Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120180005&lang= vol. 38 num. lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Lipid oxidation in meat: mechanisms and protective factors – a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Lipid oxidation in meats is a process whereby polyunsaturated fatty acid react with reactive oxygen species leading to a series of secondary reactions which in turn lead to degradation of lipids and development of oxidative rancidity. This process is one of the major factors responsible for the gradual reduction of sensory and nutritional quality of meats, thus affecting consumer acceptance. Therefore, the control and minimization of lipid oxidation in meat and meat products is of great interest to the food industry. In view of this, some technologies have been developed, such as vacuum packaging, modified atmosphere, and use of antioxidants. The aim is understanding the lipid oxidation mechanisms responsible for sensory and nutritional quality reduction in meat and meat products and identify the most effective methods to control this process. Lipid oxidation in meat can be controlled using different strategies, such as animal dietary supplements, addition of antioxidants, processing, and the use of special packaging. Better results can be obtained by using synergistic strategies and focusing attention on food safety and to prevent negative effects to other sensory properties. <![CDATA[Proximate composition, minerals profile, and predominant sugars by ion chromatograph along the physiological development of jabuticaba var. <em>Pingo de mel</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize jabuticaba fruits for their proximate composition, minerals profile, and predominant sugars during fruit physiological development. The fruits were harvested ten days after anthesis (DAA) until maturity, at intervals of four days between collections. The period between anthesis and maturity was 34 days. An increase in moisture was observed, as for protein and lipids up to 18 DAA, with subsequent reduction until ripening, while an opposite behavior was observed for ash and carbohydrates levels. In general, minerals decreased throughout the fruit development. Regarding the carbohydrates profile, fructose showed the highest concentration, followed by glucose and sucrose, respectively, with an increase during ripening for all sugars. Whereas the sweet taste of fruit is a major factor for both consumption in natura and processing, we observed that jabuticaba fruits harvested 34 days after anthesis presented the best results. <![CDATA[Proposal of stages by controlling the efficiency analysis in sugar and ethanol mills]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500022&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study aimed to identify the main points of control in the efficiency of the productive process in sugarcane mills. Thus, a two-stage DEA approach applied for a sample of 121 mills, distributed among the seasons of 2010/2011 until 2014/2015. The first stage separated the efficient mills in transforming the total recovered sugar (TRS) of the processed sugarcane into sugar and ethanol, and the second stage identified significant production process variables in the efficiency with truncated regression. Besides, with the help of industry experts and statistical analysis, established 13 variables, which could control and increase the efficiency of the sugar and ethanol production processes, contributing to the overall efficiency of sugar and ethanol units. <![CDATA[A comparison of dual-functional whey hydrolysates by the use of commercial proteases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500031&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Whey is well-known for the functional and bioactive properties of its proteins and peptides, which are of great interest to food and nutraceutical industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of four different commercial proteases (Novo ProD® (NPD), Alcalase® (ALC), Pancreas Trypsin® (TRY), and Flavourzyme® (FLA)) in the generation of hydrolysates with emulsifying and antioxidant activities. Hydrolysis processes were carried out for 5 h, reaching maximum degrees of 18.5, 15.5, 9.2, and 8.7% for NPD, ALC, TRY, and FLA, respectively. All tested enzymes generated very diverse, but conservative peptide profiles when comparing the treatments along the time, with the main enzymatic actions up to 120 min-reaction. An increase in the in vitro antioxidant activity was found for all treatments, achieving 46%, 40%, 40% and 22% for ALC, TRY, NDP and FLA, respectively. TRY hydrolysate maintained or slightly increased its emulsifying capacity along the time, however, a decrease in emulsifying capacity was found for ALC and NPD hydrolysates when compared to the non-hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). All tested enzymes generated hydrolysates with enhanced antioxidant and/or emulsifying activities, which may be used as food ingredients and the choice of the enzyme will depend on the need. <![CDATA[Primary and secondary modeling of <em>Brochothrix thermosphacta</em> growth under different temperature and ph values]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500037&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Bochothrix thermosphacta is an optional aerobic psychrotrophic related to the meat deterioration and consequently loss of a refrigerated cargo contaminated. Predictive microbiology can be used as a quality assurance tool, since it allows the prediction of microbial response based in pass observations. This work aimed model the growth of B. thermosphacta under variation of pH and temperature. For this purpose, the experimental growth data were fitted to the primary models of Baranyi and Roberts and the modified Gompertz model and the data for the maximum rate of growth (μmax) were adjusted to Ratkowsky extended secondary model. The results showed us that the influence of temperature on growth parameters was more evident than pH. Since, by fixing the temperature the change of pH little altered the μmax. However, as the temperature rises the elevation at the μmax is considerable, for example the comparison of predicted values ​​for μmax, when the temperature exceeds 4 °C to 12 °C, it is clear that these rates are more than double. Finally, it is emphasized that all tested models feature good fit to the experimental data, which makes them validated for prediction growth of B. thermosphacta in the same conditions tested experimentally. <![CDATA[Interactions of season, sex and size on nutrient composition of freshwater crayfish (<em>Astacus leptodactylus</em> Eschscholtz, 1823) from Lake Eğirdir]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500044&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Effects of interaction of season, sex and size on nutrient composition and fatty acid profiles of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) caught from the Eğirdir Lake were investigated on a factorial level. In the factorial analysis; 4 levels of season factors (autumn, winter, spring, summer), 2 levels of sex factor (male, female) and 1 level size factor were available. According to the results of biochemical analysis, effects of seasons were determined on crude protein and moisture levels. Crude ash levels changed depending on sex and season. There were no interactions of these three factors on the crude fat levels. The season and sex affected on LA, α-LNA and ∑HUFA levels. ARA, EPA, DHA, ∑SFA and ∑PUFA levels were affected from seasonal changes. Interaction of season/sex affected to ∑MUFA levels. The crude protein content, DHA, EPA and n-3 contents in tail muscle of A. leptodactylus increased by feeding in summer while these contents decreased by gonadal development in autumn. Therefore, in terms of nutritional protein contents, EPA, DHA and n-3 of this species were higher in summer. EPA, n-3 and DHA contents are important for A. leptodactylus. <![CDATA[Aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of distilled Crystal grape spirits of different alcohol concentrations: wine sprits in the Shangri-La region of China]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500050&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Aroma composition is critical to the quality of distilled