Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> vol. 34 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Morphological characterization with image analysis of cocoa beverage powder agglomerated with steam</b>]]> In this study, the morphological characteristics of cocoa beverage powder granules under minimal, average, and maximal process conditions of a steam agglomerator were studied. a stereoscopic microscope coupled to a digital camera was used for the morphological analysis. The images were analyzed to obtain shape and size descriptors. aiming to evaluate the descriptors, 150 particles were analyzed. The results showed that there was no difference between the shape descriptors - compacity, circularity, roughness, and aspect ratio - in the operating conditions evaluated. It was observed that the cocoa beverage powder granules are elongated in shape. The size descriptors, area, perimeter, perimeter of convex bounding polygon, minimal and maximal Feret diameter, were different in the process conditions for the granules of size above 600 μm. as for the minimal process conditions, especially due to low solid feed rates, there is an increase in the size descriptor values. In addition, under the minimum process conditions, in which there is low solid feed rate (400g/min) for a steam pressure of 1.0 bar, it was obtained a good granular condition with retention of 81.1% of granules on sieves with aperture size between 300 and 1190 μm. <![CDATA[<b>Application of enzymatic preparations to produce araçá pulp and juice</b>]]> In the present study, the effect of pectinases on the production of pulp and juice of araçá and the presence of bioactive compounds were evaluated. An enzyme extract (EE) produced by Aspergillus niger LB-02-SF in solid state fermentation and the commercial enzyme Ultrazym®AFP-L were used in this study. After enzyme treatment with the EE preparation, the extraction yield increased by 23.1% and viscosity decreased by 42.8%, during pulp maceration. During juice processing, there was an increase of 70.6% in clarification and a decrease of 72.87% in turbidity. Higher values of these parameters, 47.7, 69.0, 80.7, and 79.7%, respectively, were obtained using the Ultrazym®AFP-L, which also led to a significant increase in the polyphenol content, both in the pulp (24%) and in the juice (28%), with a less pronounced effect when the EE was applied (10 and 21%, respectively). The anthocyanins content in the araçá pulp increased after treatment with the commercial preparation (23%), and there was no significant increase with the use of EE. The use of Ultrazym®AFP-L increased the β-carotene content by 29.4% in the fruit pulp, while the treatment with EE did not result in significant changes compared with those of the juice and pulp controls. <![CDATA[<b>Study of the physicochemical characteristics of soursop powder obtained by spray-drying</b>]]> This study aimed at contributing to the development of new foodstuffs made by soursop pulp powder obtained by spraydrying. Different concentrations of maltodextrin DE 20 (15, 30, and 45%) were added to commercial soursop pulp, which was dehydrated afterwards. The following analyses were carried out: water activity, moisture, pH, soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, and rehydration time. The results obtained for the three powder treatments (15, 30 and 45% of maltodextrin) were, respectectively: water activity (0.19a±0.00; 0.20a±0.00; 0.18a±0.01); moisture (1.17c±0.12; 1.47b±0.05; 1.82a±0.06); pH (3.75a±0.05; 3.73a±0.06; 3.70a±0.03); soluble solids (89.67a±0.00; 89.84a±0.00; 90.00a±0.06); acidity (3.01a±0.02; 1.91b±0.03; 1.24c±0.03); ascorbic acid (18.90a±0.00; 14.48b±0.00; 11.26b±0.78); hygroscopicity (5.93a±0.40; 3.82b±0.16; 3.28b±0.38); degree of caking (78.36a±2.86; 35.38b±6.07; 24.77b4.89), and rehydration time (02.03a±0.46; 01.16ab±0.50; 0.59b±0.30). The soursop powders with 30 and 45% of maltodextrin had few significant differences in terms of physicochemical and hygroscopic characteristics, which allow us to consider the percentage of 30% of maltodextrin, in this study, as the best percentage for soursop pulp atomization. <![CDATA[<b>Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (<i>Ugni molinae</i> Turcz.)</b>]]> Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz) is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food. <![CDATA[<b>Peptide separation of commercial fermented milk during refrigerated storage</b>]]> Milk is an important source of bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are released during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The aim of this study was to determine the release of peptides by lactic acid bacteria in commercial fermented milk during refrigerated storage. The size and profile of peptides were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sizeexclusion HPLC. During electrophoresis, it was observed that the peptides were released from caseins, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the whey protein with the highest degradation. HPLC analysis confirmed the pattern of peptide formation observed in electrophoresis. Two fractions lower than 2 kDa with aromatic amino acids in their structure were separated. These results were consistent with those reported for structures of peptides with antihypertensive activity. Therefore, the presence of aromatic amino acids in the peptide fractions obtained increases the likelihood of finding peptides with such activity in refrigerated commercial fermented milk. In conclusion, during cold storage, peptides with different molecular weights are released and accumulated. This could be due to the action of proteinases and peptidases of the proteolytic system in lactic acid bacteria. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of some residual bioactivities of microencapsulated <i>Phaseolus lunatus</i> protein fraction with carboxymethylated flamboyant (<i>Delonix regia</i>) gum/sodium alginate</b>]]> Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of peptides, an unexploited source could be Phaseolus lunatus being an important raw material for those functional products in order to improve their utilization. In addition to improve the beneficial effect of bioactive peptides the microencapsulation could be a way to protect the peptides against the environment to which they are exposed. P. lunatus protein fraction (<10 kDa of weight) was encapsulated using a blend of carboxymethylated flamboyant gum (CFG) and sodium alginate (SA) at different concentrations of CaCl2 and hardening times. After in vitro digestion of microcapsules the residual activity, in the intestinal system, both inhibition of agiotensin-converting enzyme (I-ACE) and antioxidant activity obtained were in a range of 0.019-0.136 mg/mL and 570.64-813.54 mM of TEAC respectively. The microencapsulation employed CFG/SA blends could be used controlled delivery of peptide fractions with potential use as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agents. <![CDATA[<b>Impact of socio-cultural and economic factors on vegetable consumption behaviours</b>: <b>case of Giresun province, Turkey</b>]]> Many factors impact on food consumption behaviours. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-demographic and ecological factors on vegetable consumption. A 14-question questionnaire was applied on a voluntary basis to 200 individuals who accepted to participate in the study. Their socio-demographic attributes and the vegetable consumption habits of their families were determined. Their average monthly budget for vegetables is € 31.82±12.72. The two attributes of purchased vegetables with most demand are cleanliness (61.5%) and freshness (22%). The maximum price per 1 kg of vegetables, which individuals with an income of € 301-450 can afford, is € 0.96, but for individuals with an income of > € 450, it is € 1.25. It was observed that the amount of purchased vegetables increased with the increase in the budget allocated for vegetables. <![CDATA[<b>Labneh with probiotic properties produced from kefir</b>: <b>development and sensory evaluation</b>]]> The labneh or labaneh is a popular fermented milk in the Middle East. Another fermented product that deserves special mention is kefir since it has probiotic activity and unique sensory, nutritional, and therapeutic properties. The aim of the present study was to develop a functional probiotic labneh using kefir as a fermenting agent and to perform a sensory analysis of the obtained product. Kefir was obtained by growing grains in pasteurized milk. Samples of skimmed and whole labneh were prepared from the inoculation of 5% kefir milk (skimmed/whole) at 28 ºC for 24h, followed by cooling (12-18h) and whey drainage (12-24h), both at 4 ºC. Sensory analysis was performed with 70 untrained panelists using a 9-point scale hedonic in the acceptance tests. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences between the means of the scores obtained, with the significance level of 5%. The labneh prepared showed good acceptance by the judges, and the whole labneh samples had the highest scores in the acceptance test. Further studies on the analysis of microbiological viability, nutritional composition, and determination of shelf life, also to improve acceptability of the low-fat version of the product, are needed. <![CDATA[<b>Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (<i>Salvia hispanica</i>) from Mexico as a source of functional gums</b>]]> The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica) gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed) was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of exopolysaccharide production and biofilm-related genes in <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp. isolated from a poultry processing plant</b>]]> Staphylococcus spp. can survive in biofilms for long periods of time, and they can be transferred from one point to another and cause environmental contamination in food processing. The aim of this study was to detect Staphylococcus strains isolated from a poultry processing plant by the presence of adhesion genes and the phenotypic production of exopolysaccharide. In the present study, the production of exopolysaccharide and the presence of adhesion genes in 65 strains of Staphylococcus spp. were evaluated. All strains of Staphylococcus spp. produced exopolysaccharide, as confirmed by formation of black and opaque colonies in Congo Red Agar. The variation of sucrose content was critical for the production of exopolysaccharide in Congo Red Agar since at low sucrose concentrations all strains presented a characteristic result, i.e., there was no exopolysaccharide production. The atl gene was found in all strains, and the icaA and icaD genes were found in 97% of them. The data obtained suggest that Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the poultry processing plant evaluated has a potential for biofilm formation. An efficient control of this microorganism in food processing environment is necessary as they may represent a potential risk to consumers. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of genetically modified organisms in soy products sold in Turkish market</b>]]> PCR-based technique for GMO detection is the most reliable choice because of its high sensitivity and specificity. As a candidate of the European Union, Turkey must comply with the rules for launching into the market, traceability, and labeling of GMOs as established by EU legislation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess soybean products in the Turkish market to verify compliance with legislation using qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to detect the presence of GM soybean and to quantify its amount of GM soybean in the samples tested positive using real-time PCR. DNA extracted by the modified CTAB method was properly used for PCR amplification of food materials. The amplification of a 118 bp DNA fragment of the lectin gene from soybean by PCR was successfully achieved in all samples. The GMO screening was based on the detection of 35S promoter and NOS terminator sequences. The GM positive samples were subjected to detection of Roundup ReadyTM soybean (RR) using quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that 100% of the tested food samples contained less than 0.1 per cent of EPSPS gene. <![CDATA[<b>Production optimization and characterization of immunomodulatory peptides obtained from fermented goat placenta</b>]]> The goat placental immunomodulatory peptides were produced by fermentation with Aspergillus Niger. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fermentation parameters (carbon source content, pH, and time) on spleen lymphocyte proliferation for the highest immune activity of the fermentation broth using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the data analysis by the Design-Expert® software, the stimulation index value (23.51%), which is the maximum immune activity, was obtained under the following conditions: content of carbon source 1.97 g·L-1, initial pH 5.0, and 74.43 h of fermentation time. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, at a certain concentration range, the fermentation broth produced a significant effect on the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate the fermentation broth with different MW (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of <10 KDa were the main bioactivity fractions for the immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. <![CDATA[<b>Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (<i>Brassica oleracea</i> L. var. <i>botrytis</i> cv. Freemont)</b>: <b>part I. determination of precooling parameters</b>]]> The aim of the present study was to precool cauliflower using forced-air, vacuum and high and low flow hydro cooling methods. The weight of the precooled cauliflower heads (5000±5 g) was measured before they were placed in standard plastic crates. Cauliflower heads, whose initial temperature was 23.5 ± 0.5 ºC, were cooled until the temperature reached at 1 ºC. During the precooling process, time-dependent temperature and energy consumption were measured, and during vacuum precooling, the decreasing pressure values were recorded, and a curve of time-dependent pressure decrease (vacuum) was built. The most suitable cooling method to precool cauliflower in terms of cooling time and energy consumption was vacuum, followed by the high and low flow hydro and forced-air precooling methods, respectively. The highest weight loss was observed in the vacuum precooling method, followed by the forced-air method. However, there was an increase in the weight of the cauliflower heads in the high and low flow hydro precooling method. The best colour and hardness values were found in the vacuum precooling method. Among all methods tested, the most suitable method to precool cauliflower in terms of cooling and quality parameters was the vacuum precooling method. <![CDATA[<b>Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by <i>Pseudomonas oleovorans</i> grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil</b>]]> Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL). The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH4)2HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH4)2HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production. <![CDATA[<b>Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of pan bread samples available in the Brazilian market</b>]]> Pan bread samples available in the Brazilian market were evaluated for their physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Twelve pan breads, seven white and five whole grain breads, were evaluated. Moisture, water activity (Aw), firmness, and color (L*, a*, b*) of the crumb were evaluated on the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth days after purchasing the breads. Specific volume was evaluated on the first day of analysis with averages of 4.72 and 4.70 mL/g for the white and whole grain breads, respectively. The average results on the first day of analysis were: 37.03% and 41.23% moisture, 0.954 and 0.966 Aw, 276.27 and 267.83 gf firmness, 74.73 and 64.45 L* values, 0.37 and 3.85 a* values, and 15.51 and 18.98 b* values for the white and whole grain breads, respectively. The samples showed an increase in firmness, reduction in moisture and Aw, and no color changes over time. A survey conducted prior to the acceptance test showed that the three most important factors influencing purchase were taste (19.6%), tenderness (16.8%), and expiration date of the product (14.3%). The results showed that 37.2% of the panelists preferred white bread, 62.8% preferred bread with fibers, and 82.6% would probably or definitely buy white bread with fibers. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (<i>Theobroma cacao</i> L.)</b>]]> Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary fiber, flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity using an EC50. It was observed that cocoa honey can be considered a source of bioactive compounds, can be consumed in natura or processed, and used as an ingredient in the chocolate industry and in other food products. However, it is necessary to use complementary methods, such as HPLC, to quantify the phenolic compounds of this by-product. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of the concentrations of maltogenic </b><b>α</b><b>-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory quality of cakes</b>]]> The characteristics that define cake quality can be improved by the use of adequate ingredients and a correct balance of the formulation. Fat is used for its effect on softness and because it imparts flavor and calories. Enzymes such as maltogenic α-amylase can also have a positive effect on cake texture during storage by decreasing amylopectin re-crystallization and thus delaying starch retrogradation providing longer-lasting crumb softness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of maltogenic α-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory characteristics of cakes. Therefore, balanced formulations with three different fat concentrations (20, 40, and 60 g/100 g, based on the flour content) were used to evaluate the addition of maltogenic α-amylase (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg). Technological quality determinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The best results in terms of cake quality (greater specific volume, higher crumb moisture content, lower crumb firmness, and greater sensory acceptance) were obtained with the combination of 20 g/100 g fat and 1000 mg/kg maltogenic α-amylase (based on the flour content), which proved to be an alternative to reduce the fat levels in the elaboration of this type of product. <![CDATA[<b>Green and brown propolis</b>: <b>efficient natural biocides for the control of bacterial contamination of alcoholic fermentation of distilled beverage</b>]]> This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits. <![CDATA[<b>Characterization of blueberry fruits (<i>Vaccinium</i> spp.) and derived products</b>]]> The objectives of this study were to physicochemically characterize and determine the antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents of organic Rabbiteye blueberries grown in Southern Brazil and its derived products, in order to investigate the utility of food processing wastes as raw materials for developing products with beneficial health properties. The antioxidant capacity of the blueberries was superior to that of other fruits and juices. The pomace exhibited high activity, albeit lower than that of the fruit, while the flour and the dried blueberries lost 66% and 46% of the original antioxidant activity, respectively. The average anthocyanin contents of the fruits were moderate compared to other sources and species of blueberries. The pomace contains a large amount of anthocyanins while the flour and dried blueberries exhibited a 32% and 42% loss in anthocyanin content, respectively. The use of agro-industrial residues, in addition to adding value and minimizing the impact caused by the accumulation in the environment, can be directed toward the development of new products with bioactive properties. <![CDATA[<b>Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage</b>]]> The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was &gt;8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different covering materials used during the pre-harvest stage on the quality and storage life of 'Sultana Seedless' grapes</b>]]> Covering the grapevine rows to delay the maturity and harvest date became widely practiced in 'Sultana Seedless' vineyards. The research work was conducted to test different cover materials (polypropylene cross-stitch, life pack, mogul and transparent polyethylene) in respect to their effects on grape quality and storability. Harvest was delayed for one month in covered plots. Harvested grapes were packed and transferred to storage rooms after pre-cooling. During packing, the grape clusters were sealed in PE bags with sulphur dioxide pads. The grapes were stored for 90 days in the first year and 120 days in the second year, at -0.5ºC and 90% RH. All the grape clusters were healthy and of marketable quality after 90 days of storage period. In the first year, at the end of the storage, only those grapes harvested from the rows covered with polypropylene cross-stitch showed fungal growth. The sensory quality scores revealed a lower level of preference after 120 days of storage. The effects of the covering materials tested were similar regarding grape quality and storage performance except the transparent polyethylene that damaged the grapevine leaves. <![CDATA[<b>Screening and kinetics of glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase producing lactic acid bacteria from fermented Thai foods</b>]]> L-glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-glutamine and glutamate, respectively. L-glutaminase widely used in cancer therapy along with a combination of other enzymes and most importantly these enzymes were used in food industries, as a major catalyst of bioconversion. The current investigation was aimed to screen and select L-glutaminase, and GAD producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 338 LAB were isolated from fermented meat, fermented fish, fermented soya bean, fermented vegetables and fruits. Among 338 isolates, 22 and 237 LAB has been found to be positive for L-glutaminase and GAD, respectively. We found that 30 days of incubation at 35 ºC and pH 6.0 was the optimum condition for glutaminase activity by G507/1. G254/2 was found to be the best for GAD activity with the optimum condition of pH 6.5, temperature 40 ºC and ten days of incubation. These LAB strains, G507/1 and G254/2, were identified as close relative of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 and Lactobacillus fermentum NBRC 3956, respectively by 16S rRNA sequencing. Further, improvements in up-stream of the fermentation process with these LAB strains are currently under development. <link></link> <description/> </item> </channel> </rss> <!--transformed by PHP 02:05:38 06-05-2015-->