Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120180002&lang=es vol. 38 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Sweeteners and sweet taste enhancers in the food industry]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200181&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The search for new sweeteners technologies has increased substantially in the past decades as the number of diseases related to the excessive consumption of sugar became a public health concern. Low carbohydrates diets help to reduce ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. Most natural and synthetic high potency non-caloric sweeteners, known to date, show limitations in taste quality and are generally used in combination due to their complementary flavor characteristics and physicochemical properties in order to minimize undesirable features. The challenge of the food manufacturers is to develop low or calorie-free products without compromising the real taste of sugar expected by consumers. With the discovery of the genes coding for the sweet taste receptor in humans, entirely new flavor ingredients were identified, which are tasteless on their own, but potentially enhance the taste of sugar. These small molecules known as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products. PAMs could represent a breakthrough in the field of flavor development after the increase in the knowledge of safety profile in combination with sucrose in humans. <![CDATA[Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on texture properties of Rabbiteye blueberry during long-term storage and simulated transportation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200188&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this work, the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on texture properties, titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS) in blueberry were examined during long term storage and simulated transportation. Blueberry fruits were stored at 0 ± 0.5 °C after being treated with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3μL L-11-MCP. After 40 and 80 days of storage, quickly put 8 punnets into a foam box with commercial cold pack to simulate the commercial transportation for 2 days at 25 °C. There were considerable differences in the texture properties during long term storage and simulated transportation with 1-MCP. The 0.3 μL L-1 1-MCP can effectively decreased the decline of gumminess and chewiness, retarded the reduction of TA, and delayed blueberry fruit softening. There was significant positive correlation among firmness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience, TSS, and TA. These results demonstrate that the 0.3 μL L-1 1-MCP combines with commercial polyethylene bags were successful effect in maintaining the texture properties of blueberry. <![CDATA[Probiotic salami with fat and curing salts reduction: physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200193&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This work was evaluated the physicochemical, textural and the sensory properties of meat products fermented with traditional or probiotic cultures with lower fat and curing salt content. Chemical composition was evaluated in T30 and instrumental texture was determined during the experimental protocol. A sensory profile evaluation was carried out using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and the acceptance test. The lowest fat content was found in the salamis processed with reduced pork fat. Texture profile analysis the F5 exhibited the lowest mean value of hardness. In QDA, the results showed that the F1 exhibited the highest mean value of regularity of the border, brightness, softness and smoked, due to the greater amount of fat in their composition. The results revealed that, in T30, there was good acceptance for all formulations and during the storage period, the mean values remained high. The consumers demonstrated a positive purchase intention for all formulations. <![CDATA[Quality and antioxidant potential of byproducts from refining of fruit pulp]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200203&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The potential use of byproducts from fruit processing has been evaluated in order to propose new uses as well as reducing costs and environmental impact. Most of the studies are focused on byproducts from primary transformation. However, byproducts from secondary transformation can reserve similar reuse opportunities. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and antioxidant capacity that remained on byproducts from fruit processing at the pulp refinement stage. The byproducts from pulp refining were evaluated in cashew, cocoa, cupuassu, genipap, papaya, passion fruit seed, plum, soursop (pulp and seeds), strawberry, tamarind (pulp and seeds), umbu and yellow mombin fruits. Water activity, acidity, pH, soluble solids, sugars, starch, pectins, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols, and the antioxidant activity were analyzed. The byproducts from the refinement of soursop related to the fibrous pulp showed the highest soluble solids and pectic compounds content, while the seeds byproducts constituted a source of starch. The byproducts from the refining of pulp from yellow mombin and papaya were sources of carotenoids. The highest starch and polyphenols contents, as well as antioxidant activities peak on the refining of byproducts of tamarind. The byproducts studied maintained chemical compounds and bioactive components that hold potential reuse. <![CDATA[Flavonoids, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of propolis from various areas of Guanajuato, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200210&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Propolis is a resin gathered by honey bees from trees and shrubs but it used in the beehive as building material or as an antibiotic paste. The aim of this study was to determine the content of flavonoids and phenols, as well as the antioxidant capacity of propolis from various regions of Guanajuato, Mexico. The content of flavonoids and phenols was determined by the aluminum nitrate method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) method and the ferric reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ (FRAP•) assay. The flavonoid content varied from 13 to 379 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE) per g of propolis and the phenolic content ranged from 68 to 500 mg of caffeic acid equivalents (CAE) per g of propolis. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) per g of propolis varied from 39.8 to 54.4 for the DPPH• method and from 50 to 2000 for the FRAP• assay. Propolis rich in flavonoids and phenols possesses a low antioxidant capacity. The results show that propolis from different areas of Guanajuato are rich in flavonoids and phenolics compounds while their antioxidant capacity is variable. <![CDATA[Storage stability of sweet biscuit elaborated with recovered potato starch from effluent of fries industry]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200216&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The effluent from the potato chips processing could be recovered and used in the biscuit formulations. This study aimed to evaluate the changes of sweet biscuits with partial replacement (45%) of wheat flour by recovered potato starch, packed in biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP), and stored under two controlled temperatures (25°C and 35°C). The changes of physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of biscuits were evaluated for 6 months. Completely randomized design with 2x6 factorial arrangement was employed. In the first 36 days of biscuits storage was no increase in water activity and this remained constant up to 144 days of storage, up next. The score for sensory texture reduced over time, which shows that the tasters preferred less hard biscuits, since there was an increasing trend of instrumental hardness during storage, probably due to starch retrogradation, facilitated by higher moisture biscuits. Sweet biscuits of wheat flour and potato starch acidified and dehydrated have good physical and microbiological conditions, being able to be consumed for a period of 180 days. Potato starch recovered after acidified and dehydrated can be used as an ingredient in the products development for human consumption, avoiding losses and environmental pollution, and to generate economic gains. <![CDATA[Influence of temperature and time during malaxation on fatty acid profile and oxidation of centrifuged avocado oil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200223&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Virgin oil from avocados (Persea americana Mill.) is obtained by mechanical processes after pulp malaxation at temperatures that minimize oxidation and improve separation. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of time (0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120 and 180 min) and temperature (40 and 50 °C) conditions during pulp malaxation on extraction yield, nutritional value (normalized fatty acid profile) and specific extintion (K232 and K270) of virgin oil extracted under laboratory conditions from avocados cultivated in southern Jalisco, Mexico. When pulp was malaxated for 120 min at 40 and 50 °C, a larger proportion of oil was extracted (82.9 ± 0.3% and 80.2 ± 0.8%, respectively). We observed that the normalized percentage of the fatty acids linoleic (18 ± 2%) and linolenic (1.2 ± 0.2%) decreased with mixing time, while that of palmitoleic (9 ± 1%), oleic (51.6 ± 1.2%) and stearic (0.5 ± 0.1%) remained without change. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio (15 ± 1) was higher than the recommended values but similar to those reported as favorable for health. Specific extinction (K232, 2.2 ± 0.3 and K270, 0.20 ± 0.03) indicate that the oxidation level remained low. Malaxation at 40 or 50 °C did not significantly alter the characteristics of the oil, but time significantly affected yield. <![CDATA[Influence of drying process on total phenolics, antioxidative activity and selected physical properties of edible bolete (<em>Phlebopus colossus</em> (R. Heim) Singer) and changes during storage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200231&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The research aimed to study the effect of hot-air drying on the properties of edible bolete mushroom (Phlebopus colossus (R. Heim) Singer). Fresh edible bolete contained an efficient antioxidant activity, showing a significant value of total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity and was high in protein and fiber with low fat content. The changes in physicochemical and antioxidative properties of edible bolete during hot-air drying at various temperature and time were studied. The phenolic content and antioxidative properties of edible bolete decreased with the temperature and drying time. At 60 °C for 5 h, the phenolic content and antioxidative properties of the dried edible bolete remained at 25% compared to the fresh mushroom. Moreover, there was no substantive change in the bacterial count of dried edible bolete with vacuum packing after six months at room temperature. <![CDATA[Correlation between water activity and moisture content of Turkish flower and pine honeys]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200238&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Water activity (aw) and moisture content (MC) of Turkish liquid flower and pine honeys were determined. Samples (706 flower and 257 pine) were collected during the honey harvesting seasons of 2010-2014 from 137 apiaries in locations with different climatic conditions all over the land. Up to date, this work is the first one seeking for a correlation between aw and MC for Turkish honeys, and also it is the largest and longest one among similar works to the best of the researchers’ knowledge. The ranges of aw and MC values of the Turkish honeys were in agreement with the literature. aw was determined between 0.470 and 0.563 for the flower honeys, and between 0.492 and 0.589 for the pine honeys. MC was measured between 15.0 and 20.4% (m/m) for the flower honeys and between 15.1 and 20.4% (m/m) for the pine honeys. Statistically different linear regression equations (aw versus MC) fitted data of the flower and pine honeys with significantly high coefficients of determinations (R2&gt; 0.848), small mean absolute errors (&lt; 1.39%) and no biases. The linear