spirits while the alcohol concentration could have a great effect on the variety and content of aromatic substances. In order to clarify the effect of alcohol concentration on the formation of the aroma composition, volatile compounds in Crystal distilled grape spirits with different alcohol concentrations were analyzed using the Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique combined with GC-MS. Characteristic aromas, principal components and odor profiles were also explored. Eighty-six compounds were identified in Crystal distilled grape spirits and 19 compounds were the same for the 4 samples with different alcohol concentrations. The species and contents of esters increased significantly along with the alcohol concentration increasing, while the acid content decreased. No significant change in the volatile alcohol and carbonyl contents was observed, and no terpene was detected in the spirits of 80%vol alcohol content. Fruity was the strongest aroma in the 6 aromatic series of odor, followed by floral and fatty. The 77%vol alcohol distilled grape spirits showed the most fragrant and balanced aroma. <![CDATA[Identification by PCR and evaluation of probiotic potential in yeast strains found in kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500059&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Kefir is a product elaborated from the symbiotic fermentation of different microorganisms. The Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces genera are the major representatives of the yeasts found in kefir microbiota. The only pobiotic yeast commercialized as an oral medication, is the Saccharomyces boulardii. The present work involved the microbiological quality examination of six kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria/RS, the yeasts isolation present in the samples and the identification of them by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction). Then, their probiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro technique. After that, microbiological analysis confirmed that kefir samples were suitable for consumption once the microbiological quality was established. Nineteen yeast strains were isolated from six different kefir samples; it was identified, by PCR analysis, but only three species were identified from these microorganisms in the present article: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniospora uvarum and Kazachstania unispora. Nevertheless, by simulating the passage of isolated strains through the gastrointestinal environment, it was observed that they could not be considered probiotics. The results indicate that, in an isolated way, the yeast presents in kefir samples, in the city of Santa Maria, RS, can´t be considered probiotics according to the tests performed. <![CDATA[Effect of brine and dry salting methods on the physicochemical and microbial quality of chub (<em>Squalius cephalus</em> Linnaeus, 1758)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500066&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The present study, looks at the physicochemical and microbiological quality changes that occur due to different salting techniques (20% salt concentration) of chub (Squalius cephalus) and when stored in 4 ± 0.5 °C. Samples of fish from each group was taken on the 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120th day and was analyzed for nutritional component (crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash), pH value, salt content and the microbial flora (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, total coliform, total psychrophilic aerobic bacteria count, yeast and mould). It was determined that crude protein, lipid, crude ash and salt amounts in the group where dry salting method was applied were higher than the group where brine salting occurred, in addition protein and lipid values decreased as storage period was longer (P &lt; 0.05). It was determined that there is an increase in total aerobic mesophilic, psycrophile bacteria and enumeration of yeast and mould as storage period increased, while coliform bacteria decreased (P &lt; 0.05). <![CDATA[Analysis of fouling and juice quality in crossflow ultrafiltration of watermelon juice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500071&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Raw watermelon juice was clarified in a laboratory scale flat plate ultrafiltration system incorporating polyethersulphone membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of 50 kDa. The experiments have been carried out over a wide range of trans-membrane pressures (1-3 bar). The effect of ultrafiltration with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 50 kDa PES membrane on permeate properties is reported. The effects of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and resistances were studied. The flux decay was analyzed through the resistance in series model which showed increase of both reversible and irreversible resistance with trans-membrane pressure, The TSS content of the permeate was found to be almost the same with feed while the ascorbic acid content in the permeate was on the lower side as compared to in feed. <![CDATA[Extraction of hydrocolloids from <em>Pereskia Aculeata</em> Miller: reuse of process residue as activated carbon for the pigment-removal phase]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500077&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Hydrocolloids of Pereskia aculeata Miller (OPNH) are potential ingredients in food industry as emulsifiers and stabilizers. The extraction process of OPNH requires the removal of pigments with activated carbon. Because this step is critical to the quality of the ingredient and has an impact on costs, a new activated carbon has been developed with residues from the same process. Residues activated with NaOH and H3PO4 (300 °C, 1 h) were subjected to batch adsorption tests in model solutions of malachite green (MG), carbohydrate and protein. Residue treated with 85% H3PO4 (OPNAC) had higher productivity and MG adsorption capacity, displaying a predominantly microporous surface (MEV/BET) with chemical activation confirmed by TG/FTIR. OPNAC showed higher MG and protein adsorption capacity than the commercial activated carbon (CAC) did. Results for MG-adsorption capacity by OPNAC did not show significant differences in the presence of protein and carbohydrate, presenting the higher affinity of the adsorbent for the dye. Adsorption isotherms showed OPNAC to be more favorable to MG adsorption than CAC, and to have a good fit to Langmuir-Freundlich model. OPNAC made it possible to reduce costs and allowed the sustainability of the process, leading to increased efficiency in selective pigment removal compared with CAC. <![CDATA[Impact of edible coatings based on cassava starch and chitosan on the post-harvest shelf life of mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>) ‘Tommy Atkins’ fruits]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500086&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The mango has short postharvest shelf life which varies from 6 to 10 days at room temperature in its fresh form. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of usage of edible coatings based of cassava starch and chitosan on post-harvest shelf life of mango. Mangoes of Tommy Atkins variety were covered with nine different formulations of coatings in a factorial block experimental design. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and evaluated during storage for the weight loss (%), color parameters, sensory attributes evaluated by trained panel, the rate of CO2 production and microbiological contamination on the peels. Results analysed by linear regressions and ANOVA, demonstrated that chitosan showed significant effect on weight loss (%) and on values of L*, a*, b*, chroma, ºhue, peel color, texture, aroma and time which correlated well for suitability of fruit consumption. The formulation containing 0.25% of chitosan and 0.5% of cassava starch showed most favorable results as it presented a post-harvest shelf life of 3 days more than the control fruits and lower rates of CO2 production, showing that this coating actually decreased the rate of the respiratory processes of mango, without compromising the proper ripening of the fruit. <![CDATA[Cultivar affects the color change kinetics of sugarcane juice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500096&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study evaluated the influence of different Brazilian cultivars (RB867515/C1, SP813250/C2, RB92579/C3 and CTC02/C4) on unprocessed sugarcane juice quality by physicochemical, microbiological and enzymatic analysis. Color parameters were determined during six days at 10 °C. