Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120170002&lang=pt vol. 37 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Prospects of robotics in food industry]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200159&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Technological advancements in various domains have broadened the application horizon of robotics to an incredible extent. Highlighting a very recent application area, this paper presents a comprehensive review of robotics application in food industry. Robots essentially have the potential to transform the processes in food processing and handling, palletizing and packing and food serving. Therefore, recent years witnessed tremendously increased trend of robots deployment in food sector. Consequently, the aspects related with robot kinematics, dynamics, hygiene, economic efficiency, human-robot interaction, safety and protection and operation and maintenance are of critical importance and are discussed in the present review. A comparison of actual robots being used in the industry is also presented. The review reveals that the food serving sector is the new potential area in which ample research opportunities exist by integrating advancements from various technology domains. It is anticipated that wider dissemination of research developments in ‘robo-food’ will stimulate more collaborations among the research community and contribute to further developments. <![CDATA[Optimization of synbiotic yogurts with yacon pulp (<em>Smallanthus sonchifolius</em>) and assessment of the viability of lactic acid bacteria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200166&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was check the effects of sugar, yacon pulp and skimmed milk powder in the aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase on synbiotic yogurts to optimize the formulation using Response Surface Methodology. The most accepted formulations were subjected to viability tests during 21 days by counting traditional and probiotic bacteria. Were constructed a complete 23 factorial design, totalling 17 experiments, and considered independent variables (percentage of ingredients) and dependent variables (sensory attributes). All attributes were graded using an acceptability assessment, for this balanced incomplete block was applied. The number of viable cells was determined using specific culture medium for each species. The percentage of yacon pulp had a pronounced negative influence on flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase. Model predictions adjusted to the variables aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase exhibited good predictive ability and hence could be used as tools for process control. Traditional bacterial strains and probiotic remained viable throughout the storage period. The counts of probiotic bacterial in the formulations were above 6 log CFU/g. The addition of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei LBC 81 and yacon pulp to yogurt increased product acceptability. <![CDATA[Physicochemical characteristics and fibril-forming properties of collagen from paddlefish (<em>Polyodon spathula</em>) and globefish (<em>Fugu flavidus</em>) skin byproducts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200176&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the skin byproducts of paddlefish (ASC-P and PSC-P) and globefish (ASC-G and PSC-G) were purified and characterized. The imino acid contents of ASC-P, PSC-P, ASC-G and PSC-G were 194.1, 197.9, 186.4 and 189.7 residues/1000 residues, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that all four samples composed of two different α1- and α2-chains with integrated triple-helical structure. Denaturation temperatures of ASC-P, PSC-P, ASC-G and PSC-G were 29.6, 28.2, 27.4 and 26.9 °C, respectively. Based on Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, all four samples could assemble into fibrils in vitro with D-periodicity. However, the fibril-forming rate of ASC-P and PSC-P was more rapid than that of ASC-G and PSC-G. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed well-defined fibril morphologies,the diameter of fibrils from ASC-P and PSC-P was thicker than those of ASC-G and PSC-G after 24 h incubation. These results indicated that paddlefish and globefish skin collagens could be alternatives to terrestrial collagens for applications in food-packaging, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. <![CDATA[Quality evaluation of red wines produced from the Isabella and Ives cultivar (<em>Vitis labrusca</em>): physicochemical parameters, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200184&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of commercial red wines (Isabella and Ives [IsB]; Isabella, Ives, Seibel and Concord [IsSC]; and Isabella and Ives [IsBb]) produced from Isabella and Ives grapes grown in southern Brazil. The parameters required by Brazilian law were evaluated, and the chemical parameters of the phenolic compounds, organic acids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were quantified for red wine samples containing the Isabella and Ives grape. All of the wine parameters were consistent with Brazilian legislation. There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) among the wines in phenolic compound content, flavonoids, antioxidant activity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods, anthocyanin levels and colour parameters. The IsSC wine was the clearest; it had the lowest anthocyanin content (88.76 mg/L) and colour a* (11.28) parameter values. