Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> vol. 35 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Development of prebiotic food products and health benefits]]> In the current context from the nutritional and epidemiological point of view, it can be seen an occurrence increase of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases, as well as the inflammatory ones, ordinarily associated to a wrong feed, poor in fibers and rich in fats and simple and refined carbohydrates. This view has evidenced a progressive increase of diseases, highlighting the importance of colonic microbiota as an active mechanism of infectious processes control and modulation of immunologic answer. Therefore, constant the worries related to recovering and maintenance of healthy intestines, stocked with prebiotic nutrients that support the survival of beneficial health agents. This way, researchers and the segment of food industry has encouraged the development of products with prebiotic properties, looking for the health promotion, treatment and diseases prevention, besides the strengthening on the competitive market. This article will embrace the contents about physiologic effects of the main known prebiotic, their potential in relation to fermentatives bacterias, new developed products and used methodologies to the recognition of pre and probiotic functions. <![CDATA[Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado]]> The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense) of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks) for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days) after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening. <![CDATA[Biomass production by <em>Arthrospira platensis</em> under different culture conditions]]> In biotechnological processes, the culture media components are responsible for high costs and exert a strong influence on the cyanobacteria behavior. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Arthrospira platensis growth potential for biomass production under different cultivation conditions using an experimental design. Three factors that are important for cyanobacteria growth were evaluated: sodium bicarbonate (9 to 18 g/l), sodium nitrate (1.25 to 2.5 g/l), and irradiance (20 to 120 µmol photons/m2.s–1). The results showed that the concentration of NaNO3 in the A. platensis medium can be reduced, resulting in increased concentrations of biomass produced. There was a higher biomass production due to the increase in the concentration of NaHCO3 and irradiance, mainly when these two factors varied tending towards the highest values studied. The results demonstrate the potential to produce Arthrospira platensis with lower costs and effluent generation without affecting cultivation performance. <![CDATA[Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin]]> The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0); low fat control (T1); low fat with 15% inulin (T2); low fat with 30% inulin (T3); low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4); and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5). The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%), and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3). Moisture (61.14%) and ashes (6.96%) of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5), while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5) were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2) increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75). Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products. <![CDATA[Influence of agro-ecological production areas on antioxidant activity, reducing sugar content, and selected phytonutrients of orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivars]]> Sweet potato is an important staple, and it is mainly known for its contribution of β-carotene in human diet. The effects of cultivar and habitat on this pigment and other nutritional characteristics of the crop still require investigation. In this study, three locally bred cultivars of sweet potato, two of which are orange-fleshed, were grown in three different agro-ecological areas to determine soluble sugar content, β-carotene, and total antioxidants of roots. In addition antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, and chlorophyll content were determined in edible leaves. Reducing sugars, β-carotene, total antioxidants capacity, total carotenoids, and chlorophyll content were significantly affected by environmental conditions. The location at lower altitude and closer to the coastline showed high evapotranspiration, thus reducing sugar content, antioxidant activity, and phytonutrients in both storage roots and leaves. Absence of water stress in agro-ecological locations further inland and at higher altitudes was associated with an increase in these compounds. Free radical scavenging activity of DPPH was higher in the storage roots (610.49 µmoles TE/100g) than in the leaves (426.06 µmoles TE/100g); nevertheless, opposite results were found for the ferric ion reducing activity (FRAP). The deep orange-fleshed cultivar A45 contained high β-carotene (15 mg/100g), which is enough to meet RDA for vitamin A. There is evidence of agro-ecological effect on sweet potato nutritional value. <![CDATA[Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China]]> The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan) were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively. <![CDATA[Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> L. var. <em>botrytis</em> cv. Freemont): Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage]]> Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA) were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2) – (0:21) control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC) were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35) under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10). During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α) were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters. <![CDATA[Solubility and Seeded Metastable Zone width of functional sugar