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (cultivars) and three replicates. Significant differences were observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the juice samples from different cultivars. The pH values ranged from 5.09 to 5.25, soluble solids content from 14.13 to 18.60 ºBrix and titratable acidity from 0.035 to 0.120% of citric acid. Counts of mesophiles, psychrotrophs and molds and yeasts varied between 4.8 and 6.2 logCFU mL-1, 3.2 and 4.6 logCFU mL-1 and 3.3 and 4.8 logCFU mL-1 , respectively. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities ranged from 8 to 15 U mL -1 and between 6 and 40 U mL-1, respectively. The initial (t0) lightness varied from 21 to 37 among cultivars, and final values, after six days of storage (t6), between 22 and 41. Principal components analysis showed that the juice of different cultivars is characterized by different parameters. Considering its lighter color and smaller color variation during storage, juice extracted from cultivar RB867515 presented the greatest potential for consumer acceptance. <![CDATA[Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis (Flavourzyme®) assisted by ultrasound in the structural and functional properties of hydrolyzates from different bovine collagens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500103&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the functional (antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) and structural properties of different bovine collagen hydrolysates obtained through ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (Flavourzyme®). The use of previous or simultaneous ultrasound strengthened the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine collagen samples, generating higher number of bands in wave number (cm-1). The best treatment was the enzymatic hydrolysis, while for the powder fiber and hydrolysate, it was the ultrasound hydrolysis. The sample that showed the highest inhibiting action to the gram-negative bacteria Salmonella choleraesuis growth and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus hydrolyzed with enzyme and simultaneous ultrasound. Therefore, the enzymatic hydrolysis (Flavourzyme®) was concluded to enable the hydrolysis of samples, providing structural rupture and better functionality to the different bovine collagen hydrolysates. <![CDATA[Incidence of hydrocolloid type on quality parameters in mango leathers (<em>Mangifera indica</em> L.) Yulima variety]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500109&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The effect of four hydrocolloids on the physico-chemical, bioactive and rheological properties in sweetened mango leather sheets of the Yulima variety were analyzed. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were done to analyze the differences among samples (four of treatment against two of control). The findings show significant positive effects caused by the hydrocolloids made from Gum Arabic (AG), Maltodextrin (MTD) and Citric Slow Pectin (CSP) on leathers’ quality and appearance attributes. Only the Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) reported adverse effects on the mango leather's quality; therefore, its use on an industrial scale is not recommended for this line of processed product. <![CDATA[Identification and quantification of genipin and geniposide from <em>Genipa americana</em> L. by HPLC-DAD using a fused-core column]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500116&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract In this work, it was developed a fast, simple and selective method for quantification of genipin and geniposide from unripe fruits of genipap, which are known as natural colorants, blue and yellow, respectively. The compounds separation was performed in a fused-core C18 column using as mobile phase water (A) and acetonitrile (B) both acidified with 0.1% formic acid, with the following gradient: 0 min, 99% A; 9 min, 75% A; 10 min, 99% A and 13 min, 99% A. The temperature and flow rate that allowed the best chromatographic performance were 35 °C and 1.5 mL/min, respectively, resulting a total run time of 13 min, including column clean-up and re-equilibration. This short analysis time represents an advantage compared to the methods reported in the literature where the running times are 2-5 times greater. The detection wavelength was set at 240 nm. The method validation was performed based on specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy, according to ICH methodology. Finally, the developed method was suitable for monitoring analysis of those compounds content in vegetable samples. <![CDATA[Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (<em>Origanum syriacum</em> L<em>.</em>) on quality and stability of chicken meat patties]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500123&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Evaluate of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil grown in Jordan, and other comparable antioxidant on TBARS, total carbonyl, color values, and sensory attributes of raw chicken meat was investigated. Six treatments were prepared: (1) control (no additive); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil (OE); (3) 150 ppm OE; (4) 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300); (5) 5 and 14 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA/E-320) for both breast and thigh meat respectively, and 6) 150 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250), were prepared using ground chicken meat. Generally, OE at level of 150 ppm was the most effective decreasing TBARS, and total carbonyl values compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, it showed better color values (L* and a*) in term of meat color stability. However, OE and E-250 also showed the highest significant values among the other treatments. Sensory evaluation results showed that adding OE at level of 150 ppm and 100 ppm were the best values maintaining meat storage stability. Therefore, it can be recommended that OE at level of 150 ppm could be an excellent replacement to the synthetic antioxidant in the future of uncured, natural fresh meat products, and raw meat prepared for processing. <![CDATA[A multicomponent system based on a blend of agroindustrial wastes for the simultaneous production of industrially applicable enzymes by solid-state fermentation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500131&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study reports the use of statistical mixture design as a tool for the simultaneous production of lipase, CMCase, α-amylase, and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and orange peel were used as substrates, either individually or combined in different formulations, to study their synergistic or antagonistic effects on production of the enzymes. The highest lipase (323 U g-1) and CMCase (10 U g-1) activities were detected after 48 h, while the maximum activities of α-amylase (18 U g-1) and β-glucosidase (15 U g-1) occurred at 72 and 96 h, respectively. Considering the substrate formulation, the ternary mixture of wheat bran (1/3), soybean meal (1/3), and cottonseed meal (1/3) was the most versatile, showing production of CMCase (&gt;5 U g-1) and α-amylase (&gt;8 U g-1) at 24 h, lipase (&gt;320 U g-1) at 72 h, and β-glucosidase (&gt;10 U g-1) at 48 h. <![CDATA[Extraction of β-glucan of <em>Hericium erinaceus</em>, <em>Avena sativa</em> L., and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> and <em>in vivo</em> evaluation of their immunomodulatory effects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500138&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Beta-glucan (BG) is one of the most common types of polysaccharides, and is a potent immune activator. It is present in microbes, plants, and mushrooms. The immunomodulatory