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between antioxidant activity and some of the identified phenolic compounds. The differences among the wines confirm the distinctive effects of the wine-producing region on each sample and on the varietals that make up each wine. <![CDATA[Effect of pH at drainage on the physicochemical, textural and microstructural characteristics of mozzarella cheese from goat milk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200193&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was a contribution to standardazation the process of making mozzarella cheese from goat milk by draining at different pH values 5.0 (MC50), 5.3 (MC53) and 5.6 (MC56), so as to obtain a product with suitable physicochemical, microstructural and textural characteristics. MC50 had lower protein and calcium, with very few strands. MC53 had adequate moisture content, fat, protein and calcium. The cheese yield was higher, the hardness parameters were lower, and the microstructure revealed the presence of long, thin strands, giving it the distinctive texture for this type of cheese. MC56 curd did not reach a good stretching property, requiring longer exposure to heating to obtain the yarn. This resulted in lower retention of fat, lower cheese yield, increased calcium and hardness values, and absence of strands. Overall, the goat milk presented aptitude for processing this type of cheese, however the pH 5.3 was selected to obtain a product with suitable physicochemical, textural and microstructural characteristics. <![CDATA[Theory of planned behavior applied to fish consumption in modern Metropolitan Lima]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200202&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Despite being an important source of protein, fish consumption in Peru is low compared with other coastal countries. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the core determinants of such consumption. We based our analysis on the framework provided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) where attitudes, subjective norms, past experience and health involvement determine the intention and frequency of fish consumption. Primary data were gathered through 159 consumers of fish in modern Metropolitan Lima between August and October 2015. From a set of likert scale indicators a structural model was specified to evaluate the relationships given by the theoretical framework of the TPB. The results showed that the intention to eat fish is determined by personal attitudes, norms and past experience, and as expected, intention itself causes the frequency of fish consumption. Nonetheless, although consumers’ interest in healthy eating was shown to positively influence fish consumption behavior by theory, Metropolitan Lima fish consumers seem to be not concerned by positive health attributes related to fish consumption. These results may have important implications on production decisions, sales and marketing for the promotion of fish in Lima as a means of economic development. <![CDATA[Stability and degradation kinetics of crude anthocyanin extracts from <em>H. sabdariffa</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200209&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Hibiscus sabdariffa is an under-utilized plant that has reported to have great potential in the food industry. The vibrant red pigment from the calyces indicate a source of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins would make ideal natural food colourants with additional nutritional benefits however stability is a hindering factor. Stability studies were the main focus of this study. Crude anthocyanins were extracted using four different solvent systems. The crude extracts were analysed under the following parameters; heat (50 and 80 °C), light (darkness and 20 W light) and pH (pH 1-9) stability. Degradation kinetic studies were done on thermally treated samples. Radical scavenging ability was thereafter calculated. Anthocyanidins were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled with a Diode Array Detector (DAD). Total phenolic content was determined with Folin – Ciocalteu’s method. Approximately 87% of pigments were retained when heated at 50 °C while heating at 80 °C resulted in 61% pigment retention. The pH stability of samples incubated for 7 days indicated that crude anthocyanins degraded slower at acidic pH. Light stability showed slower degradation in dark incubated samples resulting in 84% pigment retention after a 10 day period. H. sabdariffa shows potential for the application of a food in products such as jelly and yoghurt. <![CDATA[Characterization and evaluation of stability of bioactive compounds in fruit smoothies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200216&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Smoothies are drinks composed of a mixture of vegetables (fruits, vegetables), which can be added or not by milk or yogurt, being a high creamy, healthy beverage and a good source of energy, vitamins, and minerals. Samples of three commercial smoothies: Yellow Fruits (YF), Red Fruits (RF), and Green Vegetables (GV) stored in a glass packaging (260 mL) were characterized for pH, soluble solids (°Brix), water activity (aw), density, rheology and thermal properties, and