equations were analogous to equations giving the correlation between aw and MC for other honeys in the literature. <![CDATA[Peel and pulp of baru (<em>Dipteryx Alata Vog</em>.) provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200244&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g) followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively), and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g). However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP) were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond. <![CDATA[Partial replacement of wheat flour by pumpkin seed flour in the production of cupcakes filled with carob]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200250&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Pumpkin seeds are considered waste and its composition has high protein content, being feasible for human consumption, also reducing costs in waste treatment. In this work we provided an alternative to reuse the wastes of pumpkin seed applied in cupcakes formulation as a complementary source to wheat flour. Four formulations with different proportions of pumpkin seed flour were investigated. The effects of partial wheat flour substitution were evaluated using the parameters texture, height, diameter, specific volume, color, proximate composition and scanning electron microscopy. The formulations used in this work consisted of a control, prepared with wheat flour and three provided of 25%, 50% and 75% of pumpkins seed flour in partial in partial replacement to wheat flour. The incorporation of pumpkin seed flour influenced products significantly (p &lt;0.05), providing greater texture, cohesion, pH, soluble solids (Brix). According to results, the formulation with 50% pumpkin seed flour was considered the best proportion due to similarities with the formulation of 100% wheat flour besides high protein. <![CDATA[Post-harvest evaluation of tomato genotypes with dual purpose]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200255&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize and select genotypes which displayed aptitude for genetic improvement for tomatoes consumed in natura as well as for those used in industrial processing. There were ten genotypes evaluated, being those from seven lines (CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 8, CVR 21 and CVR 22) and three commercial hybrids (AP-533, SVR-0453 and Kátia) and analyzing the physicochemical characteristics of the produced fruits as: soluble solids rates, acidity in citric acid, total titratable acidity, soluble solids and total titratable acidity relation, pH, vitamin C, mass, transversal and longitudinal diameter and fruit firmness. In face of the analyzed characteristics, it was concluded that all genotypes produce fruits with aptitude to be consumed in natura. The fruits present soluble solids content above 3 °Brix, oblong shape and “moderately soft” texture. Line CVR 22 showed the highest values for soluble solid and total titratable acidity relation, producing fruit with more pleasant and mild flavor, while lines CVR 3 and CVR 8 produced fruits with higher acidity and lower pH, with red coloration accentuated, characteristics indicated for genetic improvement of industrial tomato. <![CDATA[Microencapsulation of grape seed oil by spray drying]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200263&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In the search for alternative wall materials to replace gum Arabic (GA), a good but expensive encapsulating agent, this work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of maltodextrin 10DE in combination with GA (GA/MD, 50:50 ratio) for the microencapsulation of grape seed oil by spray drying. The addition of maltodextrin to gum Arabic did not influence the mean particle diameter, powder bulk density, encapsulation efficiency or the total oil retained in the microspheres. Although the oil encapsulated with GA showed greater retention of phenolic compounds after spray drying, the sample encapsulated with GA/MD had greater ferric reduction antioxidant power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and a lower peroxide index. <![CDATA[Red wine produced from the Isabella and Ives cultivar (<em>Vitis Labrusca</em>): profile of volatiles and aroma descriptors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200271&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Considering the potential consumption and economic the importance that Isabella and Ives wines represent in the Brazilian consumer market as well as the scarcity of scientific data examining their quality, the objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality and the volatiles profile of these wines. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and a total of 54 compounds were detected in red wine samples including esters (23), terpenes (12), alcohols (10), aldehydes and ketones (5) and amines (1) as well as 3 compounds belonging to other classes. Isabella and Ives red wines were sensorially characterized by 14 descriptors, through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The PCAs fruity descriptors were the primary contributors to the aroma profile of the analyzed wines due to the presence of ethyl acetate and esters, especially in the wine coded as QM, which exhibited the highest variety of compounds. The differences observed in the principal components analysis, might have been influenced by the grape composition of each wine. Although the wines were from the same region, each came from a different winery and was subject to unique production processes. <![CDATA[Partial-hydrothermal hydrolysis is an effective way to recover bioactives from turmeric wastes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200280&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Partial-hydrothermal hydrolysis using pressurized hot water was applied in waste turmeric, derived from extraction processes that employed supercritical and pressurized fluids, as a sustainable alternative for the recovery of bioactive constituents from this material. The reaction products consisted of a liquid extract of fermentable sugars and a solid fraction, which is a mixed biopolymer with relevant composition in terms of starch and antioxidant constituents. The