L-arabinose]]> L-arabinose is widely used in food, medicine, chemistry, and biology fields; however, solubility and seeded metastable zone width (MSZW) of L-arabinose have not been reported in the literature. In this paper, solubility and MSZW of L-arabinose in aqueous solution were determined. Solubility of L-arabinose was measured in the range of 20-68 °C by a conventional equilibrium solubility method and quantitation was determined using the ion chromatography technique. Seeded MSZW was determined in the range of 51-73% by the calorimetric method. The effect of two salts (potassium chloride and calcium chloride) on the solubility and MSZW of L-arabinose were also evaluated. Results showed that both potassium chloride and calcium chloride increased the solubility of L-arabinose, and this increase was intensified with temperature rise. The MSZW of L-arabinose was not constant but a spread. Potassium chloride increased the MSZW of L-arabinose. However, the effect of calcium chloride on MSZW of L-arabinose was concentration dependent. Conclusion: the L-arabinose solubility increased with the increase in temperature, and both potassium chloride and calcium chloride increased the solubility of L-arabinose in aqueous solution. The seeded MSZW of L-arabinose is not a constant; it increases in the presence of potassium chloride and varies with the change in calcium chloride concentration. <![CDATA[Screening of iron-enriched fungus from natural environment and evaluation of organically bound iron bioavailability in rats]]> Iron is an essential element for nearly all living organisms, and its deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in the world. The organic forms of trace elements are considered more bioavailable than the inorganic forms. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae can enrich metal elements and convert inorganic iron to organic species, its tolerability and transforming capacity are limited. The aim of this study was to screen higher biomass and other iron-enriched fungi strains besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the natural environment. A PDA medium containing 800 μg/mL iron was used for initial screening. Fifty strains that tolerated high iron concentration were isolated from the natural environment, and only one strain, No.BY1109, grew well at Fe (II) concentration of 10,000μg/ml. According to morphological characterization, 18S rDNA sequence analysis, and biophysical and biochemical characterization, the strain No.BY1109 was identified as Rhodotorula. The iron content of No.BY1109 (10 mg Fe/g dry cell) was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results of distribution of iron in the cells showed that iron ion was mainly chelated in the cell walls and vacuoles. The bioavailability in rats confirmed that strain No.BY1109 had higher absorption efficiency than that of ferrous sulfate after single dose oral administration. The present study introduces new iron supplements, and it is a basis for finding new iron supplements from natural environment. <![CDATA[Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases]]> The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”), guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple). <![CDATA[The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from <em>Chenopodium quinoa</em> seeds]]> Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment. <![CDATA[Effects of filtration methods on the neutralization yield of crude marine fish oil]]> The evaluation of filtration methods on the yield and oleochemicals characteristics on the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish for purposes of nutrition has been conducted in this work. The analytical properties of the crude and the neutralized oil with three excesses of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 20%, 40% and 60%) were carried out on two different ways with organza and the “glass wool”. The neutralization of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, it leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries. <![CDATA[Peroxidase activity and sensory quality of ready to cook mixed vegetables for soup: combined effect of biopreservatives and refrigerated storage]]> Enzymatic senescence processes and browning of fresh cut vegetables negatively affect their sensory properties and nutritional value and finally result in the rejection of affected products by consumers. In order to prevent quality decay, the combined effects of natural antioxidants and storage temperature on peroxidase activity and sensory attributes (overall visual quality, browning and odor) of individual and mixed vegetables for soup (butternut squash, leek and celery) were evaluated. Fresh cut vegetables were treated with antioxidant solutions as tea tree essential oil (15 μl/mL), propolis extract (15 μl/mL) and gallic acid (2 mg/mL) and stored at optimal (5 °C) and abusive (15 °C) temperature for a maximum of 14 days. The application of natural preservatives, plus optimal storage conditions, exerted significant inhibitory effects in peroxidase activity of squash, celery and mixed vegetables throughout the storage. Furthermore, propolis treatment applied on mixed vegetables retarded browning appearance and preserved the visual quality for a longer period when compared to untreated product. <![CDATA[Chloride concentration in red wines: influence of <em>terroir</em> and grape type]]> Red wines from different countries have been assessed in order to determine the influence of terroir and grape variety in their concentration of chloride. Chloride analysis was carried out by Laboratório de Bebidas de Origem Vegetal do Espírito Santo (Labeves), using the potentiometric method, in which the dosing is directly applied to the sample with an Ag/AgCl electrode. Data were collected to establish the level of chloride, as presented in the analysis reports issued by Labeves, and to serve as a wine categorization database, according to grape variety and country of origin. Australia and Argentina presented the highest levels of chloride and the wines made from the Syrah variety presented the highest concentration of such ion. We