stored at controlled temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C in the absence of light. During the period of 180 days, the samples were evaluated for color, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, and sensorially monitored by odor, taste, overall quality and color characteristics. The smoothies showed similar physicochemical and thermophysical properties to pulp fruit and juice concentrates. The rheological behavior of the samples followed the power law model and was adjusted to the Arrhenius model. All the samples showed a reduction in bioactive compounds, change in color, taste and odor, with these being more significant at the room temperature. <![CDATA[Characterization and study of functional properties of banana starch green variety of Mysore (<em>Musa</em> AAB - Mysore)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200224&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract So that there is innovation in the development of food products with starch in its formulation, it can take into account the banana starch, which has higher content when the fruit is fully green. The starches and derivatives are used as ingredients or additives basic components added in small amounts to enhance the production, presentation and preservation of the product. This study aimed to characterize the green banana variety Mysore (Musa AAB - Mysore), studying their functional properties as well as its importance and use in the food industry. The starch extracted from green bananas were performed physico-chemical studies and functional properties. The yield amounted to a starch quality, with characteristics similar to other species of bananas. The results of studies of its functional properties reveal a less prone to starch retrogradation phenomenon. Starch showed results that indicate its use in many areas of the food industry (chilled foods, soups, pates), especially for the preparation of sauces sector, becoming an alternative technology and development of food products. <![CDATA[Elaboration and acceptability of restructured hams added with jabuticaba skin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200232&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Jabuticaba skin flour (JSF), rich in antioxidants and fibre, was used in order to develop four restructured hams in different combinations with meat: 0% control – without the addition of JSF, with the addition of 0.5% JSF, 1.0% JSF and 1.5% JSF, meeting, therefore, the growing demand for meat products with functional appeal. Physicochemical characterizations and sensory analysis were performed, evaluating the impact of information on possible health benefits and the effect on storage. Restructured hams with JSF had higher contents of phenolic compounds; greater weight loss; a darker shade; texture profile with smaller parameters of stiffness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, flexibility and chewiness (except the restructured ham with 0.5% JSF). Phenolic compounds, pH values, colour and TBARs did not differ with storage time, but were statistically different among JSF concentrations. Panellists preferred the restructured ham without JSF, however, the analysis of variance for overall aspect did not show a significant difference between the restructured ham “control” and those added with 0.5% and 1.0% JSF, after informing the panellists that they would possibly bring health benefits. It is concluded that it is possible to prepare and store restructured hams with JSF, at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% with good acceptance. <![CDATA[Effect of baru (<em>Dipteryx alata</em> Vog.) addition on the composition and nutritional quality of cookies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200239&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The use of the defatted baru almond (Dipteryx alata Vog.) prevents the production of waste residues after extraction of its oil (partially defatted baru flour), representing a process of interest from an environmental point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare oat cookies with functional properties, replacing 100% soy oil for baru oil and 30% wheat flour for partially defatted baru flour (baru cookie). Baru cookies presented a higher moisture (7.80%), probably due to the high content of dietary fiber (3.78%), resulting in a lower calorie content (457.46 kcal.100 g–1), compared to traditional oat cookies. Changing the formulation resulted in the enrichment of a number of microelements, including phosphorus (~ 197.90 mg.100 g–1) and iron (~ 21.56 mg.100 g–1). Baru oil increased the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (~ 76.11%), consisting of approximately 50.37% monounsaturated (MUFA), and 25.74% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total phenolic compound content was approximately doubled in the baru cookie. As such, the baru cookie presents an interesting composition from a nutritional point of view, having a high protein and dietary fiber content, in addition to presenting substantial concentrations of iron and oleic acid, and may be used as part of a healthy diet. <![CDATA[Effects of warming <em>yang</em> and invigorating <em>qi</em> prescription on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200246&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study investigated the effects of warming yang and invigorating qi prescription on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction. 