Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120170003&lang=pt vol. 37 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Communication in health: a new time]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300345&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The interface between the fields of health and communication brings together a wide diversity of topics, perspectives and articulations between academic production (scientific content) and its dissemination to the public (health journalism). The development and convergence of communication technologies, the progressive mediatization of society and institutions, the new generation of readers and their ways of consuming health content are some of the examples of the various issues addressed in health communication. The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between media and health and its current importance in the production and dissemination of contents, in light of the new information and communication technologies, producing efficient and credible information, directed to different audiences. <![CDATA[Influence of different types of sugars in physalis jellies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300349&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of sugar (white refined sugar, white crystal sugar, demerara sugar, brown sugar and coconut sugar) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of physalis (Physalis L) jelly. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the information on the acceptability of the product. It was found that the type of sugar greatly influences the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of physalis jelly which reflects differences in the product acceptability. Due to higher sensory acceptance, white refined, white crystal and demerara sugars are the most suitable for processing jellies. It was also found that the sugar type information and its benefits has no significant influence on sensory acceptance of physalis jelly and that consumers have a preference for a clearer, less sweet, more acidic and softer jelly. <![CDATA[Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from purslane]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300356&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme that is responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. This is generally undesired process and need to be prevented in food technology. PPO from purslane was purified, characterised and the kinetic parameters for three substrates namely, catechol, L-Dopa and 4-methylcatechol were determined. The optimum pH and temperature values were found to be pH 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively using the catechol as substrate. The apparent molecular weight of the PPO from purslane was determined as high as 163 kDa by partially denaturing SDS-PAGE. Moreover, the inhibition kinetics of the purified PPO were determined, using both synthetic and natural inhibitors. Among inhibitors tested, ascorbic acid was the most effective inhibitor with the lowest Ki value of 0.36 mM. This is the first study on the purification and characterisation of PPO from purslane (Portulaca oleracea) that may provide new insight into how to overcome the enzymatic browning. <![CDATA[Effect of green banana pulp on physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300363&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract In order to investigate the potential of the green banana as a prebiotic, and for its content of resistant starch, fermented yogurts were produced by cultures composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as being enriched with three concentrations of industrialized green banana pulp (GBP) (3%, 5% and 10% w/v). The green banana pulp added to the yogurt stimulated the multiplication of L. acidophilus after the first day of fermentation and B. bifidum after seven days in cold storage compared to the control that consisted of yogurt without the addition of green banana pulp. The dose-response effect was not observed; however, the results show that the green banana pulp has a prebiotic potential without interfering with either the physicochemical or sensorial characteristics. <![CDATA[Protease prospecion and determination of its isoenzymes activity in cocoa cultivars (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300369&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Our objective was to characterize the protease enzymatic activity and its isoenzymes on cacao cultivars PH 16 and TSH 1188, produced in southern Bahia, linking it to the conditions of the fermentation process. Proteases were extracted and semi-purified, their activities determined changing substrate, pH and temperature, and the values ​​compared with the parameters of fermentation (pH and temperature), and yet determined the kinetic parameters and the activity of its isoenzymes: aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and endoprotease. In the experimental conditions, differences in protease activities were shown as to different cocoa cultivars on various conditions. The albumin stands out as the preferred enzyme substrate, in a pH range between 3 and 6 and temperatures between 29 ° C and 50 ° C. As for the isoenzymes activity, an increased activity in these seeds and in the cultivar TSH 1188 was observed. When correlated with the fermentative parameters, the conditions for enzymatic activity are not the best determined, with emphasis on farming pH 16 presenting its fermentation conditions far from those found as optimal, especially in pH evaluation, since temperature varies very little between the two cultivars. <![CDATA[Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of pesticides in chicken eggs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300378&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The presence of pesticides in the environment is highly toxic to environment and human health. Aim of the study was determination, quantification and assessment of associated health risk due to presence of pesticide residues in chicken eggs using high pressure liquid chromatography. HPLC method was successfully employed and validated. From collected samples pesticides were extracted in presence of petroleum ether and acetonitrile. Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole residues were found in all samples with different concentration exceeding maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission. However imidacloprid was not detected in any sample. Concentration of bifenthrin in house egg samples ranged from 0.256206 to 4.112387 mg/kg while in poultry farm samples it varied from 1.5862 to 5.80796 mg/kg. Difenoconazole was found in concentration of 0.02835 mg/kg, 1.7668 mg/kg, 3.7205 mg/kg, 21.8937 mg/kg 21.9835 mg/kg, 19.26407 mg/kg in samples collected from houses while and in poultry farm samples its detected concentration was 10.939 mg/kg, 12.3296 mg/kg, 29.3617 mg/kg, 18.6116 mg/kg, 40.0523 mg/kg and 19.2335 mg/kg. Concentrations of both pesticides Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole exceeded the MRLs (0.05 mg/kg). Health risk index surpassed 1 (the cut off value) for Difenoconazole in seven samples while for Bifenthrin values were less than 1, indicating the possibility of potential medium to long term health risk associated with ingestion of contaminated eggs. <![CDATA[Advantages of recovery from pre-slaughter stress in tambaqui <em>Colossoma macropomum</em> (Cuvier 1816) agroindustry in the Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300383&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Tambaqui is the main fish species farmed in the Amazon. It is produced on industrial scale, slaughtered in the field, primarily by post-harvest asphyxia. This procedure, however, is stressful because it depletes energy reserves that should be used in postmortem metabolism, which may compromise fish meat freshness and quality. The present study compared the quality of tambaquis slaughtered by asphyxia, the conventional industrial method, and hypothermia. Tambaquis weighing around 1.6 kg were harvested from dugout ponds, transported to experimental tanks and allowed to recover from transport stress for 48h. Biological parameters of fish were evaluated alive post- harvest (Harv), transport (Tr) and recovery (Rc), and postmortem analysis was performed in fish slaughtered by asphyxia (Asph) or hypothermia (Hyp) after transport and recovery. Initial observations showed that the content of total volatile nitrogen bases (TVB-N) and pH were higher in fish killed by asphyxia. Sensory analysis indicated that the quality of fish slaughtered immediately after transport was lower than in fish allowed to recover from pre-slaughter stress. The results suggest that recovery from pre-slaughter stress contributes to preserving meat freshness and quality in tambaquis slaughtered on an industrial scale, but other studies are required to determine the feasibility of this recommendation. <![CDATA[Effect of size reduction on colour, hydration and rheological properties of wheat bran]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300389&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of size reduction of wheat bran (WB) on water holding capacity (WHC), water retention capacity (WRC), swelling capacity (SC); rheological and colour properties. Coarse WB exhibited the highest mean values for WHC (6.49 g/g), WRC (5.76 g/g), SC (7.67 g/g) and OHC (4.23 g/g), while these values were significantly reduced in fine WB. Size reduction increased lightness of WB as indicated by high L* values (62.65 to 75.80), Hue angle of 74.63 and whiteness index value of 81.42. Increasing WB additions increased water absorption of dough from 63 to 70.2%, while dough stability decreased from 12.5 min to 6.80 min. As coarse WB addition increased from 1 to 15 g extensibility decreased from 419 BU to 283 BU (highest level of addition). A negative correlation (r2 = –0.992) was found between farinograph water absorption and all extensograph indices measured; implying that an increase in water absorption of dough led to a significant decrease in extensibility, maximum resistance and energy recorded for the dough. WB can be used as potential additive in foods like bread/ doughnut with the aim of optimizing their quality parameters such as nutritional and textural properties. <![CDATA[Ractopamine hydrochloride and immunological castration in pigs. Part 1: fresh belly characteristics for bacon processing and quality]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300397&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The effects of ractopamine and immunological castration on belly characteristics, processing yield, physicochemical and sensory quality of bacon were investigated from two crossbred pigs under different conditions of animal production, diet, management and slaughter arranged in factorial design using 2 ractopamine levels (0 and 7.5 ppm) and 3 genders (barrows, immunocastrated and gilts). Before processing, belly firmness, weight, length, width and thickness were measured, and then, bacon processing yield evaluated. After processing, bacon slices were digitally imaged and analyzed for lean meat and fat areas, pH, instrumental color of meat and fat, cooking loss and sensory quality. The ractopamine did not alter belly