properties of BG are varied among different species. This paper explains the composition of BG from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae HII31), oat (Avena sativa L.) and mushroom (Hericium erinaceus), and also describes in vivo immunomodulation and changes in the antioxidant capacity of BG. In vivo studies were conducted in BALB/cMlac mice, and changes in cytokines level, antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. About 91.42 ± 5.07, 86.90 ± 3.44, and 84.43 ± 4.10% of BG were recorded in yeast, mushroom, and oat samples, respectively, with 4-5% of α-glucan in all the samples. The band area range ratio analysis indicate that yeast and mushroom have a high content of β-1,3-glucan followed by β-1,6-glucan, whereas oat recorded a high content of β-1,4-glucan. Yeast-BG stimulated the expression of IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-10, and TGF-β effectively. Moreover, antioxidant capacity was enhanced during yeast-BG supplementation in a dose-dependent manner than oat and mushroom BG. This study reveals that yeast-BG is a potent immune activator and enhancer of the host’s antioxidant capacity than oat, and mushroom-BG. <![CDATA[Characterization of biochemical and functional properties of water-soluble tempe flour]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500147&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Characteristics of water-soluble flours from soy (SF), soy tempe (STF), and germinated-soy tempe (GTF) were compared with those of commercial soy protein isolate (SPI). Defatted flour of soy, soy tempe, and germinated soy tempe were extracted in alkaline water (pH 9) and freeze dried to produce water-soluble flours. Protein contents of SF, STF, and GTF were 49%, 47%, and 51%, respectively, and lower than that of SPI (84%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles showed that STF and GTF contained lower molecular size of proteins compared to SF and SPI. Trypsin inhibitor activity was detected only in SPI. The most abundant phytic acid was contained in SF, followed in order of decreasing abundance, by SPI, STF, and GTF. Antiradical activities measured by DPPH assay also showed significant variations, and the activity was highest in GTF, followed in order of decreasing activities, by STF, SF, and SPI. The foaming and emulsion capacities of STF and GTF were significantly lower than SPI, but higher than SF. These data strongly suggest that STF and GTF have better functional characteristics than commercial SPI. However, optimization of the extraction process is needed to improve the yield and protein content. <![CDATA[Good hygienic practices and identification of contamination sources in Hotel Food and Beverage sector]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500154&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the application of good practices in hotel restaurants in Southern Brazil, relate these practices to the microbiological quality of the food offered, in addition to identifying contamination sources. The food and beverage sector of four hotels was evaluated by means of a checklist based on the Resolution 216/2014 of Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária and microbiological analyzes. Surface, utensil, equipment and handlers’ hand samples were collected for coagulase positive Staphylococcus and thermotolerant coliform count. Isolates obtained from these culture counts were compared by band profiles obtained by rep-PCR. According to non-conformities observed, only one hotel was rated as excellent in good practices avaliation. Some microbiological analysis exceeded the allowed limit for the analyzed microorganism count, revealing failure in the hygiene-sanitary process. Genetic similarities between some food samples and handlers’ hands and utensils were identified. These results showed inadequacies in the process of food care and handling which may compromise the quality of food offered to custumers. <![CDATA[Effect of multimode ultrasound assisted extraction on the yield of crude polysaccharides from <em>Lycium Barbarum</em> (Goji)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500160&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The goals of this exploration were to find out the optimum conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of L. Barbarum crude polysaccharides. Furthermore, to research the impacts of three multi-frequency ultrasound assisted extraction modes on the yield of L. Barbarum crude polysaccharides. The results showed that by applying the traditional single-frequency UAE mode, the optimum extraction time was 30 min, extraction temperature of 60 °C, and solid/liquid ratio of 20 g/600 mL, at a power density of 300 W/L, and ultrasound frequency of 28 kHz. Secondly; a comparison was carried out between three UAE modes using the optimum extraction conditions obtained previously. The energy aggregation counter flow dual-frequency UAE mode gave the highest yield of 38.93% of crude polysaccharides. Followed by the Opposite-sit dual-frequency UAE mode and the energy aggregation counter flow single-frequency UAE mode with yields of 33.60%, and 26.38% of crude polysaccharides, respectively. As a result the ultrasound assisted extraction with dual-frequency mode is more effective for the extraction of L. Barbarum crude polysaccharides. Furthermore, the yield of crude polysaccharides increased by 73.41% using the dual-frequency ultrasound extraction compared to traditional hot water extraction. <![CDATA[Optimal conditions for obtaining collagen from chicken feet and its characterization]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500167&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The objective of this study was to extract collagen from chicken feet, determining optimal extraction conditions according to acetic acid concentration, pepsin content and time of enzymatic hydrolysis. A factorial design 23 was used, with three replications at the central point, totaling 11 experiments. The response variable studied was the collagen content of the isolate obtained. In addition to the optimization, the characterization of the isolates with higher and lower collagen content, in relation to the amino acid profile, electrophoretic profile, peptide hydrophobicity and functional properties, such as water solubility, water retention capacity and emulsifying activity, were carried out. The proposed model was statistically significant, with conditions of higher collagen content of 0.3 mol/L of acetic acid, 0.2% of pepsin and 12 hours of hydrolysis. The collagen isolate under these conditions showed higher iminoacids content, higher sum of peptide areas, higher solubility in water and water retention at 60 °C. The treatment with lower collagen content showed high emulsifying activity. The collagen isolate of the chicken feet presented characteristics makes it suitable for application in the food industry. <![CDATA[Identification of the potential inhibitors of malolactic fermentation in wines]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500174&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This exploratory work aims to identify the potential inhibitors of lactic bacterial growth and to propose enological practices to guarantee the occurrence of spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wines from traditional and double-pruning management harvests in southeast Brazil. One white wine from a summer harvest and one red wine from a winter harvest that failed to complete MLF were utilized as comparative models to identify inhibitor compounds to lactic bacteria. Wine composition, alcoholic-fermentation temperature and bacterial strain contribute to the success or failure of MLF. Temperatures below 12 °C during alcoholic fermentation decrease lactic bacterial metabolism and may impair the bacteria’s growth after yeast cells lysis. A must pH below 3.2 in a summer harvest impairs bacterial growth, and the association of low pH with a free-SO2 concentration above 10 mg L-1 may inhibit MLF. For grapes with a high sugar content, harvested in the winter cycle, enologists should keep the alcohol content below 15% and control the alcoholic-fermentation temperature. <![CDATA[Antiviral activities of <em>Radix Isatidis</em> polysaccharide against type II herpes simplex virus in