have, therefore, found that terroir and grape variety do have an influence over the concentration of chloride in red wines. <![CDATA[Effect of the addition of wheat fiber and partial pork back fat on the chemical composition, texture and sensory property of low-fat bologna sausage containing inulin and oat fiber]]> The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding wheat fiber and partial pork back fat on the quality characteristics of bologna sausage. The compound central rotating design was used with treatments containing fixed levels of inulin (5%) and oat fiber (1%) and variable levels of wheat fiber (0-4%) and pork back fat (0-10%). The pH and protein were similar in all the treatments, the fat was lower than the control treatment and the moisture content was higher than the control treatment (CF) without fibers. The wheat fiber increased the hardness and reduced cohesiveness and scores were given for overall impression. We found that it was possible to prepare low-fat bologna sausage with the addition of 6.58% fiber (5% inulin, 1% oat fiber and 0.58% wheat fiber), whilst retaining good sensory acceptability, thus reducing the pork back fat levels by between 25 and 42.75%. <![CDATA[Survival of Shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> O157:H7 in Minas frescal cheese]]> Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains (isolated by cattle’s faeces and a reference strain, EDL933), were inoculated into pasteurized milk (102 and 103 cells.mL–1) to prepare the Minas frescal cheese. As control was used uninfected milk. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed to milk and elaborated cheese. The O157:H7 strains were quantified in the stages of cheese processing and during 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 15 storage days at 8 °C onto Sorbitol MacConkey Agar supplemented with potassium tellurite and cefixime (CT-SMAC). O157:H7 was not present in the pasteurised milk prior to the artificial inoculation. At the end of the processing the cheese had 10 to 100 times more STEC O157:H7 than the initial inoculum. During the storage, the Minas frescal cheese exhibited the largest population increase on the 4th and 5th day when inoculated with 102 and 103 cells.mL–1, respectively. Additionally, viable cells were found up to the 10th and 15th day, according to the amount of initial inoculum. This number of cells is able to cause infection in humans, and therefore, Minas frescal cheese, even when stored under refrigeration, is a potential vehicle of disease caused by STEC O157:H7. <![CDATA[Production, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin nanosuspension]]> Curcumin is a powerful bioactive agent and natural antioxidant, but it is practically water-insoluble and has low bioavailability; a possible solution to this obstacle would be formulations of curcumin nanoparticles. Surfactants such as tween 80 can be used to stabilize low-solubility molecules preventing particle aggregation. The objectives of this study were the preparation of a suspension with curcumin nanoparticles in tween 80, the testing of pure curcumin solubility and of a simple mixture of curcumin with tween 80 and nanosuspension in water and ethanol as solvents, and finally the assessment of the antioxidant activity. We prepared the nanosuspension by injecting a curcumin solution in dichloromethane at low flow in water with tween 80 under heating and ultrasound. The analysis of particles size was conducted through dynamic light scattering; the non-degradation of curcumin was verified through thin-layer chromatography. The analyses of antioxidant activity were carried out according to the DPPH method. The method applied to reduce the particles size was efficient. Both the curcumin suspension and nanosuspension in tween 80 increased its solubility. Curcumin and the formulations presented antioxidant activity. <![CDATA[Physicochemical composition, minerals, and pesticide residues in organic grape juices]]> Demand for organic products is intensified in many countries each year. Following this trend, Brazil produces increasing volumes of organic grape juice. In this way, a survey of organic grape juices made from grapes produced according to this system was carried out where physicochemical composition, minerals, trace elements, and pesticide residues were determined. Variables related to grape juice composition were performed by physicochemical procedures; minerals and trace elements, by inductively plasma optical emission spectrometry; pesticide residues, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Main results show that the physicochemical composition of organic grape juices was in general in accordance to the Brazilian legislation. The mean concentrations of trace elements were very low, varying from 0.002 (Cd) to 0.970 (Ba) mg L–1. Pesticide residues were not detected in any sample analyzed (MRL= 10 µg L–1). These results show that the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region present conditions to produce organic grape juices, despite the adverse climate factors that occurs in some years. Nevertheless, these products should be made with grape varieties, such as the labrusca ones, less susceptibles to the main grapevine pathogens. <![CDATA[Nutritional quality and bioactive compounds of partially defatted baru almond flour]]> This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and bioactive potential of partially defatted baru (Dipteryx alataVog.) almond flour (BAF). The flour’s proximate and mineral compositions, total phenolic, tocopherols and carotenoids contents, antioxidant capacity, trypsin inhibitor and amino acid analyses were performed. An experiment was conducted with 24 male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the flour’s protein quality. BAF has high protein, fiber and mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium and copper), and it is a source of calcium. BAF presented relevant amounts of total phenolics (625 mg/100g) and good antioxidant capacity (130 µmol/Trolox eq). Autoclaved BAF showed essential amino acids profile, digestibility and protein quality better than in natura BAF. Autoclaved