Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology (Campinas)]]> vol. 35 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?]]> Grape seed oil (GSO) is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters. <![CDATA[Effects of orange winemaking variables on antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds]]> AbstractAscorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols stand out among the orange juice natural antioxidants. The winemaking process affects their bioavailability and bioactivity. Antioxidant activities (AA) were estimated in different process conditions to asses those properties. The AA and their correlation with ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids content were calculated. The variables and levels analyzed were: pasteurized and natural must (PJ and NJ), pH 3.5 and 4.0 and fermentation temperatures at 10°C and 20°C. Statistically significant differences (α=0.05) were found among bioactive compounds concentrations. Antioxidant compounds concentration was higher in raw material than in orange wine. Juice pasteurization caused the major losses while subsequent vinification affects them to a lesser extent. Highest antioxidants retention was measured in wines from JN fermented at pH 3.5 and 10 °C (JN-3.5-10) followed by wines from JP and fermented at the same conditions (JP-3.5-10). AA determined by DPPH showed a positive and close correlation with FRAP, while ABTS showed a low correlation with former assays. Juice pasteurization process and fermentation temperature influenced bioactive compound reduction which correlates with the AA variation. <![CDATA[Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant (<em>Solanum melongena</em>) fruits following thermal processing]]> AbstractThermal processing and production practices used in vegetables can cause changes in their phytochemical contents. Eggplant is characterized by its high antioxidant content. The objective of this work was to determine levels of anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant prepared fresh or subjected to one of three thermal preparation methods: boiling, baking or steaming. The soluble and hydrolyzable polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Anthocyanins were quantified according to the pH differential method. Antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH and ORAC methods. The results showed differences between organic and conventional eggplant for some variables although cultivation method did not have a consistent effect. Hydrolysable polyphenol content was greater, and soluble and hydrolysable antioxidant capacities were higher in organically grown eggplant, while anthocyanin content was greater in conventionally grown eggplant. Fresh eggplant produced under conventional cultivation had a much greater content of anthocyanins compared to that of other cultivation method-thermal treatment combination. In general, steamed eggplant contained higher total polyphenol and flavonoid levels as well as greater antioxidant capacity. Steamed eggplant from both conventional and organic systems also had high amounts of anthocyanins compared to other thermal treatments. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of collagen hydrolysates of jumbo squid (<em>Dosidicus gigas</em>) byproducts]]> AbstractHydrolysates from two different jumbo squid byproducts (fins and arms), produced by trypsin and protease type XIV were compared on the basis of their antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays), antimutagenic (Ames test) and antiproliferative (Transformation cell proliferation in M12.C3F6 murine cells) activities. Jumbo squid arms had higher content of collagen than fins, and their hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity. Also, jumbo squid arm-derived collagen hydrolyzed with protease XIV showed the highest antimutagenic activity. The four hydrolysates obtained showed low antiproliferative activity, however they are susceptible for further studies to be applied as food additives. <![CDATA[Extraction optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from <em>Auricularia auricula</em> fruiting bodies]]> AbstractThe extraction conditions (liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time) of antioxidant polysaccharides from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies (AAFB) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimum extraction conditions as follows: a liquid-solid ratio of 38.77 mL/g, a temperature of 93.98 °C and a time of 3.41 h. Under these conditions, the maximal polysaccharide yield was 10.46 g/100 g. In addition, AAFB polysaccharides exhibited stronger antioxidant activities by evaluating of Fe2+-chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.43 and 0.38 mg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that AAFB polysaccharides might be potentially used as a natural antioxidant. <![CDATA[Influence of distillation time and sample mass on sulfur dioxide analysis in passion fruit juice through Monier-Williams method]]> AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effect of the distillation time and the sample mass on the total SO2 content in integral passion fruit juice (Passiflora sp). For the SO2 analysis, a modified version of the Monier-Williams method was used. In this experiment, the distillation