characteristics, but significantly increased the process yield and decreased cooking loss. Barrows and immunocastrated pigs showed firmer bellies, which could be advantageous for bacon processing and slicing. Barrows presented the highest total area of bacon slices. The results of this study indicate that both techniques ractopamine in the finishing diets and immunocastration of pigs can be combined with no further consequences for belly processing and to bacon quality and with some advantages. <![CDATA[Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and immunological castration in pigs. Part 2: belly quality characteristics and fatty acid composition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300404&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The effects of immunocastration and ractopamine in the diet on the belly quality were investigated from two crossbred pigs under different conditions of production, diet, management, and slaughter arranged in factorial design using two levels of addition of ractopamine in the diet, 0 and 7.5 ppm, and three genders (gilts, immunocastrated and barrows). The quality of bellies were analyzed for chemical composition, pH, meat and fat color, backfat thickness and fatty acid profile of the fat. The addition of ractopamine showed no significant influence on pH, color and chemical composition in two crossbred pigs. The immunocastrated had thicker belly backfat compared to the bellies of the gilts. The contents of fatty acids polyunsaturated, linoleic, linoleic, arachidonic, total omega 3 and omega 6 were higher for immunocastrated pigs, as well as presenting values greater than 0.4 for the PUFA:SFA ratio, thus, providing bellies with better nutritional quality. The bellies of the gilts and immunocastrated pigs had higher concentrations of iodine value, indicative of higher unsaturated fat content. The results indicated that the addition of ractopamine and immunocastration had little influence on the quality of bellies as well as in their fatty acid profiles, suggesting the continuity of implementation of these techniques. <![CDATA[Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (<em>Vigna radiata</em>) sprouts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300411&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata). The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value. <![CDATA[Effect of the addition of peach palm (<em>Bactris gasipaes</em>) peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300418&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w), including a control (tartrazine). Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L*) and hue angle (h°), while the values of browning index (BI) and color change (ΔE*) increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products. <![CDATA[Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300425&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective was to develop instant noodles (IN) made by atmospheric and vacuum frying processes, with addition of 10% of three different sources of resistant starch: resistant starch type 2 (RS2), resistant starch type 3 (RS3) and green banana flour (GBF) aiming the increasing of the fibre content. The IN obtained by atmospheric frying lost water faster and absorbed more fat. However, for both frying treatments, the RS3 noodles absorbed the least amount of oil. The greatest loss of RS occurred during the cooking stage. RS2 and GBF noodles presented a loss of RS of around 30% during steam cooking, while the RS3 approximately 18%. The frying process decreased RS content of noodles, however, during both frying process, the samples with the highest RS content at all frying times were noodles containing RS3. When comparing products obtained after 90 and 120 s of atmospheric and vacuum frying, respectively, it was observed that, although the frying time in vacuum process was longer, higher RS values were obtained for the three different formulations. The vacuum frying process has advantages due to the lower fat absorption (3% less), lighter colour and a reduced conversion of RS to digestible starch, compared to atmospheric frying. <![CDATA[Washings and cryoprotectants for the production of Tilapia Surimi]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300432&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This research aimed at studying the effects of different washing conditions (distilled water x distilled water + NaHCO3 + NaCl) and cryoprotectants (NaCl + saccharose x sorbitol + sodium tripolyphosphate) for the production of tilapia surimi. The experiment used a factorial design 2 x 2 and the variables analyzed were proximate composition, non-nitrogen protein (NNP) removal, texture, color and yield. The protein and moisture contents of the surimi were influenced neither by washings nor by cryoprotectants, while the ash content was higher when NaCl + saccharose were used as the cryoprotectants and the yield was higher when only distilled water was used for the washings. Combining distilled water for the washings and NaCl + saccharose as the cryoprotectants provided the highest lipid and NNP removals. The different treatments produced surimi gels with similar colors and texture. <![CDATA[Influence of temperature, pH and salts on rheological properties of bitter almond gum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300437&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study focuses on the rheological properties of bitter almond gum (BAG) exudate at different shear rates, concentrations, temperatures, pH, and in the presence of various salts. Rheological data fitted with the Power law model revealed that BAG solutions