vitro]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500180&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This study investigated the antiviral activities of Radix Isatidis polysaccharide (RIP) against type II herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) in vitro. RIP was prepared from the Radix Isatidis root. The toxicity of RIP on Vero cells was detected. The direct killing effect of RIP on HSV-2, inhibitory effect of RIP on HSV-2 replication and inhibitory effect of RIP on HSV-2 adsorption were determined. Results showed that, RIP in concentration range of 25-800 mg/L had no toxic effect on Vero cells. RIP with different concentrations could not directly inactivate the HSV-2. The effective rates on inhibition of HSV-2 replication and adsorption in 800 mg/L RIP group were 71.57% and 48.37%, respectively, which were the highest among different groups. In conclusion, RIP has the antiviral effect against HSV-2 in vitro. This effect mainly occurs in inhibiting the virus duplication and adsorption. <![CDATA[Ozone in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500184&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Among energy sources from food, corn is a cereal with significant nutritional characteristics. However, during preprocessing, corn is subject to contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered carcinogenic, and gas ozone can be used as an alternative for decontamination. This study aims to evaluate the effect of ozonation on the quality of corn grains at different exposure times. Evaluations were performed to assess moisture content, electrical conductivity, germination, germination speed index, colour (brightness parameter, direction red to green, direction yellow to blue, hue angle indicates the colour tone and chroma), and chemical composition, and chromatographic analysis was performed to quantify the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ozonation times influence on the quality of the maize grains was lipids, ash and germination percentage and did not promote the degradation of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in the product. <![CDATA[The effect of homogenization on texture of reduced dry matter processed cheese]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500190&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Since the cost of processed cheese is high in Iran, in this research we studied the effect of homogenization at the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar on the quality and texture of processed cheese followed by reducing dry matter. Results showed no significant difference between the pH and dry matter of processed cheese samples at different pressures (p &gt; 0.05). Also, different pressures of homogenization had no significant effect on overall acceptability (p &gt; 0.05). With increasing homogenization pressure, texture improved significantly (p &lt; 0.05). Homogenization treatment at the pressure of 200 bar had the highest influence on the improvement of the processed cheese texture. <![CDATA[Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500196&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Tetragonisca fiebrigi, is a bee of the subfamily Meliponidae traditionally known as Yateí. Its honey differs from the honey produced by Apis mellifera because it is less viscous, more acidic, has sweetness and particular aromas. It is important to know the behavior of yatei honey in different storage conditions, in order to preserve the characteristics of the honey and ensure the product as harmless. The objective was to determine the influence of temperature, packaging type and storage time of Yateí honey on antimicrobial properties, microbial (Total Mesophilic Aerobic and Mold and Yeast Count) and physicochemical parameters (pH, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), acidity, moisture content and diastase), with methodology of national and international standards. The antimicrobial effect was variable against strains of the genus Staphylococcus aureus. The most significant microbiological quality levels were Mold and Yeast counts (&gt; 102 CFU / g). The physicochemical parameters with the most significant values were acidity (to: 42.5 meq acid/kg honey), moisture content (to: 26%) and HMF (to: 3.8mg/kg honey). Storage at refrigeration temperature maintained standard values ​​close to Apis mellifera honey during 180 days; whereas at room temperature it was better to maintain antimicrobial power. No significant difference was found between plastic storage containers vs. glass. <![CDATA[Bioactive compounds and chemical composition of Brazilian Cerrado fruits’ wastes: pequi almonds, murici, and sweet passionfruit seeds]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500203&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Pequi, murici and sweet passionfruit are typical fruits from Brazilian Cerrado, which stand out for their sensory attributes such as color, flavor and aroma, in addition to their high nutritional value. Their seeds are by-products from the industrial processing of juices, pulps, jellies, and others, and have great exploitation potential due to their high oil content and the presence of bioactive compounds. The present work aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of pequi almonds, and of murici and sweet passionfruit seeds, and also to quantify the total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by the scavenging activity of •DPPH method. Concerning the chemical composition, pequi almonds presented the highest concentration of lipids (50%), followed by sweet passionfruit (30%) and murici seeds (15%). The almonds from pequi fruit showed the greatest content of protein (33.3%) followed by sweet passionfruit seeds (15%), which presented the highest amount of fiber (41.3%). Murici seeds exhibited the highest content of carbohydrates (46.4%). Pequi almonds had the greatest content of the following minerals, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, and sodium, and anthocyanins (14.4 mg CYG/100 g d.b.). Sweet passionfruit seeds presented the greatest amount of calcium, and also had the highest carotenoid content (9 mg/100 g d.b.). Murici seeds showed the highest potential for bioactive compounds, with 404 mg GAE/100 g d.b. and 81% of scavenging activity for the •DPPH. The results demonstrated that the studied seeds have the potential to be sources for new product development, such as oil. <![CDATA[The structural modification of cassava starch using a saline water pretreatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500215&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The cassava has been modified successfully by using the saline water, which was abundantly available on the planet. The biomass was submerged in saline waters that salt concentrations were altered at 0, 3.5 percent (seawater) and 10 percent (w/w) and were kept 5 days. After recovery by washing steps, the treated solids were characterized by using XRD (X-ray diffraction ), FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red), and SEM (Scanning electron microscopic). The results showed that the XRD pattern of saline water pretreatment decreased significantly. The biggest decrease of X-ray intensity occurred at around 18o. Meanwhile, the fingerprint of FTIR revealed the transmittance intensity of infra-red ray of saline water treated solid inclined for all wave constant numbers, suggesting that many hydrogen bonds were disconnected. Those findings also were enhanced by SEM pictures that showed the change of surface morphology of treated biomass. It was indicative that cassava structure was modified becoming more textured after employing saline water pretreatment. This work is an innovative finding to gradually substitute commercial ionic liquids that are very expensive with saline water for biomass pretreatment. <![CDATA[Effects of quinoa flour on lipid and protein oxidation in raw and cooked beef burger during long term frozen storage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500221&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The objective of this work was to assess the effects of quinoa flour in the improving the quality characteristics and oxidation and storage stability (-18 °C for 3 months) of cooked and raw beef burger. The effects of quinoa flour