126 rats were randomly divided into model group, sham operation, warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi, digoxin and captopril group for respective treatment. After intervention for 6, 8 and 10 weeks, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated, and the plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels were measured. Results showed that, after 6, 8 and 10 weeks, LVEF in warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril group was significantly higher than model group (P &lt; 0.05), and the plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril groups were significantly lower than model group (P &lt; 0.05). Renin angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril groups after 10 weeks was significantly lower than after 6 weeks (P &lt; 0.05); aldosterone level in captopril groups after 10 weeks was significantly lower than after 6 weeks (P &lt; 0.05). Warming yang and invigorating qi prescription can improve LVEF in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction, which may be related with the inhibition of RAAS activation. <![CDATA[HS-SPME optimization and extraction of volatile compounds from soursop (<em>Annona muricata</em> L.) pulp with emphasis on their characteristic impact compounds]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200250&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L.) pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB). An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar) while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E)-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool. <![CDATA[Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (<em>Agave tequilana</em> Weber var. azul) at different ultrasound powers and solid-liquid ratios]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200261&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different ultrasound power densities (UPDs; 40, 80, and 120 mW/mL) and solid:liquid (S:L) ratio (1:2, 1:3, and 1:6) on the extraction of carbohydrates from Agave tequilana plant of different ages were evaluated. Extracts obtained (6- and 7-year-old plant) were analyzed in the yield of carbohydrates (YC), fructan (FRU) content, simple sugars, fructan profile and the average degree of polymerization (DPn). UPD, S:L ratio, and plant age all affected YC, FRU, and DPn. Maximum YC and FRU were obtained from the older agave with UPD and S:L ratio of 120 mW/mL and 1:6, respectively; while glucose, fructose, and sucrose were highly released from the younger plant. Agave of 7-year-old presented the highest DPn. Fructan degradation occurred at high UPD, increasing the simple sugars and decreasing the DPn. Thermal-traditional extraction without sonication caused more fructan degradation; and overall, ultrasound enhanced fructan extraction and minimized fructan damage, representing a technological alternative for fructan extraction from agave. <![CDATA[A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200269&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation. <![CDATA[Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of UHT whole milk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200275&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study evaluated the action at the cellular level of long life whole milk, full type of six renowned companies operating in the Brazilian market, as well as in other South American countries. The evaluation was performed using root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at exposure times 24 and 48 hours, directly in milk products marketed. The results indicated that all the milk samples reduced root meristem cell proliferation, proving, in this study, a significant cytotoxic effect. Still, exposure to milk resulted in a significant frequency of mitotic spindle changes in meristem cells, characterizing these foods as genotoxic and mutagenic under the study conditions. It can be concluded that the long life milk samples caused significant genetic instability to cells of the examined tissue. The results obtained for cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic action of these long life milks are of great relevance because, to date, there are no published toxicity studies on such foods and food additives present in the composition. <![CDATA[Occurence and antimicrobial resistance of <em>Arcobacter</em> species in food and slaughterhouse samples]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200280&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objectives of this study were i) to isolate Arcobacter species (Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, Arcobacter cryaerophilus) from different foods and sources, ii) to verify the isolates by multiplex PCR assay, iii) to detect the antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates. In this study a total of 60 Arcobacter isolates were obtained. Arcobacter species were mostly isolated from swab samples (40%), followed by wastewater (29.1%), broiler wing meat (30%), raw milk (23.9%) and minced meat (6.6%). Regarding the seasonal distribution of Arcobacter from swab and wastewater samples, the bacterium was commonly isolated from wastewater in winter and spring, while it was frequently detected in swab samples during autumn and spring. All of the isolates were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, rifampin, and erythromycin. The most effective