effects of reaction conditions on resulting products were investigated. Economic evaluation was also performed showing that application of partial-hydrothermal hydrolysis from a residual feedstock is feasible in terms of low spend of energy and materials. <![CDATA[Characterization of physicochemical composition, microbiology, sensory evaluation and microscopical attributes of sweetened condensed milk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200293&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract An analysis of nine sweetened condensed milk brands allowed for the identification of statistically significant difference in moisture, water activity (aw), soluble solids, percentage of protein, lactose crystals size, viscosity and in sensorial attributes of texture, characteristic flavor and flour texture. Relevant correlations between the composition and sensorial attributes were determined. Eighty percent of the samples presented of yeast from &lt;0.6 logCFU.g-1 to 4.7 logCFU.g-1 and seventy percent presented of coagulase-negative staphylococcus from &lt;3.1 log CFU.g-1 to 5.7 log CFU.g-1. These results attest the demand for more controls and investments to provide the market with a safe and standardized product. <![CDATA[A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200299&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB) are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption. <![CDATA[Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials and LC-MS analysis of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and flowers of <em>Erodium glaucophyllum</em> collected from Tunisian Sahara]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200310&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Erodium glaucophyllum collected from Tunisian Sahara was never presented in the relevant literature yet. In this study, the phytochemical profiles, chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and Kill-time assay of the hydroalcoholic extract of flowers and leaves were investigated. The highest content in phenols, flavonoids and tannins was shown in flowers extract (350 ± 5 mg GAE/g, 34 ± 1 mg QE/g and 221.8 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene E/g, respectively). The carotenoids amount in leaves was about 6-fold higher than it’s in flowers. Conducted LC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 17 compounds in flowers and leaves extract with the main were quinic acid and naringin followed by rutin, hyperoside, gallic acid and Apegenin-7-o-glucoside. Flowers and leaves extracts showed a powerful antimicrobial effect against all strains and the most observed effect was shown with Gram negative bacteria. Time kill kinetics endorses the effectiveness of both extracts to possess bactericidal effect at a concentration less than 2 MIC. Results of both organs open a new promising way for the development of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for food preservatives against food deterioration. <![CDATA[Physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of oxidized, acetylated and dual-modified common bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.) starch]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200318&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Common beans are rich in protein and complex carbohydrates that are valuable for the human diet. Starch is the most abundant individual component; however, in its native form it has limited applications and modifications are necessary to overcome technological restrictions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oxidation, acetylation and dual-modification (oxidation-acetylation) on the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of common bean starch. The degree of substitution of the acetylated starches was compatible with food use. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the acetylation of the bean starch, with a peak at 1,735cm-1. The granules of the bean starch were oval to spherical in shape, with no differences between the native and modified samples. Typical C-type diffraction of legume starches was found. The modified samples showed a reduced relative crystallinity and lower enthalpy change of gelatinization. The oxidized starch showed the highest peak viscosity, hardness, and gel adhesiveness due to the presence of functional groups. An increase in solubility and swelling power was observed, and the oxidized-acetylated starch presented the highest values. The properties of the modified bean starches made them suitable for application in breaded/battered foods, mainly due to improved textural attributes. <![CDATA[Buffalo milk composition, processing factors, whey constituents recovery and yield in manufacturing Mozzarella cheese]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200328&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Mozzarella cheese is typically from Italy and consumed in the whole world. The aim of this study was to characterize the manufacture of Mozzarella produced similarly to Italian in a Brazilian dairy industry regarding the milk composition usage, factors involved in the production process, use of raw materials and cheese yield. Was monitored the Mozzarella yield (MY), milk composition, manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese and recovery of whey constituents of 30 lots of Mozzarella cheese in a dairy brazilian industry. Overall, processing reached an adequate MY for this type of cheese, being below 5.0 L kg-1. We find values of 5.93 ± 1.87; 34.97 ± 2.70; 33.39 ± 2.85; 95.04 ± 4.18; 44.02 ± 2.00; and 66.82 ± 3.36 respectively for recovery of fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat in whey. The milk used by the dairy industry had satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. The manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese was efficient. <![CDATA[Control of mycotoxigenic fungi with microcapsules of essential oils encapsulated in chitosan]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200335&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Aspergillus and Fusarium are the fungi genera most frequently isolated from cereal grains and other commodities. They are capable of producing mycotoxins, which can affect the human