addition (3, 5, 7 and 10%) on physicochemical composition, pH, cooking parameters and dimensional changes, color and texture characteristics of raw and cooked burgers were evaluated. Furthermore, lipid and protein oxidation stability for raw and cooked burgers were determined during long-term frozen storage. The cooking yield and reduction in diameter and thickness of burgers were improved and ash and protein contents of burger increased by the addition of quinoa. The control samples had the highest pH. Texture analysis showed that with the addition of quinoa, hardness values of burger increased and adhesiveness values decreased. All groups showed similar L*, a* and b* values. The results indicated that addition of quinoa significantly decreased TBARS values for raw and cooked burger compared to control group during storage. However, the addition of quinoa flour did not affect protein oxidation level of raw and cooked burger. <![CDATA[Predicting sugar content of candied watermelon rind during osmotic dehydration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500228&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Watermelon rind, comprising 35% of the fruit’s total mass, usually discarded due to its unappealing flavor and lack of sweetness. In this study, candied watermelon rind was prepared through osmotic dehydration at vacuum (VOD) and atmospheric pressure (OD). The effects of independent variables (sucrose concentration, immersion time and temperature) on the dependent variables, including solid gain (SG) and water loss (WL) of watermelon rind, were evaluated using multiple response surface methodology. The SG and WL increased with the increasing sucrose concentration, immersion time and temperature for both VOD and OD, but VOD greatly increased the mass transfer rate. The kinetic constants were obtained by fitting the data of SG and WL to the Fick’s diffusion model. The VOD had higher kinetic constants and dehydration efficiency indices than that of OD. Besides, the mass transfer model and RSM model were statistically compared by the coefficient of determination, root mean square error and absolute average deviation, based on the validation data set. The RSM and mass transfer models provide information about the osmotic dehydration for predicting the sugar content of candied product, and helping the designers and researchers find the best design parameters and the most effective process conditions. <![CDATA[Characterization of the acerola industrial residues and prospection of their potential application as antioxidant dietary fiber source]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500236&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The present work aimed to evaluate the residue generated by the processing industry of acerola juice as a natural source of nutritional compounds and dietary antioxidant fiber. The determination of the dietary fiber, extraction and determination of phenolic compounds and antioxidants associated with dietary fiber in triplicates, expressed as mean values ± standard deviation, were performed. The pulp and refiner residues showed high contents of bioactive compounds and polyphenols, both presented high content of total dietary fiber, associated to the antioxidant activity. It is concluded that it is a material of high functional value and with beneficial health properties, being able to add value to products that have it as raw material. <![CDATA[Simultaneous quantification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in <em>Chamaerops humilis</em> L. using LC–ESI-MS/MS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500242&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract In this study, heated reflux extraction method has been used to identify the phenolic compounds from C. humilis var. argentea leaflets, rachis and fruits. Extractions were performed in both ultrapure water and 80% methanol solvents. The efficiency of procedures was determined in terms of the quality and quantity of phenolic acids and flavonoids identified. Chamaerops extracts have been characterized by high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which play a crucial role in protection against various diseases. LC-MS/MS was used to determine the chemical profile of various extracts obtained from Chamaerops. The results showed that the major components in leaflets and fruits extracts were quinic, malic and chlorogenic acids. In addition, nine minor acidic components were identified. On the other hand, rutin and hesperidin were found to be the major flavonoids. The methanol extract was shown as being the most efficient to identify phenolic compounds in C. humilis. <![CDATA[Interference of germination time on chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white sesame (<em>Sesamum Indicum</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500248&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The consumption of white sesame has become a healthy option for those who are concerned about health and wish to reduce oxidative stress. The germination has been used an effective method to increase the nutrients availability and thus provide a better nutritional quality of these seeds. Due to the lack of researches about sesame germination the objective of this study was to evaluate the different times of germination on the chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein and ashes), the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic compounds of white sesame. The germination occurred inside a greenhouse with controlled temperature at 30 °C and the variables were analyzed in the times 0, 24, 36 and 48 hours of germination. The process increased the levels of moisture and reduced the levels of fat, protein and ashes. On the other hand, it also increased the antioxidant capacity by two methods and raised the quantity of total phenolic compounds. Based in the present study and in others similar works, it is possible to affirm that the germination process increase the white sesames’ antioxidant capacity, however further studies are needed to evaluate a better environmental condition of germination and others factors that may affect the composition. <![CDATA[Nutritional and antioxidant potential of a desert underutilized legume – tepary bean (<em>Phaseolus acutifolius</em>). Optimization of germination bioprocess]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500254&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) is a short life cycle legume, resistant to many diseases and drought, originally from the deserts and semi-arid environment of Northwestern Mexico and the Southwestern US. Its mature seeds are scarce consumed, and their high protein and carbohydrate contents are underutilized. The aim was to identify optimal germination conditions for producing a functional flour with máximum values of protein content (PC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and total phenolic content (TPC). A central composite rotatable experimental design with two factors [Germination temperature (GT, 20-40 ºC)/Germination time (Gt, 10-170 h)] in five levels was used (13 treatments). Optimized conditions of germination to obtain a functional tepary bean flour were GT= 32 °C/Gt=120 h. Germination was an effective strategy to increase PC (+57.5%), AoxA (+188-318%), TPC (+232%), flavonoid content (+114), and dietary fiber (+246%) in tepary bean seeds. Therefore, the optimized germinated tepary bean flour could be used as a source of natural antioxidants, protein, and dietary fiber in the formulation of functional foods. <![CDATA[Buriti of the cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil: physical and chemical characterization and content of carotenoids and vitamins]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500263&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The fruit species of the Brazilian Cerrado, such as buriti (Mauritia vinifera ), occupy a prominent position in the ecosystem since they contribute to the economic potential of the region and have high nutritional value. We aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics, chemical composition and content of vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E and folates in pulp of buriti from the Brazilian Cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The