antibiotic was tetracycline, because 96.66% of the isolates were susceptible against it. This is the first report of the isolation, seasonal distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cattle slaughterhouse samples in Turkey. These results indicate that foods of animal origin and cattle slaughterhouses are significant source of the antimicrobial resistant arcobacters. <![CDATA[Proximate analysis, mineral composition, phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and GC-MS investigation of various solvent extracts of cactus cladode]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200286&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Cladodes Powder Extracts (CPE) are known for their medicinal properties such as being an auxiliary treatment for obesity and gastrointestinal or cardiovascular disorders as well as lowering cholesterol levels. The presented results proved that CPE was found to be a rich source of carbohydrate, ash, moisture and minerals namely Magnesium, Calcium and Zinc which highlighted its good nutritional value. Moreover, the solvent extracts displayed appreciable level of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents compounds which may explain their higher and varied antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The time-kill assay revealed that the bactericidal concentration required for cladode to kill M. luteus should be less than 3.12 mg/mL (2MIC). Interestingly, GC-MS analyses of ethyl acetate CPE demonstrate the presence of six compounds. The overall data emphasize the nutritional potential of CP as a promising natural preservative and a substitute to the synthetic counterparts and therefore to be consumed in a healthy diet. <![CDATA[Biochemical composition of some Egyptian seaweeds with potent nutritive and antioxidant properties]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200294&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The present study investigated the biochemical composition of three seaweeds; Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta), Sargassum linifolium (Phaeophyta) and Corallina officinalis (Rhodophyta). Total chlorophyll content was maximum in U. fasciata (34.06mg/g dry wt.) while carotenoid content was the highest in C. officinalis (3.8 mg/g dry wt.). The uppermost level of carbohydrates was (27.98% of dry wt.) in C. officinalis and proteins were maximum (14.89%) in S. linifolium. Aspartic, glutamic, alanine, leucine and proline were common amino acids in the three tested species. The polyunsaturated ω6 and ω3 essential fatty acids were recorded in S. linifolium (3.28%) and in U. fasciata (3.18%). The results showed that U. fasciata contained the highest amounts of lipids (2.96%), phenols (11.95mgGA/g dry wt.), flavonoid (7.04 mgCA/g dry wt.) and ascorbic acid (4.11mg/100g), respectively. β-Carotene was maximum (3940.12 IU/100 g) in C. officinalis. DPPH antioxidant activities were the highest in U. fasciata (81.3%) followed by S. linifolium (79.8%) then C. officinalis (72.6%). Among the 12 analyzed minerals, most of them were high in S. linifolium in which ion quotient ratio was the smallest (0.343). Since these algal species are common in the Egyptian coastal waters, their biochemical composition and antioxidant activities made them promising candidates for nutritional, pharmaceutical and medicinal applications. <![CDATA[Effects of <em>Dendrobium officinale</em> polysaccharide on adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200303&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study investigated the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP) on the adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). DOP was extracted fresh Dendrobium officinale. Rat BMSCs were prepared, and then were treated with 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/mL DOP, respectively. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The adipogenic differentiation was quantitatively analyzed by oil red O staining assay. The mRNA expressions of adipogenic differentiation related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were detected by RT-PCR. Results showed that, DOP with 0-800 μg/mL concentration had no significant toxicity to BMSCs. 200-800 μg/mL DOP could obviously inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Compared with control group, the expression levels of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 mRNA 200, 400 and 800 μg/mL DOP groups were significantly decreased (P &lt; 0.05 or P &lt; 0.01). DOP can inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which may be related with its down-regulation of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 expressions in BMSCs. <![CDATA[Optimization of tropical fruit juice based on sensory and nutritional characteristics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200308&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this study was, through mixing design and response surface methodology, to optimize a reduced calorie mixed juice of persimmon, orange and pineapple based the sensory and nutritional characteristics. This study also aimed to carry out the survey of the physicochemical characteristics that are desirable in this product. It was found that juice of these fruits, when combined, have better sensory and nutritional characteristics than when isolated. The consumer has a preference for mixed fruit juices made up of orange, pineapple and