exhibit non-Newtonian, shear thinning behavior without thixotropic effects at all tested concentrations and temperatures. Apparent viscosity of BAG solutions increased with the increasing gum concentrations and decreased with the increasing shear rate at a specified temperature. The viscosity reached a maximum value at pH 7 and it decreased at lower and higher pH values. Salts caused a reduction in viscosity. Comparatively, CaCl2 had a more pronounced effect than NaCl at a similar concentration. All treatments had significant effects on rheological parameters. <![CDATA[Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted <em>Coffea arabica</em> and <em>Coffea canephora</em> beans from different countries]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300444&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID). With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species. <![CDATA[Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis during orange vinegar production]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300449&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Citrus fruits are significant sources of bioactive compounds, such as ascorbic acid, polyphenols and carotenoids, due to their antioxidant properties important for human nutrition. In addition, since oranges possess high sugar content (8-15%), making vinegars from alcoholic orange substrates, with functional characteristics is a possible development of novel products. The aim of this research work was to analyze changes in ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity during orange vinegar processing. In order to analyze the influence of acetification and aging in these characteristics, samples were taken in three stages: orange alcoholic substrate for acetification (SNA), young orange vinegar or recently obtained (Vn0) and orange vinegar after six month-aging in bottles (Vn6). Statistically significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) were found among bioactive compounds concentrations; antioxidant activity decreased along the process, but total phenolics and carotenoids remained constant during aging period (Vn0-Vn6). The highest reduction was recorded during the acetification stage, possibly due to components oxidation caused by continuous air flow to the system. A higher contribution (p &lt; 0.05) to antioxidant activity was associated to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds concentration. <![CDATA[Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300456&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) and prebiotics (inulin), and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food. <![CDATA[Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300462&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v) at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes. <![CDATA[Comparative study of functional properties of eight walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em> L.) genotypes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300472&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Eight walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes were assessed for the glutathione (GSH) and total phenolic contents (TPC), as well as their antioxidant capacities. The GSH contents were between 1.1 and 7.2 mg 100 g-1. The TPC contents ranged from 33 to 50.3 mg GAE g-1, while the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values ranged from 156 to 302 mg FeSO4 g-1. A strong correlation (r2=0.8258) was determined between the FRAP values and the TPC. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) values ranged from 13 to 35 mg trolox g-1. The correlation between the CUPRAC values and the GSH contents was weak (r2=0.2069). The walnut extracts (0.2 mg mL-1 concentration) showed 16.2-40% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity. A strong correlation between DPPH-TPC was determined (r2=0.8538), and it was concluded that the TPC makes the most important contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the walnut. Additionally, the walnut may be appraised, in view of its nutritional value and health benefits, by considering the GSH content revealed in the current study. <![CDATA[The effect of modified citrus pectin-probiotic on faecal lactobacilli in Balb/c mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300478&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Intestinal bacteria utilize the constituent of ingested food for their metabolic activities making the gut microbiota a target in the modification of functional foods. This study examines the effect of modified citrus pectin and encapsulated probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on colon lactobacilli microbiota in healthy Balb/c mice. Mice were orally administered once daily with modified citrus pectin alginate probiotic, alginate calcium probiotic, modified citrus pectin and water for 28 days. Faecal lactobacilli count were determined using automated colony counter Doc-It® imaging station. The number of faecal lactobacilli in the modified citrus pectin alginate probiotic-treated mice significantly increased at day 7, 14 and 28 [7.99 ± 0.22, 8.32 ± 0.08 and 8.36 ± 0.23 (log10cfu/g) respectively]. A little or no increase in the faecal lactobacilli count was noted in the modified citrus pectin-treated mice. Modified citrus pectin alginate combined with live probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 supplements can be used as probiotic therapy to improve the intestinal lactobacilli microbiota in healthy host. <![CDATA[Solvent extraction effects on phytochemical constituents profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and