length, diameter, mass and fruit yield were evaluated. The titratable acidity was determined by volumetric neutralization; pH by potentiometry; soluble solids by refractometry; moisture using an oven; ash using a muffle furnace; proteins by the micro-Kjeldhal method; total dietary fiber by the gravimetric non-enzymatic method and lipids with a Soxhlet extractor. Vitamin C and carotenoids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with detection by diode array (HPLC-DAD) and vitamin E and folates by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Buriti pulp showed 12.13 g.100g -1 of lipids and 74.86 g.100g-1 of moisture. Also, the fruit showed high content of dietary fiber, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and folates. Buriti can contribute to the adequate intake of fiber and vitamins and to preventing the incidence of disorders, especially those more frequent in native populations of the Cerrado. <![CDATA[The effectiveness of growth cycles on improving fruit quality for grafted watermelon combinations]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500270&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Two growth cycles per year, i.e., for early growing season (EGS) and late growing season (LGS) production, both of which are widely preferred in temperate climates, have been investigated for their effects on fruit quality attributes such as appearance; firmness; the content of total soluble solids, sugars, and total phenol; and antioxidant activity. Two watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] cultivars (cv. 'Anthem F1' and cv. 'Crimstar F1') were used as scion. Two C. maxima × C. moschata hybrids (cv. 'Shintoza F90' cv. 'Obez') and one Lagenaria siceraria rootstock cv. 'Macis' were used as rootstock. Self-rooted and self-grafted plants were used as controls. EGS resulted in a reduction of fruit shape index, rind thickness, juice pH, hue values, and glucose content as compared to LGS for both the cultivars. On the other hand, total soluble solids of cv. 'Crimstar', fructose of cv. 'Anthem', and the antioxidant activity of cv. 'Anthem' increased. The total phenol content was unaffected by the scion/rootstock combinations or growth seasons for both the cultivars. Most of the fruit quality attributes increased when a specific rootstock/scion combination and growth season was used and these combinations may change in relation to cultivar. It is important to evaluate and select suitable scion/rootstocks for each growth condition created by ecology and growth cycle to guarantee high fruit quality. <![CDATA[Influence of drying methods on cocoa (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.): antioxidant activity and presence of ochratoxin A]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500278&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the performance of different drying methods in the development of phenolic compounds, methylxanthines, and antioxidant activity in cocoa bean and to evaluate the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA). Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH, FRAP, ORAC and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Phenolic compounds and methylxanthines were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). OTA was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLR). It was found that during cocoa drying, there was a reduction in antioxidant activity with reduced phenolic compound content (0.04 mg.g-1 of catechin before drying to 0.02 mg.g-1 after drying) and reduced methylxanthines (19.44 mg.g -1 of theobromine before drying to 11.71 mg.g-1 after drying). Only one sample showed contamination by OTA (7.1 μg.kg-1). The traditional drying method showed the highest conservation of antioxidant activity and methylxanthine and phenolic compound content. <![CDATA[Ultrasonic-extraction of phenolic compounds from <em>Phyllanthus urinaria</em>: optimization model and antioxidant activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500286&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique was used to extract phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus urinaria and response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters including ultrasonic time (X1), ethanol concentration (X2) and solid-liquid ratio (X3). A mathematical model of the tree parameters for the high extraction yield (Y) was established. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was investigated by DPPH free radicals, ABTS free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals and reducing power assay with vitamin C as a control. The results showed that the independent variables (X1, X2 and X3) and the interaction terms (X1X3 and X2X3) had a significant effect on the extraction yield. The effect of the variables on the extraction yield was in the order of X3, X1 and X2. The optimal extraction process was X1 of 34 min, X2 of 46.5% and X3 of 1:63 g/mL, and the extraction yield was 9.59%, which was well matched with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity assay indicated that the phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus urinaria have a good antioxidant activity. <![CDATA[Evaluation of antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total catechin content (TCC) of 10 sugar apple (<em>Annona squamosa</em> L.) cultivar peels grown in Thailand]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500294&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total catechin content were analyzed in the ethanol extracts of 10 sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) cultivar peels grown in Thailand. Antioxidant activity assays carried out in the this study were the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC). ‘Nhur Thong’, ‘Nung Keaw’, and ‘Fai Keaw’ showed high percentage fruit peel (over 38.0%). ‘Nhur Thong’, ‘Nung Keaw’, and ‘Fai Keaw’ ethanol extracts possessed high antioxidant capacities in the majority of methods used, and thus could be potential candidate of natural antioxidants. ‘Fai Keaw’ showed the best activity in the ABTS (1.57 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), FRAP (0.43 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), and ORAC assays (2.84 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), as well as the highest content of TPC (140.4 mg) per gram dry sugar apple peel among the 10 cultivars. TPC showed a positive correlation compared with all antioxidant activity assays. In conclusion, ‘Fai Keaw’ could be utilized as an excellent phenolic compound source for functional food products. <![CDATA[Effects of storage conditions on phytochemical and stability of purple corn cob extract powder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500301&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract Recently, purple corn cob has been gaining popularity for a dietary supplement and natural colorant. However, phytochemicals in waxy purple corn cob (WPC) are likely degraded during storage; thus, the microencapsulation by spray drying was used for lengthening those compounds. This work focused on the phenolic and anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (AOA) in WPC extract microcapsules by hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) during storage at 4 and 30 °C for 60 days. The results revealed that only peonodin-3-glucoside at 30 °C was found as a higher decrease than 4 °C. Pelagonidin-3-glucoside and AOA were found more stable at both storage temperatures; however, the increase of protocatechuic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid were observed during storage, especially at 30 °C. Consequently, the storage under 4 °C was appropriate to maintain the phytochemical content in WPC extract powder. <![CDATA[Quality of high-protein diet bar plus chia (<em>Salvia hispanica</em> L.) grain evaluated sensorially by untrained tasters]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500306&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The objective of this study was to develop, analyze composition and evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of high-protein diet bars (PB) with the addition of chia grain (Salvia hispanica L.), partially replacing isolated soy protein and concentrated whey protein, in proportions of 0, 10, 15 and 20%. The proximate composition