and animal health. Synthetic fungicides have been used to control these fungi, nevertheless, they have acquired resistance and other alternatives are necessary since they now need higher amounts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cinnamon, clove and thyme essential oils (EOs) alone and encapsulated in chitosan on the radial growth, spore germination and mycotoxin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus parasiticus. The composition of the EOs was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EOs inhibited radial growth and spore germination of both fungal species better than when they were encapsulated, plus, they reduced mycotoxin production. The major components were eugenol in cinnamon and clove EO (70 and 63%, respectively) and 2-methyl-5-(1-methyethyl)-phenol (46.2%) in thyme EO. The microparticles with clove and thyme EO showed good surface charges, higher than +30 mV and their average size for the three types of microparticles was about 750 nm. Our findings suggest that EOs both alone and encapsulated in chitosan have a fungistatic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus parasiticus. <![CDATA[Energy consumption reduction strategy for freezing of packaged food products]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200341&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this work, a model of the process of freezing strawberries placed in boxes using forced air tunnel was studied. A strategy of operating condition modification in each stage of the process (pre-cooling, freezing step and sub-cooling) was applied, in a simulated process, regarding air temperature change. Time and energy consumption behaviors due to air temperature conditions in the tunnel were evaluated for each stage. Air temperature at different process stages affected both process times and system thermal demands. Operating conditions for each stage, which provided the best system global performance, were chosen, aiming energy consumption reduction without damaging product final quality, once each stage minimum requirements were taken into account. The strategy proposed produced an energy economy of 5.9%, comparing to the traditional process using constant temperatures, and it showed potential to be applied in different products and equipment with appropriate changes in the methodology. <![CDATA[Optimizing functional properties of perilla protein isolate using the response surface methodology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200348&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters of perilla protein isolate (PPI), which has functional properties. A central composite experimental design was applied to investigate the effects of three factors (ultrasonic power, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on six responses: protein yield, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil holding capacity (OHC), emulsifying activity (EA), and foaming ability (FA). Based on the RSM results, the optimum conditions were an ultrasonic power of 206 W, and extraction time of 32.4 min, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 10.34:1. Under these conditions, PPI had high protein yield (26.1%) and functional properties (55.2% WSI, 3.6% WAC, 1.76 g/g OHC, 60.25 m2/g EA, 63.2% FA). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that PPI was slightly denatured at 75.16 °C, and the amount of heat required to induce this denaturation was 0.03 J/g. SDS-PAGE presented protein bands that ranged from 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. Based on its functional properties, PPI can be used in the food industry. <![CDATA[Effect of CaCl<sub>2</sub> and controlled atmosphere storage on phytochemical attributes of Guava]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200356&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Guava is very delicate and alluring fruit which is being ignored since very long time despite of highly nutritious fruit and rich source of Vitamin C. It contains Vitamin C 2-3 times more than orange. Naturally the guava fruit is enriched with vitamin C and polyphenoles. Guavas fruits after harvesting were dunked in solutions of CaCl2 (1, 2 and 3%) at room temperature for 5 minutes and stored for 24 days in 5% CO2 level at temperature of 10±1°C, while the humidity level of storage chamber were 80%. The stored fruits were analyzed at 6 days of interval for sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose g/100g) total phenolic contents (mgGAE/100g), antioxidant activity (µmolTE/g), and organic acids (citric, tartaric, ascorbic, and malic acids mg/100 g). The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of guava fruits were declined during progression in storage but in fewer amounts as compared to room storage condition. Citric acid and ascorbic acid contents were reduced with the progression in storage, however tartaric and malic acid values were amplified at end of storage but the rate of changes were slower. The pretreatments in combination with modified atmosphere storage escalate the shelf life of guava and slow down nutritional degradation process. <![CDATA[The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on color quality and decay rate of Capia pepper during postharvest storage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000200363&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The current study demonstrates that the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation not only helps in improvement of the red color of the peppers but also reduces their rate of decay. The Capia peppers were harvested at their full red ripe stage and subjected to the UV-B treatment at doses 4.46 kJ m–2 (UV-B 15) and 8.93 kJ m–2 (UV-B 30). Post irradiation, the peppers were packaged and stored at 5 ± 1 °C temperature with 90-95% RH for 49 days. The UV-B treated group showed lower L* values, but higher a* and h° values as compared to the control group. Therefore, it was found that both the doses of UV-B radiations could enhance the quality of red color of the peppers. However, the lower dose (4.46 kJ m-2) was found to be optimal for reducing the decay rate of the peppers. The UV-B 30 peppers showed highest respiration rate, electrolyte leakage, total soluble solids, and the amount of weight loss.