Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120140002&lang=es vol. 34 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of peeling and type of drying on chemical and sensorial analysis of organic coffee</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Organic coffee is characterized by being produced without the use of chemical products and by having a similar or superior quality in comparison to that of coffee produced by traditional methods. The production of organic coffee does not include the use of highly soluble nutrients, which makes consumers concerned with environmental issues and healthy eating habits realize its true value. This paper aims to analyze the influence of harvesting, peeling and drying on the quality of organic coffee, in order to present the best way of producing high quality coffee. Samples of organic coffee were harvested by both conventional and selective ways, and some were peeled. They were then dried on concrete patio and on suspended terraces. The beans were analyzed for potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, and submitted to coffee cupping-test. The results obtained indicated that the selective harvesting of the peeled or unpeeled cherry coffee dried on concrete terrace is feasible for production of fine coffees. This type of processing effectively influenced the final quality of the organic coffee, thus being an alternative to improve the quality and market value of the product, especially for small producers, cooperatives, and associations of coffee producers. <![CDATA[<b>A comparative study among methods used for wheat flour analysis and for measurements of gluten properties using the Wheat Gluten Quality Analyser (WGQA)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This study aimed at comparing both the results of wheat flour quality assessed by the new equipment Wheat Gluten Quality Analyser (WGQA) and those obtained by the extensigraph and farinograph. Fifty-nine wheat samples were evaluated for protein and gluten contents; the rheological properties of gluten and wheat flour were assessed using the WGQA and the extensigraph/farinograph methods, respectively, in addition to the baking test. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression were used to evaluate the results. The parameters of energy and maximum resistance to extension determined by the extensigraph and WGQA showed an acceptable level for the linear correlation within the range from 0.6071 to 0.6511. The PCA results obtained using WGQA and the other rheological apparatus showed values similar to those expected for wheat flours in the baking test. Although all equipment used was effective in assessing the behavior of strong and weak flours, the results of medium strength wheat flour varied. WGQA has shown to use less amount of sample and to be faster and easier to use in relation to the other instruments used. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar <i>Vigna unguiculata</i> L</b><b>.</b><b>Walp on the quality and content of <i>myo</i>-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed coats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ∝mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ∝mol.g- 1, respectively) than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ∝mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ∝mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ∝mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ∝mol.g- 1). These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality. <![CDATA[<b>Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco). Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents. <![CDATA[<b>Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Although the greatest variety of Brazilian flora is in the Amazon region, the Southern region of Brazil also has an estimated number of at least 5,000 species of vascular native plants. These species have been neglected as potential food sources, remaining unknown and under-utilized and limiting the potential variety in the diet of Brazilians and other peoples. Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The essential element concentrations in the fruit samples were higher or similar to the values reported for traditional fruits. The araticum-do-mato fruit samples had high concentrations of the elements Ca, K, and Cu, and trace elements such as Pb and Sr. Mandacaru-de-três-quinas had predominance of Ba, Bi, and Ga, and the essential elements Mg and Mn. Uvaia and guabiroba had the highest levels of Al and Cr, but uvaia had high levels of Fe and Zn. The pindo palm had high amounts of Cd and Ni, and the yellow guava had high concentrations of Na, while red guava had high levels of Co. <![CDATA[<b>The production of <i>Pleurotus sajor-caju</i> in peach palm leaves (<i>Bactris gasipaes</i>) and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The aim of this study was to evaluate of Pleurotus sajor-caju production in peach palm leaves and the addition of different fractions of mushroom powder to wheat flour to increase its nutritional value without changing its characteristics. The best yield (48.4%), biologic efficiency (4.5%), and Pr (0.36 g/day) values were obtained using 20% inoculum fraction and 10% rice bran fraction. The Pleurotus sajor-caju fruiting body cultivated under these conditions had the following composition in 100 g: 29.91 g (carbohydrates), 42.92 g (proteins), 1.24 g (lipids), 15.93 g (fibers), 7.42 g (ashes), 1.6 g (phosphorus), 2.7 g (potassium), 8.73 mg (iron), 23.75 mg (sodium), 0.34 mg (thiamine), and 0.57 mg (riboflavin). The wheat