functional group analysis of <em>Ecballium elaterium</em> seeds and peels fruits]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300483&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Ecballium elaterium is a perennial herb with multiple medicinal properties. It was widely used in folk medicine as cathartic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. The present study was devoted to investigate the effect of diethyl ether, acetone, and methanol solvent on the extraction, phytochemicals profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Ecballium elaterium seeds and peels fruits. The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol, condensed tannins and carotenoids contents were estimated. Maximum phenolic (107 ± 4 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (18 ± 0 mg QE/g) contents were also found in the methanol peels fruits extract. Results showed that methanol peels fruits extract have the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 1.2 ± 0.1 and 1 ± 0 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS, respectively, and EC50 value of 1040 ± 5 mg/mL for reducing power assays. Acetone and diethyl ether peels fruits extracts showed the best antibacterial agents especially against Micrococcus luteus, however no antifungal activity was observed. Spectral data of FT-IR analysis of Ecballium elaterium seeds and peels fruits extracts revealed the presence of functional groups such as ─OH, C─H, C─O and C=O. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, E. elaterium seeds and peels fruits extracts have promising potential as future natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents in food industry. <![CDATA[The effect of ultrasound application and addition of leaves in the malaxation of olive oil extraction on the olive oil yield, oxidative stability and organoleptic quality]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300493&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This research examines the effect of adding olive leaf on the yield and quality of the olive oil extracted from malaxation and ultrasound application during the olive oil extraction process. The olive variety Ayvalık was used in the trials, which included leaf addition of 2% and 5% and ultrasound application of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 minutes (min). Several values, such as maturity index and oil yield, as well as olive oil parameters, including free acidity, peroxide value, oxidative stability, and specific ultraviolet absorption, were analyzed and examined. We also carried out sensory analyses on the extracted olive oils. The results show that the product extracted has no sensory defects and exhibits a fruitiness level greater than 0. The research showed that, in terms of yield and quality, a time span of 15 min with addition of 2% olive leaf would provide optimum conditions in ultrasound assisted olive oil extraction with olive leaf addition. The olive oils produced in this process fall into the category of “extra virgin olive oil”. <![CDATA[Effect of time and storage conditions on the physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the pulp of yellow and purple passion fruit]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300500&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was evaluate the physical and physico-chemical characteristics of extracted fruit pulp of passion fruit with different skin color (yellow, light and dark purple) under refrigeration temperatures and storage times. The extracted pulp of passion fruit was stored at different temperatures: 10 °C, 25 °C; - 30 °C and - 80 °C and at four different storage periods: 0; 10; 20 and 30 days. The following physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated: color of fruit peel, fruit weight, diameter, length and width of the fruit, peel thickness, peel mass, pulp mass, pulp color, juice yield, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ratio. The physical and physico-chemical results indicate that all the passion fruit pulp, in natura as well as refrigerated, presented values in conformity to the identity and quality standards. The coloration of the fruit peel influenced the preservation of pulp color during the storage period and conditions. Purple fruits showed no change in the color of the pulp, even under different conservation procedures. The passion fruit pulp can be stored up to 30 days while preserving the physical and physico-chemical characteristics, similar to the pulp in natura. <![CDATA[Preparation of lasagnas with dried mix of tuna and tilapia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612017000300507&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a lasagna pasta enriched with dried mix of tuna (30%) and tilapia (70%) and formulate ready lasagna with enriched pasta. Lasagna pasta was elaborated with increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) of dried mix. Moisture, lipids and calories were not different between the inclusion levels; crude protein and ash increased linearly, carbohydrates reduced linearly, according to increasing levels of inclusion. There was an increase in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids with the inclusion of mix in lasagna. Between lasagna prepared with different sauces (tuna, chicken and bolognese), and pasta with 15% mix, it was observed that tuna lasagna had lower moisture content and higher protein, lipids, ash, carbohydrates and calories. All lasagna showed optimal sensory acceptance, indicating that the inclusion of 15% dried mix of tilapia and tuna in the pasta is feasible to improve the nutritional composition of lasagna.