time and the sample mass were reduced to half of the values proposed in the original method. The analyses were performed in triplicate for each distilling time x sample mass binomial, making a total of 12 tests, which were performed on the same day. The significance of the effects of the different distillation times and sample mass were evaluated by applying one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). For a 95% confidence limit, it was found that the proposed amendments to the distillation time, sample mass, and the interaction between distilling time x sample mass were not significant (p &gt; 0.05) in determining the SO2 content in passion fruit juice. In view of the results that were obtained it was concluded that for integral passion fruit juice it was possible to reduce the distillation time and the sample mass in determining the SO2 content by the Monier-Williams method without affecting the result. <![CDATA[Optimization of microwave drying conditions of two banana varieties using response surface methodology]]> AbstractOptimization of microwave drying conditions of Luvhele and Mabonde banana varieties were studied using response surface methodology. The drying was performed using a central composite rotatable design for two variables: microwave power level (100, 200 and 300 W) and drying time (40, 26, and 12 min.) for Luvhele; (100, 200 and 300 W) and (42, 27, and 12 min) for Mabonde. The colour and texture (hardness) data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analysis. The fitness of the models obtained was good as the lack of fit for each of the models was not significant. The coefficient of determination R2 of the models was relatively high, hence the models obtained for the responses were adequate and acceptable. Drying conditions of 178.76 W, 12 min. drying time were found optimum for product quality at a desirability of 0.91 for Luvhele; while 127.67 W, 12 min. with a desirability of 0.86 was predicted for Mabonde. The result of this study could be used as a standard for microwave processing of Luvhele and Mabondebanana varieties. <![CDATA[Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops]]> AbstractThe combined effects of tumbling marination methods (Vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8 and 10 h) on quality characteristics of prepared boneless pork chops were investigated. The results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly increased the pH, product yield, cohesiveness, resilience, sensory tenderness and overall flavor (p&lt;0.05) compared with IT method, and CT method also significantly decreased the pressing loss, cooking loss, shear force value (SFV), hardness and chewiness (p&lt;0.05) compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increasing from 4 h to 10 h, the product yield and sensory attributes of prepared pork chops increased at first and then decreased, whereas the pressing loss, cooking loss, SFV, hardness and chewiness decreased at first and then increased. Additionally, an interaction between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed. These results suggested that CT method of 8 h obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops, which should be adopted. <![CDATA[Effect of huitlacoche (<em>Ustilago maydis</em> DC Corda) paste addition on functional, chemical and textural properties of tortilla chips]]> AbstractThis study analyzed the addition of huitlacoche paste (HP) in baked tortilla chips (TC), evaluating its effects on functional, physicochemical and structural changes during processing. Two blue corn grains were nixtamalized, stone milled, air dried and milled to obtain flour; commercial blue corn flour (TM1) and commercial TC (TM2) were used as controls. Additions of 0, 3, 6 and 9% of HP were formulated; masas were prepared at 55% moisture content (MC), precooked and baked in an industrial machine. TC crispiness was influenced by grain characteristics and percentage of HP. Huitlacoche paste addition caused an increase in total dietary fiber (from 5.27 to 14.54%), total soluble phenolics content (from 17.52 to 37.60 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant capacity (from 6.74 to 7.98 μmol TE/g) in TC. Results suggest that tortilla chips added with huitlacoche can be an alternative to prepare this traditional edible fungus and produce healthier snacks, not fried and enriched with bioactive compounds. <![CDATA[Development and evaluation of iron-rich meatloaves containing pork liver for schoolchildren]]> AbstractIron deficiency is a highly prevalent nutritional problem worldwide and it impacts on the cognitive development of children. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop meatloaf with high iron content by using in their formulations pork liver. Meatloaves were prepared with additions of 9.98% and 13.31% (formulations A and B) of pork liver in order to meet 15% and 20% of the daily requirement of iron (10 mg/day) for children. Samples were evaluated regarding their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. The results were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. Results of physicochemical analyses showed an increase in protein and mineral contents and a decrease in fat content. The iron and zinc contents were respectively 100.0% and 70.83% (formulation A) and 152.73% and 97.92% (formulation B) higher than that of the standard formulation. Regarding fat content, the reduction of 31.5% in formulation B makes it a light product. As for the microbiological aspect, all meatloaves were adequate for consumption. Regarding sensory analysis, all the attributes considered were not statistically different, but for purchase intention test formulation B was better accepted. Therefore, formulations A and B are good sources of iron and zinc. <![CDATA[Composition and color stability of anthocyanin-based extract from purple sweet potato]]> AbstractPurple sweet potato (PSP) can provide products with attractive color besides nutritious benefits in food processing. So, the compositions and color stability of an aqueous anthocyanin-based PSP extract were investigated in order to promote its wide use in food industry. PSP anthocyanins were extracted with water, and nine individual anthocyanins (48.72 ug mL–1 in total, 24.36 mg/100 g fresh PSP in yield) were found by HPLC analysis. The PSP extract also contained 17.11 mg mL–1 of protein, 0.44 mg mL–1 of dietary fiber, 2.82 mg mL–1 of reducing sugars, 4.02 ug mL–1 of Se, 54.21 ug mL–1 of Ca and 60.83 ug mL–1 of Mg. Changes in color and stability of the PSP extract, as affected by pH, heat, light and extraction process, were further evaluated. Results indicated that PSP anthocyanins had good stability at pH 2.0-6.0, while the color of PSP extract kept stable during 30 days of storage at 20 °C in dark. Both UV and fluorescent exposure weakened the color stability of PSP extract and UV showed a more drastic effect in comparison. A steaming pretreatment of fresh PSP is beneficial to the color stability. <![CDATA[Study of the physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of the licuri palm (<em>Syagrus coronata</em> (Mart.) Becc.) found in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> AbstractThe Atlantic Forest has species of native fruits, consumed fresh and processed, which have an important contribution to food sovereignty of families that consume it. This study examined the physical and physicochemical characteristics, proximate composition, concentration of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and minerals in the pulp and kernels of fruits of licuri (Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc.). Titratable acidity was analyzed by volumetric neutralization, soluble solids by refractometry, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, lipids by gravimetry using soxhlet, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetry, carotenoids and vitamin C by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals by ICP-AES. Pulp were a source of Zn (0.95 mg 100–1), a good source of fiber (6.15 g 100–1), excellent source of provitamin A (758.75 RAE 100–1), Cu (0.69 mg 100–1), Fe (3.81 mg 100–1), Mn (3.40 mg 100–1) and Mo (0.06 mg 100–1). The kernel were a source of Fe (3.36 mg 100–1) and excellent source of Mn (6.14 mg 100–1), Cu (0.97 mg 100–1) and Mo (0.07 mg 100–1). The nutritional value and wide availability of licuri fruit make it an important resource for reducing food insecurity and improving nutrition of the rural population and other individuals who have access to it. <![CDATA[Influence of the moisture at harvest and drying process of the grains on the level of carotenoids in maize (<em>Zea mays</em>)]]> AbstractMaize is considered a source of carotenoids; however, these compounds are highly unstable, degraded by high temperatures, exposure to light and presence of oxygen. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the moisture and type of drying applied to grains on the level of carotenoids in yellow maize. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (2 × 4 factorial), two levels of initial moisture at the harvest (22 and 19%) and three types of drying (in the sun; in the shade and in a dryer) and control (no drying). The samples of grains after drying with 12% of final moisture were analyzed by concentration of total carotenoids, carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene), monohydroxilated carotenoids (β-cryptoxanthin), and xanthophylls (lutein + zeaxanthin). Initial moisture, type of drying and the interaction between moisture versus drying influence (p≤0.05) the levels of carotenoids in grains. This is the first report about the drying conditions and harvest’s initial moisture as influence on the profile and content of carotenoids in maize grains. Based on the results, this work suggested that the harvest be carried out preferably when the grains present 22% humidity, with drying in a dryer or in shade for further use or storage. <![CDATA[Several techniques for the preparation of flour from carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (<em>Caiman crocodilus yacare</em>)]]> AbstractFlour prepared via current assay methodologies from the carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare) was analyzed for its chemical composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sensorial profile. Carcasses of the Pantanal alligator, originating from the Coocrijapan scientific zoo, Cáceres MT Brazil, were utilized. The carcasses were cooked for 60 minutes in a pressure cooker with water containing 2% salt and 5% chimichurri. The cooked carcasses were then ground and the mass was used for the manufacture