flour with mushroom powder had reduced sugar content, but it did not have increased fat content. The fiber, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and riboflavin contents were increased mainly when 10% mushroom powder was added to the wheat flour. Furthermore, this flour does not undergo drastic alterations in its physicochemical characteristics such as in moisture, wet gluten, color, and falling number. <![CDATA[<b>Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid and L-cysteine) on the inhibition of enzymatic browning of yacon, using Response Surface Methodology. The yacon pre-treated with anti-browning agents in concentrations of 15.0 mM for ascorbic acid, 7.5 mM for citric acid and 10.0 mM for L-cysteine was used for the processing of flour. Yacon flour presented an attractive color and good sensory properties, without residual aroma. The contents of FOS and phenolic compounds obtained in yacon flour were 28.60 g.100 g- 1 and 1.35 g.100 g- 1. Yacon flour can be considered as a potential functional food, especially due to high levels of FOS, which allows for its use in formulation of various foods. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of an edible crosslinked coating and two types of packaging on antioxidant capacity of castilla blackberries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In order to increase the shelf life and maintain the quality and stability of the biological compounds with antioxidant activity present in Castilla blackberry fruits, a sodium alginate-based edible crosslinked coating was applied, and the fruits were packed in two different plastic containers and stored under refrigeration (3 ± 1 °C). Total antioxidant capacity and its relationship to physicochemical variables such as pH, Brix, and acidity were evaluated in six treatments: uncoated blackberry stored in a macroperforated container (T1) and thermosealed container (T2), without crosslinked coating in a macroperforated container (T3) and thermosealed container (T4), with crosslinked coating (calcium ions) packed in macroperforated container (T5) and thermosealed container (T6). The results indicated that factors such as gas permeability in the coatings, the packaging used, and physicochemical parameters significantly affected the fruit total antioxidant capacity, with the highest level in T1 (0.22 µgEAA/ml) at the end of the essay, which is related to the lowest levels of pH and direct exposure to air. On the other hand, the lowest value was obtained in T6 (0.16 µgEAA/ml) due to the crosslinked coating, packaging in the thermosealed container, and higher pH value. Variations in acidity, Brix, and pH indicate the presence of degenerative processes in the crosslinked coating treatments, which limited the physicochemical changes. <![CDATA[<b>Preliminary studies on nutritive and organoleptic properties in processed fish fillets obtained from Iran</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The effects of boiling, frying, and roasting methods on nutrients and properties some of marine fishes were studies. AOAC official methods were used for the analyses of the samples. Frying reduced the protein content of Nemipterus japonicas, while roasting reduced the protein content of Carangoides malabaricus and Saurida undosquamis. Fresh and fried C. malabaricus had 71.2% and 57.05% protein content, respectively, while N. japonicas had 57.39% and 47.51%, respectively. The highest oil content in C.malabaricus was 16.80%, followed by N.japonicus 12.80%; while the lowest oil content in S.undosquamis was 5.88%. N.japonicusis protein content reduced with frying. Some cooking methods used in the processing can have an effect on of fish nutrient composition. The texture of fried and boiled fish fillets significantly differ from that of the roasted fillets (p<0.05). <![CDATA[<b>Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the <i>acerola</i> wine production</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Resistant starch in cassava products</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21%) and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%). Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract. <![CDATA[<b>Bioactive compounds and acceptance of <i>cookies</i> made with Guava peel flour</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compound, lycopene, and β-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and β-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality. <![CDATA[<b>Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage) for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months. <![CDATA[<b>Designing and validating the methodology for the <i>Internet</i> assessment of fish consumption at a university setting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Assessing fish consumption is complex and involves several factors; however, the use of questionnaires in surveys and the use of the Internet as tool to collect data have been considered promising approaches. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design a data collection technique using a questionnaire to assess fish consumption by making it available on a specific home page on the Internet. A bibliographical survey or review was carried out to identify the features of the instrument, and therefore pre-tests were conducted with previous instruments, followed by the Focus Group technique. Specialists then performed an analysis and conducted an online pre-test. Multivariate data analysis was applied using the SmartPLS software. The results indicate that 1.966 participants belonging to the University of São Paulo (USP) community participated in the test, and after the exclusion of some variables, a statistically significant results were obtained. The final constructs comprised consumption, quality, and general characteristics. The instrument consisted of behavioral statements in a 5-point Likert scale and multiple-choice questions. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.66 for general characteristics, 0.98 for quality, and 0.91 for consumption, which indicate good reliability of the instrument. In conclusion, the results proved that the Internet assessment is efficient. The instrument of analysis allowed us to better understand the process of buying and consuming fish in the country, and it can be used as base for further research. <![CDATA[<b>Study of the aging of fermented of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and sensory profile and acceptance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Yacon is considered a functional food due to its the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) content, however its perishability and low production volume is a problem. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in aging during one year of storage and conduct sensory analysis of fermented of yacon. For one year total acidity, volatile acidity, free and total sulfur dioxide, reducing sugars, sucrose, phenols and FOS and its antioxidant power were studied. At the end of aging a sensory profile and acceptance panel was performed. The total and volatile acidity increased significantly (p < 0.05). A decrease in fructooligosaccharide was also observed, indicating that yeasts are probably capable of hydrolyzing the latter. The total sulfur dioxide decreased significantly, demonstrating its ability to act well against oxidation products. This product showed good antioxidant capacity and sensory profiles of considerable acceptance. Therefore it can be affirmed that the alcoholic fermentation of yacon can be a good alternative for the industrial sector and farmers in the region could be encouraged to use large-scale production. <![CDATA[<b>Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC); ice cream with fiber (F1) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB); ice cream with fiber (F2) from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD); ice cream with fiber (F3) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF); and ice cream with fiber (F4) from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH).The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 %) and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %). The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids. <![CDATA[<b>Antioxidant activities of fractions from longan pericarps</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The antioxidant activities of ethanolic crude extract (LPCE) and its four different solvent sub-fractions (namely, diethyl ether fraction (LPDF), ethyl acetate fraction (LPEF), n-butyl alcohol fraction (LPBF) and residue fraction (LPR)) from longan pericarps were investigated employing various systems including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/ 2,2'-amino-di(2-ethyl-benzothiazoline sulphonic acid-6)ammonium salt (ABTS)/hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and reducing power. Each extract showed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. LPEF showed the highest scavenging activity against DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 values of 0.506, 0.228 and 4.489 mg/mL, respectively. LPEF showed the highest reducing power with EC50 values of 0.253 mg/mL. The next was LPDF with EC50 values of 0.260 mg/mL. LPEF possessed the highest total phenolic content (230.816 mg/g, expressed as gallic acid equivalents), followed by LPDF, LPBF, LPCE and LPR. The results suggested that longan pericarp fractions possessed significant antioxidant activities and could be a promising source of natural antioxidant. <![CDATA[<b>Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF) with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry) and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry) in the preparation of cereal bars (CB) with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF); CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats); CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats); CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 12.5% brown oats); and CB-5 (25% PSF 2 and 0% brown oats). The acceptance test results were analyzed in a conventional preference mapping which indicated that the bars CB-2 and CB-5 received mostly the maximum hedonistic score. With the objective of developing a cereal bar replacing oats with PSF, the bars CB-2 and CB-5 were compared to the conventional bar CB-1. The cereal bars CB-2 and CB-5 showed an increase in crude protein (87.5% and 62.5%) and in dietary fiber (77% and 44%), respectively. These results allowed the classification of CB-2 and CB-5 as fiber sources; they can, therefore, be classified as light products according to the Brazilian legislation. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. Papaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit. <![CDATA[<b>Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L.) with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis) were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis). The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but few are converted by the body into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Among the 600 carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity, the most common are α- and β-carotene. These carotenoids are susceptible to degradation (e.g., isomerization and oxidation) during cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the total carotenoid, α- and β-carotene, and 9 and 13-Z- β-carotene isomer contents in C. moschata after different cooking processes. The raw pumpkin samples contained 236.10, 172.20, 39.95, 3.64 and 0.8610 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked in boiling water contained 258.50, 184.80, 43.97, 6.80, and 0.77 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The steamed samples contained 280.77, 202.00, 47.09, 8.23, and 1.247 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene,13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked with added sugar contained 259.90, 168.80, 45.68, 8.31, and 2.03 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoid, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z- β-carotene, and 9-Z- β-carotene, respectively. These results are promising considering that E- β-carotene has 100% pro-vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid and carotenoid isomers increased after the cooking methods, most likely as a result of a higher availability induced by the cooking processes. <![CDATA[<b>Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, <i>achiote</i>, and <i>mole</i> sauce)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper) were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage. <![CDATA[<b>Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vegetable oils are the richest dietary sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E determination levels in foods are of great importance to adjust the ingestion of nutrients by the population. The purpose of this paper is to determine the concentration of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in vegetable oils and compare the alpha-tocopherol value to the nutritional requirement of vitamin E. The analysis was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The values expressed as mg/kg for alpha and gamma-tocopherol were, respectively, 120.3±4.2 and 122.0±7.9 in canola oil; 432.3±86.6 and 92.3±9.5 in sunflower oil; 173.0±82.3 and 259.7±43.8 in corn oil; 71.3±6.4 and 273.3±11.1 in soybean oil. A significant difference was encountered between the alpha-tocopherol concentrations in vegetable oils. Similar results were found for gamma-tocopherol, except for corn and soybean oils. It was concluded that the soybean oil was not considered a source of vitamin E. The canola and corn oils were considered sources, and the sunflower oil was considered an excellent source. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of genotype and environment on grain yield and quality traits in bread wheat (<i>T. aestivum</i> L.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200025&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Genotype (G), environment (E) and their interaction (GEI) play an important role in the final expression of grain yield and quality attributes. A multi-environment trial in wheat was conducted to evaluate the magnitude of G, E and GEI effects on grain yield and quality of wheat genotypes under the three rainfed locations (hereafter environment) of Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, during the 2012-2013 cropping season. Grain yield (GY) and analyses of test weight (TW), protein content (PC), wet gluten content (WGC), grain hardness (GH), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV) were determined. Allelic variations of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) and 1B/1R translocation were determined in all genotypes evaluated. Both HMW-Glu-1, 17+18, 5+10 and LMW-Glu-3 b, b, b corresponded to genotypes possessing medium to good quality attributes. Large variability was found among most of the quality attributes evaluated; wider ranges of quality traits were observed in the environments than among the genotypes. The importance of the growing environment effects on grain quality was proved, suggesting that breeders' quality objectives should be adapted to the targeted environments. <![CDATA[<b>Mathematical modeling of microwave dried celery leaves and determination of the effective moisture diffusivities and activation energy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200026&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef) leaves with 50±0.07 g weight and 91.75±0.15% humidity (~11.21 db) were dried using 8 different microwave power densities ranging between 1.8-20 W g-1, until the humidity fell down to 8.95±0.23% (~0.1 db). Microwave drying processes were completed between 5.5 and 77 min depending on the microwave power densities. In this study, measured values were compared with predicted values obtained from twenty thin layer drying theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical equations with a new thin layer drying equation. Within applied microwave power density; models whose coefficient and correlation (R²) values are highest were chosen as the best models. Weibull distribution model gave the most suitable predictions at all power density. At increasing microwave power densities, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 1.595 10-10 to 6.377 10-12 m2 s-1. The activation energy was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. The linear relationship between the drying rate constant and effective moisture diffusivity gave the best fit. <![CDATA[<b>Extraction optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from leaves of <i>Gynura bicolor</i> (Roxb. & Willd.) DC</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200027&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Orthogonal design was employed to study the effect of extraction time, temperature and liquid-to-solid ratio on the production of antioxidant polysaccharides from leaves of Gynura bicolor (PLG). Analysis of variance was performed on the data obtained. The most relevant variable was extraction time. A liquid-solid ratio of 30:1 (v/w), a temperature of 80 °C and an extraction time of 3 h were found to be optimal for PLG. The optimal extraction yield of 4.9% was obtained through additional verification test. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating ability of PLG were determined. PLG possess concentration-dependent antioxidant potency and IC50 of PLG was 4.67, 0.24 and 4.31 mg/mL for hydroxyl radical-scavenging and ferric ion chelating abilities as well as reducing power, respectively. The results suggest that G. bicolor polysaccharides could be potential source of natural antioxidant and be contributor to the health benefits of G. bicolor. <![CDATA[<b>Main food sources of carotenoids, according to the purpose and degree of processing, for beneficiaries of the 'Bolsa Família' in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The intake of carotenoids is associated with antioxidant properties and some of these substances have activity of pro-vitamin A. This study aimed to estimate the intake of carotenoids (average values) by the Brazilian population focusing on beneficiaries of the 'Bolsa Família' Program and identify the dietary sources, according to the purpose and degree of processing and the inclusion of food additives. The database used is the personal food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey of 2008-2009, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The content of carotenoids in foods was obtained primarily from a National data source. Food products were classified into three categories: 1) fresh and minimally processed foods; 2) processed foods (containing food additives, except for flavoring and coloring agents); and 3) highly processed foods (containing flavoring and coloring agents). Insufficient intakes were identified for the conditional cash transfer program beneficiaries (3,547.1 µg). Fresh and minimally processed foods supplied between 48.6% (for girls) and 65.7% (for male adults) of pro-vitamin carotenoids. Processed foods were sources of between 55.5% and 57.0% of lutein + zeaxanthin for elderly and between 58.0% and 67.8% of lycopene for adults. Highly processed foods contributed to less than 5.0% of total carotenoids. <![CDATA[<b>Energy evaluation of an evaporative cooling system using water driven ejector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200029&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The search for efficient and accessible cooling systems has increased worldwide. This study aims to build and evaluate an evaporative cooling system using a water driven ejector, allowing it to be installed in places with plenty of water. The system was investigated varying the flow rate and temperature of the circulating water, temperature of the replacement water, and coefficient of performance. The best vacuum obtained was 8.5 kPa at nominal operating conditions of 4.1 ± 0.1 m³/h and 5 ± 0.5 ºC for the circulating water reaching the temperature of 9.7 ± 0.5 ºC. The pulse-like disturbance generated by replacing the cooling water at different periods of times did not result in significant affect vacuum destabilization and the temperature rise in the cooling tank. The coefficient of performance of the system at the highest thermal power of 92.27 W was 0.077, which was underestimated due to possible problems related to pump efficiency. The system evaluated under the conditions proposed can be very efficient for cooling fluids at higher temperatures, and it can be complementary to main refrigeration systems. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of biological activities of <i>Physalis peruviana</i> ethanol extracts and expression of <i>Bcl-2</i> genes in HeLa cells</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612014000200030&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Physalis species are used in folk medicine for phytotherapeutic properties. The extracts of medicinal plants are known to possess cytotoxic and chemopreventative compounds. In this study we investigated antibacterial, antioxidant, DNA damage preventative properties of Physalis peruviana (golden berry) on leaf and shoot ethanol extracts and their effects on cytotoxicity of HeLa cells and expression of apoptotic pathway genes. Among the tested bacteria for antibacterial activity, maximum inhibition zone was determined in Lactococcus lactis. The phenolic content was found higher in leaf extracts than shoot extracts. The antioxidant activity showed the highest TEAC values of the leaf (2 mg/mL) and the shoot (0.5 mg/mL) extracts as 0.291±0.04 and 0.192±0.015, respectively. In DNA damage prevention assay both leaf and shoot extracts, especially 30 and 20 µg/mL concentrations, exhibited significant protection against DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that leaf and shoot extracts possess cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells when applied as 100 µg/mL concentration. Also mRNA expression analysis showed the alteration of antiapoptotic genes, so the results suggest that P. peruviana ethanol extracts induce apoptotic cell death and should be investigated for identification of active compounds and their mechanisms of action.