BAF might be used for human consumption as a source of quality protein and bioactive compounds, in healthy diets and processed foods. <![CDATA[Optimization of image analysis techniques for quality assessment of whole-wheat breads made with fat replacer]]> The cellular structure of healthy food products, with added dietary fiber and low in calories, is an important factor that contributes to the assessment of quality, which can be quantified by image analysis of visual texture. This study seeks to compare image analysis techniques (binarization using Otsu’s method and the default ImageJ algorithm, a variation of the iterative intermeans method) for quantification of differences in the crumb structure of breads made with different percentages of whole-wheat flour and fat replacer, and discuss the behavior of the parameters number of cells, mean cell area, cell density, and circularity using response surface methodology. Comparative analysis of the results achieved with the Otsu and default ImageJ algorithms showed a significant difference between the studied parameters. The Otsu method demonstrated the crumb structure of the analyzed breads more reliably than the default ImageJ algorithm, and is thus the most suitable in terms of structural representation of the crumb texture. <![CDATA[Caj√°-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile]]> Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A) was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B), pineapple (C), jabuticaba (D), mango (E) and cashew (F). The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil. <![CDATA[Particle size and cholesterol content of a mayonnaise formulated by OSA-modified potato starch]]> Egg yolk was partially replaced (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified potato starch in a reduced-fat mayonnaise formulation to curtail the problems associated with high cholesterol and induced allergic reactions. The physicochemical properties included parameters such as: pH, fat content, and emulsion stability of the formulations analyzed. The samples with 75% and 100% egg yolk substitute showed the maximum emulsion stability (&gt;95% after two of months storage), and they were selected according to cholesterol content, particle size distributions, dynamic rheological properties, microstructure, and sensory characteristic. A significant reduction (84-97%) in the cholesterol content was observed in the selected samples. Particle size analysis showed that by increasing the amount of OSA starch, the oil droplets with the peak size of 70 µm engulfed by this compound became larger. The rheological tests elucidated that in the absence of egg yolk, OSA starch may not result in a final product with consistent texture and that the best ratio of the two emulsifiers (OSA starch/egg yolk) to produce stable reduced-fat, low cholesterol mayonnaise is 75/25. The microscopic images confirmed the formation of a stable cohesive layer of starch surrounding the oil droplets emulsified in the samples selected. <![CDATA[Study of thermodynamic water properties and moisture sorption hysteresis of mango skin]]> The equilibrium moisture content for adsorption and desorption isotherms of mango skin was determined using the static gravimetric method at temperatures of 20, 26, 33, 38 and 44 oC in the 0.056 to 0.873 water activity range. Both sorption curves show a decrease in equilibrium moisture content as the temperature increasing. The hysteresis effect was observed at constant water activity. The Guggenheim, Anderson, and de Boer (GAB) model presented the best fitting accuracy among a group of models and was used to determine the thermodynamic properties of water sorption. Integral enthalpy and integral entropy areas showed inverted values for the adsorption and desorption isotherms over the wide range of water activity studied. These values confirm, in energetic terms, the difference between adsorption and desorption isotherms observed in the hysteresis phenomenon. Finally, the Gibbs free energy revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous for both sorption isotherms. <![CDATA[ACE-I inhibitory properties of hydrolysates from germinated and ungerminated <em>Phaseolus lunatus</em> proteins]]> Phaseolus lunatus protein concentrates and the proteases Alcalase(R) and Pepsin-Pancreatin were used for the production of protein hydrolysates that inhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). Protein concentrate obtained from germinated and ungerminated seeds flour was hydrolyzed with Alcalase(R) at enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) 1/10 and during 0.5 and 2.0 h, respectively. On the other hand, protein concentrate obtained from ungerminated (E/S: 1/10) and germinated (E/S: 1/50) seeds flour was sequentially hydrolyzed with Pepsin-Pancreatin during 1.0 and 3.0 h, respectively. Peptide fractions with ACE inhibitory activity in a range of 0.9 to 3.8 µg/mL were obtained by G-50 gel filtration chromatography and high- performance liquid chromatography C18 reverse phase chromatography. The observed amino acid composition suggests a substantial contribution of hydrophobic residues to the peptides’ inhibitory potency, which potentially acts via blocking of angiotensin II production. These results show that P. lunatus seed proteins are a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides when hydrolyzed with Alcalase(R) and Pepsin-Pancreatin. <![CDATA[Influence of harvest year in the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils from Tunisia]]> The objective of this research was to determine the effect of five years on physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils. Oil and protein on flaxseed hull varied between 20.15 and 22.56 and 17.45 and 19.14, respectively. The albumin fraction dominated the seed hull protein composition (44 - 47%). Flaxseed hull oils showed significantly high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (6.61 - 8.36) and calculated oxidizability (Cox) values (10.88 - 12.30). The physiochemical parameters determined included saponification value (SV) (174 -182 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (UM) (1.32 - 1.64%), peroxide value (PV) (1.70 - 2.20 mequiv/kg), Oxidation value (OV) (4.40 - 5.90) and oil stability (1.10 - 1.42 h). The highest content of total phenolic acids and total tocopherols were recorded on hull sample collected in 2008. Flavanoid content ranged from 11 to 19 mg/100 g oil. Antioxidant activity differed significantly; the greatest inhibition (61.38%) was for the hull sample collected in 2008. <![CDATA[Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of liquid synthetic food flavorings evaluated alone and in combination]]> This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of food flavorings (Strawberry, Condensed Milk and Chocolate) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells, with exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential were evaluated separately at doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml and in combination, in which for each dose, the same dose of one other flavoring was combined. The results were analyzed by the Chi-square test (p &lt;0.05). The Strawberry flavor in both exposure times and the three studied doses, the Condensed Milk at 0.6 ml in the 48 hour exposure time, the Chocolate flavor at 0.4 ml, exposure time of 48 hours, and at 0.6 ml, in both exposure times and all treatments with combined doses, significantly reduced the cell division rate, proving to be cytotoxic. No treatment resulted in a significant number of cellular aberrations in A. cepa cells, therefore, the flavorings, under the conditions studied, were non- mutagenic. <![CDATA[Characterization of the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of selected culinary herbs and spices: caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg]]> Culinary herbs and spices have long been considered essentially as flavor enhancers or preservatives, with little attention given to their potential health-promoting properties. Nevertheless, recent research has shown them to be significant dietary sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Despite noteworthy efforts performed in recent years to improve our knowledge of their chemical composition, a detailed phenolic profile of these plant-based products is still lacking. In the present work, antioxidant activities and phenolic composition of five herbs and spices, namely caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg, have been studied. The use of liquid chromatography coupled to LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry enabled the identification of up to 42 phenolic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, two of them, apigenin-C-hexoside-C-pentoside and apigenin-C-hexoside-C-hexoside have not been previously reported in turmeric. Qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in polyphenol profiles, with the highest phenolic content found in caraway. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the detection of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. <![CDATA[Vinegar rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice]]> Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v), 0.17% alcohol (w/v), 1.26% (w/v) minerals and 1.78% (w/v) dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L), maleic acid (3 mg/L), trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L), shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L), lactic acid (300 mg/L), formic acid (180 mg/L), oxalic acid (3 mg/L), fumaric acid (3 mg/L) and itaconic acid (1 mg/L). <![CDATA[Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C) sierra (<em>Scomberomorus sierra</em>) muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene]]> Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C) of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively). Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture) and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i) analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant). An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments). However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle. <![CDATA[Development of the Food List for a Brazilian Total Diet Study]]> The objective of this paper is to establish a methodology for the Food List for the southeastern region of Brazil, according to the Total Diet Study (TDS) harmonized methodology at international level. The Food List can provide data for a further TDS with evaluation of essential and toxic element dietary intakes by food analysis in laboratories. The food consumption data source used was from 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The Food List was composed of 82 food items grouped into 19 food groups. It reflects 100% of the daily individual food consumption inside and outside Brazilian southeastern population households. According to the recommendation that each country should carry out their own TDS and the TDS methodology used, the Food List construction can contribute to the Food List of other Brazilian regions and other countries, besides allowing the TDS development. Additionally, the Food List showed the typical diet for the southeastern region of Brazil. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> The objective of this paper is to establish a methodology for the Food List for the southeastern region of Brazil, according to the Total Diet Study (TDS) harmonized methodology at international level. The Food List can provide data for a further TDS with evaluation of essential and toxic element dietary intakes by food analysis in laboratories. The food consumption data source used was from 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The Food List was composed of 82 food items grouped into 19 food groups. It reflects 100% of the daily individual food consumption inside and outside Brazilian southeastern population households. According to the recommendation that each country should carry out their own TDS and the TDS methodology used, the Food List construction can contribute to the Food List of other Brazilian regions and other countries, besides allowing the TDS development. Additionally, the Food List showed the typical diet for the southeastern region of Brazil.