of flour via three techniques: non-smoked, hot-smoked, and liquid-smoked. After each technique, the carcasses were dehydrated at 60ºC for 3h and were ground. Alligator flour was then produced. The moisture of liquid-smoked flour (10.97%) was higher than that of non-smoked flour (3.78%) and hot-smoked flour (4.43%). The flours provided high protein (57.11% - 58.27%) and ash (23.45 – 26.42%) rates, and were predominantly calcium (6.77% - 7.69%), phosphorus (3.67% - 4.05%), and iron (73.13 – 273.73 ppm/100 mg). Smoked-flour had a better acceptance rate by tasters when compared to non-smoked flour. Results show that flours produced from alligator carcasses had high protein, ash, and mineral rates and a reasonable acceptability by most tasters. <![CDATA[The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil]]> AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO) was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe) methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products. <![CDATA[Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries]]> There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination. <![CDATA[Non-parametric stability analyses of dough properties in wheat]]> AbstractLiterature has unveiled that a paper has not been published yet on using non-parametric stability statistics (NPSSs) for evaluating genotypic stability in dough properties of wheat. Accordingly, the effects of genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction (GEI) on alveograph parameters, i.e. dough baking strength (W) and its tenacity (P)/extensibility (L), of 18 wheat (T. aestivum L.) genotypes were studied under irrigated field conditions in an 8-year trial (2006-2014) in central Turkey. Furthermore, genotypic stability for W and P/L was determined using 8 NPSSs viz. RM-Rank mean, RSD-Rank’s standard deviation, RS-Rank Sum, TOP-Ranking, Si(1), Si(2), Si(3) and Si(6) rank statistics. The ANOVA revealed that W and P/L were primarily controlled by E, although G and GEI also had significant effects. Among the 8 NPSSs, only RM, RS and TOP statistics were suitable for detecting the genotypes with high stable and bread making quality (e.g. G1 and G17). In conclusion, using RM, RS and TOP statistics is advisable to select for dough quality in wheat under multi-environment trials (METs). <![CDATA[Genetic variability for synthesis of bioactive compounds in peppers (<em>Capsicum annuum</em>) from Brazil]]> AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for synthesis of bioactive compounds in pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae). Total phenolics, anthocyanins, carotenoids and antioxidant activity were evaluated in 14 accessions of Capsicum annuum from the Capsicum Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas – RS, Brazil). Thirty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during spring and summer. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with 14 treatments (accessions) and three replications. The laboratory evaluations followed the same experimental design to field, but with two repetitions more. Seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of fruits were manually prepared for chemical analyzes. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for phenolics, anthocyanins, carotenoids and antioxidant activity. The P39, P77, P119, P143 and P302 accessions exhibited the highest levels of antioxidants, which are strongly indicated to be used in breeding programs of Capsicum peppers. <![CDATA[Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability]]> AbstractAnthocyanins are present in high concentrations in Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra Sieb. &amp; Zucc. Herein, a microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry. The HPLC chromatogram of the extracts showed that the anthocyanin components were slightly hydrolysed during the extraction process. Further experiments confirmed that microwave irradiation slightly hydrolysed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to cyanidin, but did not significantly influence the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Optimized extraction conditions for total anthocyanin content were a solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time of 1:50, 80 °C, and 15 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the anthocyanin content was 2.95 ± 0.08 mg·g−1, and the antioxidant activity yield was 279.96 ± 0.1 μmol.·g−1 Trolox equivalent on a dry weight basis. These results indicated that microwave-assisted extraction was a highly efficient extraction method with reduced processing time. However, under some extraction conditions it could damage the anthocyanins. These results provide an important guide for the application of microwave extraction. <![CDATA[Characterization and nutritional value of precooked products of kiwicha grains (<em>Amaranthus caudatus</em>)]]> AbstractKiwicha has significant nutritional characteristics. It is commonly used as a puffed product, but there is little research on the lamination process. In this paper, the physical, functional properties, chemical composition and acceptability of the precooked kiwicha grains were studied. Puffed (PK) and laminated kiwicha (LK) were made. Puffed amaranth (CPA) was used as a commercial reference standard. The raw grain (RG) showed