeing sanitary conditions when acquiring meat. The study was conducted with university restaurants of the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES) located in the five regions of Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire and an evaluation list, which was available online to restaurant professionals. The results showed that restaurants chose one or two types of meat, the most frequent of which were beef and chicken. In restaurants managed by the IFES, the acquisition of raw material occurred by bidding. For vendor selection, the restaurants required product registration with the Inspection Service and requested regulation of the supplier by the Health Surveillance. Monitoring was carried out through a technical visit to the supplier and a review of the past records of the supplier. A higher percentage of restaurants in the Southeast region met appropriate sanitary and hygienic criteria for the receipt of meat, followed by the South, Midwest, Northeast and North. We conclude that restaurants meet most of the safety criteria set in the legislation. However, some weaknesses are evident in the physical and functional structure, the system of transportation of raw material and the records of control measures at the place of reception. <![CDATA[<b>Heavy metals investigation in bovine tissues in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of arsenic, lead, and cadmium residues in samples of liver, kidney, and muscle of cattle during the years of 2002 to 2008. A total of 1017 samples from 20 Brazilian States were used. The samples were analyzed at the National Agricultural Laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Arsenic residues were detected in 15.7% of liver samples and 28.7% of kidney samples although no results have exceeded the MRL. With regard to lead, 16 samples of liver and 74 samples of kidney were contaminated (5.2 and 10.9%, respectively). Among these samples, only one liver and two of kidney samples had lead levels above the MRL. Cadmium was found with levels below the MRL in 12.5% of the liver samples, and only 3 samples (1%) were quantified above the MRL. Among the kidney samples, 420 (60.8% of the total tested) had cadmium residues, and five of them exceeded the limits established by legislation. It is concluded that the Brazilian meat meets the legislation requirements without putting consumer's healthy at risk since as it satisfies the national and international food-safety conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Drying kinetics of potato pulp waste</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Potato pulp waste (PPW) drying was investigated under different experimental conditions (temperatures from 50 to 70 °C and air flow from 0.06 to 0.092 m³ m- 2 s- 1) as a possible way to recover the waste generated by potato chip industries and to select the best-fit model to the experimental results of PPW drying. As a criterion to evaluate the fitting of mathematical models, a method based on the sum of the scores assigned to the four evaluated statistical parameters was used: regression coefficient (R²), relative mean error P (%), root mean square error (RMSE), and reduced chi-square (χ²). The results revealed that temperature and air velocity are important parameters to reduce PPW drying time. The models Midilli and Diffusion had the lowest sum values, i.e., with the best fit to the drying data, satisfactorily representing the drying kinetics of PPW. <![CDATA[<b>Antioxidant activities of kombucha prepared from three different substrates and changes in content of probiotics during storage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kombucha is a health-promoting fermented beverage worldwide. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and total reducing power (TRP) of kombucha prepared from low-cost green tea (LGTK), black tea (BTK), and tea powder (TPK). LGTK had the highest scavenging abilities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, while BTK showed the highest TRP. Changes in content of probiotics in LGTK were investigated during storage as well. The number of acetic acid bacteria decreased moderately up to 10 days of storage. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased significantly, and their survival rate was only 0.98% at the 8th day of storage. <![CDATA[<b>Multivariate study and regression analysis of gluten-free granola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study developed a gluten-free granola and evaluated it during storage with the application of multivariate and regression analysis of the sensory and instrumental parameters. The physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional characteristics of a product containing quinoa, amaranth and linseed were evaluated. The crude protein and lipid contents ranged from 97.49 and 122.72 g kg-1 of food, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated, and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 2.82 and 2.59:1, respectively. Granola had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, nutritional indices in the lipid fraction, and mineral content. There were good hygienic and sanitary conditions during storage; probably due to the low water activity of the formulation, which contributed to inhibit microbial growth. The sensory attributes ranged from 'like very much' to 'like slightly', and the regression models were highly fitted and correlated during the storage period. A reduction in the sensory attribute levels and in the product physical stabilisation was verified by principal component analysis. The use of the affective test acceptance and instrumental analysis combined with statistical methods allowed us to obtain promising results about the characteristics of gluten-free granola. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (<i>Vitis vinifera</i> L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82), moisture (3.33g/100g), acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g), and ash (4.65 g/100g). The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g) stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g), protein (8.49g/100g), and lipids (8.16g/100g). The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g); vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g), and anthocyanins (131mg/100g) were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different calcium sources on the antioxidant stability of tortilla chips from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn (<i>Zea mays</i> L.<i>)</i> flours</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This research aimed to develop tortilla chips (TC) high in antioxidants from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn flours prepared with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and calcium lactate C6H10O6Ca. Tortilla chips were made with extruded flours [0.1% Ca(OH)2; 0.9% C6H10O6Ca; without calcium] and nixtamalized flours [1% Ca(OH)2; 2.95% C6H10O6Ca] using the frying process. Total anthocyanin, total phenolics content, antioxidant activity, color, texture, and oil content were determined. The color of tortilla chips from extruded flours (TCEF) showed high values of the parameters a* and b* indicating a reduction in the blue color. These color parameters were significantly different from those observed in tortilla chips from nixtamalized flours (TCNF), which tended to be more blue. The TCEF retained 15% anthocyanins, 34% phenolics, and 54% antioxidant activity. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that anthocyanins and phenolics correlated significantly with antioxidant activity and color. TCEF with both calcium sources showed higher fracturability compared with that of TCNF. Oil absorption showed an opposite effect, with lower oil content in TCEF. Nixtamalization and extrusion with C6H10O6Ca resulted in flours and TC high in anthocyanins and antioxidant activity, representing an alternative production process for corn snack high in antioxidants. <![CDATA[<b>Thermal inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in Jubileu clingstone peach and yeast isolated from its spoiled puree</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The thermal inactivation of yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree and that of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in cv. Jubileu, which is widely cultivated in southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were studied. PPO and POD were extracted using the protein powder method and submitted to partial purification by precipitation followed by dialysis. The enzymatic activity was determined measuring the increase in absorbance at 420 nm for PPO and 470 nm for POD. The yeast used in this investigation was isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree at 22 °Brix, with total initial microbial count of 22 × 10² UFCmL- 1. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for microbial growth. In all cases, kinetic analysis of the results suggests that the thermal inactivation was well described by a first-order kinetic model, and the temperature dependence was significantly represented by the Arrhenius law. Both enzymes were affected by heat denaturation, and PPO was more thermostable. PPO was also more thermosTable than the yeast isolated from peach puree. The D60-values were 1.53 and 1.87 min for PPO and yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Acceptance of nanotechnology applications and satisfaction with food-related life in southern Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Given the increasing use of nanotechnology in food production and packaging, its acceptance was evaluated in Temuco, Chile, and different consumer segments were identified. Different brands of sunflower oil were used at different prices as a case study. A structured questionnaire was applied to 400 supermarket shoppers. It was determined that brand was more important than nanotechnology application in packaging and food, and more important than price. The consumers preferred an average priced oil with a manufacturer's brand with nanoparticles to reduce cholesterol, and packaging with nanoparticles to increase the shelf life of the product and to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Three consumer segments were distinguished by the cluster analysis. The largest segment (44%) preferred the oil without nanotechnology. The second (35.2%) preferred the oil with nanotechnology in the food and the packaging, and the greatest preference was for packaging with nanoparticles extension in the shelf life of the product. The third segment (20.8%) had similar behavior, but it showed greater preference for the oil with nanoparticles that reduced cholesterol and for the packaging that prevented the growth of bacteria and viruses. The segments differed in terms of their satisfaction with food-related life and lifestyle. It was found that over 50% of the participants preferred oil with nanotechnology applications. <![CDATA[<b>Sensory profile and drivers of liking for grape nectar among smoker and nonsmoker consumers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Decreased gustatory and olfactory capacity is one of the problems caused by tobacco use. The objectives of this study were to determine the sensory profile of six grape nectar samples sweetened with different sweeteners and to verify the drivers of liking in two distinct consumer groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The sensory profile was constructed by twelve trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Consumer tests were performed with 112 smokers and 112 nonsmokers. Partial least squares regression analyses was used to identify the drivers of acceptance and rejection of the grape nectars among the two consumer groups. According to the QDA, the samples differed regarding six of the nineteen attributes generated. The absolute averages of the affective test were lower in the group of smokers; possibly because smoking influences acceptance and eating preferences, especially with regard to sweet foods. The results showed that the grape flavor was the major driver of preference for acceptance of the nectar, while astringency, wine aroma, bitterness and sweetness, and bitter aftertaste were drivers of rejection in the two groups of consumers, with some differences between the groups. <![CDATA[<b>Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis</b>: <b>ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100025&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose. <![CDATA[<b>Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese</b>: <b>a chemometric approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100026&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100027&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl), F2 (1.7% NaCl), F3 (1.4% NaCl), F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl), and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl) - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply) using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized the products using the flash profiling technique. Reductions in the salt content by up to 30% did not affect the overall acceptability of the samples by the consumers. However, the consumers characterized the formulations with lower salt content as "less salty and less seasoned" in comparison to the contents in the control. Products containing 1.7% NaCl were considered very similar to the control. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to reduce NaCl content by 30% without affecting consumer acceptance of the product. The use of micronized salt did not affect the sensory characteristics when compared with those of formulations containing the same level of sodium chloride indicating that micronized salt does not influence perception of salt. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of the addition of lupine protein isolate on the protein and technological characteristics of dough and fresh bread with added Brea Gum</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The effect of protein lupine isolate (LI) and addition of brea gum (BG) on a basic bread formulation is described. The major objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the addition of LI on the quality and quantity of the proteins of fresh bread with BG. Protein quality was determinate by the Chemical Score method corrected for protein digestibility (CSCD%). The bread dough characteristics were determined by farinograph and alveograph. Fresh bread characterization was performed by measuring the physical parameters and evaluating the crumb structure. The effect of LI and BG on available lysine, the loss of available lysine ratio, and the chemical composition of the breads were also determined. The addition of LI on the bread formulation improved the protein content and the CSCD% of lysine. The dough with LI was less resistant to prolonged kneading and less manageable. With BG addition, the dough became stickier. The quality of fresh bread was affected by the addition of LI: the fresh bread had lower specific volume and more heterogeneous crumbs than that of the control group. The addition of BG did not influence the quality of the bread made with the mixed flour, but it had a positive effect on the loss of available lysine. <![CDATA[<b>Use of <i>Moringa oleífera</i> Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier</b>: <b>effects on clarifed juice and sugar</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100029&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup) and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar. <![CDATA[<b>Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000100030&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature), P (pressure), and V (tangential velocity). The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50%) in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ) were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.