persimmon that are sweeter and more acidic and regarding color, consumers prefer a juice with less intense red color. According to evaluation, the most recommended mixed juice formulations are 50% pineapple and 50% persimmon, and 33% pineapple, 33% persimmon, and 33% orange. <![CDATA[Utilization of brewer’s spent grain and mushrooms in fortification of smoked sausages]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200315&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain alternative types of smoked sausage by using some vegetable raw materials rich in protein. To this end, smoked sausages with brewer’s spent grain [1.5, 3, and 6% w/w], smoked sausages with mushrooms [10, 17, and 30% w/w], and smoked sausages with mixtures of brewer’s spent grain-mushrooms [3/8% and 1.5/16% w/w] were prepared. Three of these formulations were selected based on panellist’s preference, one for each assortment, and stored under darkness at 4°C and 49% relative humidity for 15 days. Smoked sausage samples were collected at three different storage times (T0, initial state; T1, at day 7 of storage; T2, at day 15 of storage) and evaluated from the physicochemical and microbiological point of view to determine their stability during the intended storage period. Regardless of the type of assortment, storage time had a significant influence on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of smoked sausages. Among all samples, the smoked sausage with a mixture of 3% brewer’s spent grain and 8% mushrooms was the most appreciated by the panellists. <![CDATA[Rheological, pasting, thermal and retrogradation properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified potato starch]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200321&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the rheological, pasting, and thermal properties of octenyl succinic anhydrate (OSA)-modified potato starch. Potato starch was modified using different concentrations of OSA (0, 1, 3, and 5%, v/v). The degree of substitution (DS) for the OSA-modified starch ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0055. The amylose leaching values of native and OSA-modified potato starch with different DS levels were in the range of 47.09-87.32%. The gel strength values of the OSA-modified starch were lower than those of native potato starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that peak, hot pasting, final and setback viscosities of the native starch decreased after OSA modification. Dynamic shear rheological tests, conducted at 4 °C, indicated that OSA-modified potato starch had weak gel-like behavior with the storage moduli (G') higher than the loss moduli (G”) over most of the frequency ranges (0.63-63.8 rad·s-1). <![CDATA[Synbiotic preparation with Lactic acid bacteria and inulin as a functional food: <em>In vivo</em> evaluation of microbial activities, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200328&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Host microbiome and metabolome are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CC), one of the major health problems in developed countries. The pro and prebiotic supplementation helps to improve the host health. Inulin is one such prebiotic used for the enhancement of naïve probiotic bacterial population. This paper explains the impact of inulin (PRE) extracted from Jerusalem artichoke (JA), Lactobacillus plantarum HII11 (PRO), and synbiotic (SYN; inulin + L. plantarum HII11) preparation on Azoxymethane mediated CC induced rat model with respect to changes in microbial load, microbial enzymes, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci. The results suggested that the PRE and SYN supplementation effectively reduced the selected pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli), microbial enzymes and increased the probiotic load. The intervention of SYN significantly reduced the colonic ACF in CC model. The study results revealed that the supplementation of SYN diet (inulin and L. plantarum HII11) protects the AOM-mediated colon cancer induced host. <![CDATA[Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000200337&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the most used sweeteners in the food industry. Health concerns regarding the consumption of HFCS-containing foods have developed in parallel with the increasing amount of people who become overweight. This study was conducted to investigate whether HFCS-containing peach nectar (pn-HFCS) consumption has more detrimental effects on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters compared with sucrose-containing peach nectar (pn-sucrose). Fifty-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and were fed (A) pn-HFCS + ad libitum chow, (B) pn-sucrose + ad libitum chow and (C) only ad libitum chow for 7 months. The percentage change in body weight (PCBW), body mass index (BMI), and Lee index were calculated, and serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were measured. The PCBW, BMI, Lee index, serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were insignificant among the three groups. We can suggest that peach nectar consumption resulted in more energy intake than the control and since pn-HFCS group consumed more chow than the pn-sucrose group. The results show that long term daily HFCS or sucrose consumption in peach nectar is not associated with weight gain and does not stimulate metabolic changes in Sprague Dawley rats.