a higher bulk density (0.85 g/ml) than in PK (0.18 g/ml) and LK (0.38 g/ml). Both products had a good expansion. The yellow index decreased in PK (50.92) and LK (45.87) respect to RG (65.64). The largest was CPA (58.54). In all the products, the precooking increased the index of absorption, solubility and swelling power. Also, they showed major pasting temperature, low peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. In both formulated products, the content of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre decreased during the precooking process. The content of protein was optimal (between 14.57-14.59 g/100g). PK had high acceptability (5.84), preference (84.48%), purchase (38.79%) and consumption (43.96%) intention. The lowest was CPA. This work demonstrates that it’s feasible to make precooked products with good quality characteristics, chemical composition and acceptability for the development of new products. <![CDATA[Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella]]> AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, 200 ppm anacardic acid provided the lower TBARS values. The redness decreased during storage, and, as reported by the means test, mortadella containing 200 ppm anacardic acid had lower values. The lightness of mortadellas decreased during storage. Also in accordance with the means test, mortadellas containing antioxidants had same lightness than control. The yellowness of mortadellas increased during storage. Thus, the anacardic acid is a potential natural antioxidant that could be included in chicken mortadella formulations before cooking. <![CDATA[Effects of orange by-product fiber incorporation on the functional and technological properties of pasta]]> AbstractThe incorporation of fiber into products consumed every day by the general population is important and viable. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating orange juice industry dietary fiber byproducts in fettuccini of fresh pasta. Three different fiber concentrations were added to fresh pastas (25 g/kg, 50 g/kg and 75 g/kg). The results showed a significant increase in solid loss content when the incorporation of orange fiber was greater than 50 g/kg. This difference did not occur regarding weight increase values and color parameters. The pasta with 75 g/kg orange fiber can be considered a “high fiber” product, with the total dietary fiber content of the pasta increasing by 99% compared to control pasta. The carotenoid and phenolic contents of pasta increased significantly with the incorporation of fiber at 75 g/kg, but only the pasta formulation with 25 g/kg of orange fiber did not differ from control pasta in relation to all of the sensory attributes and presented an acceptance greater than 75%. The addition of orange fiber byproducts to pastas is an interesting alternative because fiber has a high nutritional value and an abundance of antioxidants. <![CDATA[Physicochemical properties of frozen tortillas from nixtamalized maize flours enriched with β-glucans]]> AbstractEffects of different β-glucan concentrations in maize flour on the properties of frozen maize tortillas were evaluated. Masa (dough), pre-cooked (PTs), frozen (FTs), thawed (TTs), and cooked tortillas (CTs) were made and analyzed. Moisture content of masa and tortillas significantly decreased as β-glucan concentration increased; however, the water absorption capacity (WAC), ice melting enthalpy, and frozen water in FTs increased. Texture and color of the masa, PTs, and CTs as well as sensory analysis showed differences only between tortillas with 0% and 4% β-glucans. β-glucans did not affect the texture of CTs. Soluble fiber increased by over threefold and fivefold in tortillas with 2% and 4% β-glucans, respectively, than in those without β-glucans. This result was consistent with the observed structural changes in tortillas, showing an increase in high-fiber aggregates with increasing β-glucan concentration. Tortillas with 2% β-glucans showed acceptable physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties, but over three times the soluble fiber. Therefore, it is possible to obtain frozen tortillas with high fiber content and increase their shelf life for subsequent cooking while maintaining good properties. <![CDATA[Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.)]]> AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P); sodium chloride solution (B1); calcium chloride solution (B2), and a solution with both of these salts (B3). They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness), along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1), along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads. <![CDATA[Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America: a comparative study among university students and working adults]]> AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a cluster analysis, in both subsamples two segments sensitive to production technology were identified. Rejection of cloning was greatest among university students, whereas a higher proportion of working adults rejected GM. The segments differed in terms of area of residence, knowledge about GM, and milk consumption habits. Contrary to what was expected, no differences were found according to education, gender or degree of satisfaction with food-related life.