was analyzed of PB, for microbiological quality of Bacillus cereus, Filamentous fungi and yeast count, total fecal coliforms, and Salmonella ssp. search. Sensory analysis was performed utilizing acceptance testing of characteristics on a nine-point hedonic scale for various attributes, including purchasing intention of the tested PB. Bars showed 20% moisture, 2.3% ash, 20-23% protein and 19% lipids. The effect of increasing of chia was to increase crude fiber content and decrease total carbohydrate and total energy value. All samples were within the microbiological food standards established by current legislation. All PB formulations obtained a good overall impression index and all characteristics were above mean grades, with the exception of taste (63%) in the PB containing 0% chia. Chia grain has a positive influence on sensory aspects and appears to be an alternative way to increase the nutritional quality of high-protein diet bars. <![CDATA[Jambolan sherbets overrun, color, and acceptance in relation to the sugar, milk, and pulp contents in formulation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500313&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in sherbet formation the effects of sugar, milk, and jambolan pulp quantity on the overrun, color, physicochemical characteristics, microbiological characteristics, and acceptance of the experimental sherbets, in addition to evaluating the bioactive compounds of the selected product. Seven formulations were established through the Simplex method. The formulation with 20g 100g-1 sugar, 45g 100g-1 milk, and 35g 100g-1 jambolan pulp was selected (S5) because it was included among the most accepted sensorially (S4 and S5), and also presented higher overrun, chroma, SST/AT, and pH than S4, receiving the scores 8.0; 8.2, 6.4 and 7.1 and 6.1, respectively, for appearance, color, flavor, texture, and odor. The selected sherbet presented a high total phenolic compound content of 192mg gallic acid g-1, and a percentage of DPPH inhibition of 73%. It is concluded that it is possible to produce jambolan sherbet with desirable physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics, which can increase the possibilities of applying the fruit as an ingredient in the edible ice cream industry. <![CDATA[Comparison and correlation analysis of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid contents in different strains of <em>Acer truncatum</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500319&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The morphological characteristics, total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) contents of leaves from different strains of Acer truncatum were analyzed with the goal of providing guidance for the development and utilization of Acer truncatum leaves (ATLs) and a selection system for the medicinal cultivar of Acer truncatum species. The morphological characteristics of the ATLs were determined using conventional methods, and TFC and CGA were used to determine the ATL extract by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. The results showed that most traits significantly differed among the ATL morphologies of different strains and that considerable variability was found between different strains in both TFC (15.04 to 35.18 mg/g) and CGA (0.17 to 0.77 mg/g). The CGA content of ATLs could be improved by selecting for leaf lobe length (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.551*). Principal component analysis showed that the variations in the ATLs were primarily determined by four comprehensive factors: shape, TFC, angle, and petiole. The TOPSIS method was used to obtain the quality of medicinal Acer truncatum resources: Clone No. ‘1-6’, Clone No. ‘1-7’ and Clone No. ‘5-4’. <![CDATA[Physiology and quality of 'Tahiti' acid lime coated with nanocellulose-based nanocomposites]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500327&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological response and quality of the ‘Tahiti’ acid lime coated with carboxymethylcellulose (N-CMC), pectin (N-PEC) and starch (N-ST) nanocomposites based on cellulose nanocrystals (NC). Respiratory rate, ethylene production, loss of fresh weight, total chlorophyll and fruit firmness were evaluated during 9 days of storage. At the end of storage, only fruits coated with N-CMC and N-PEC exhibited significantly lower ethylene yield (0.92 and 0.98 μg C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively) than fruits coated with CMC and PEC (1.6 and 2.02 μg C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively). On the 3rd day of storage, fruits coated with N-PEC showed a respiratory rate (12.01 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1) similar to the fruits of the control (13.52 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1), but it was significantly lower than the fruits coated with PEC (14.93 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1). Only fruits coated with N-PEC showed significantly lower fresh weight losses than the control fruits. Fruits coated with N-PEC had chlorophyll retention levels (18.95 mg g-1) higher than fruits with PEC (13.25 mg g-1). This work showed that the N-PEC nanocomposite, based on NC, was the coating that showed greater potential for preserving quality of the ‘Tahiti’ acid lime. <![CDATA[Extraction of matrine from <em>Sophora flavescens</em> Ait. and evaluation of its inhibitory effects on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500333&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The present study investigated the extraction and purification technology of matrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. and the inhibitory effects of matrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE-2 cells. The matrine was extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait. by decocting using ethanol-aqueous solution as the solvent, followed by purification using ion exchange resin adsorption. The extraction and purification conditions were investigated. The effects of matrine on growth, cell apoptosis and cycle of CNE-2 cells and expressions of Bac-2 and caspase-3 protein in cells were detected. Results showed that, the optimal extraction and purification technologies of matrine from Sophora flavescens Ait. were obtained, under which the purity of matrine was 81.56%. Matrine could obtain inhibit the growth of CNE-2 cells, promote the cell apoptosis, and arrest most cells in G0/G1 phase. In addition, after treated matrine, the relative expression level of Bcl-2 protein in CNE-2 cells was decreased, and the expression level of Caspase-3 protein was increased. In conclusion, matrine has inhibitory effects on human NPC CNE-2 cells. The mechanism may be related to its down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulation of Caspase-3 protein expression. <![CDATA[Influences of chia flour and the concentration of total solids on the characteristics of ‘dulce de leche’ from goat milk]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500338&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract A factorial categorical design totalling six treatments was applied to investigate the influence of the substitution of corn starch with whole and partially defatted chia flour under the technical characteristics (centesimal composition, instrumental analyses, and sensory evaluation) and nutritional disorders (composition of fatty acids and index of the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction) of ‘dulce de leche’ concentrated to 72 and 78 °B. The treatments with chia flour concentrated to 72 °B showed higher moisture content and lower compression force, and when the concentration range increased to 78 °B, the levels of total lipids amounted up to 1.40 times when compared to treatment with corn starch. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 and omega-6 levels, were higher in treatments with chia flour on both tracks of concentration, allowing a reduction in the atherogenic index and thrombogenic index effects and the n-6/n-3 ratio. The treatments of ‘dulce de leche’ with a lower concentration of soluble solids obtained greater acceptance and consumer purchase intention. The application of whole chia flour in small proportions and in the concentration of 72 °B was the most appropriate under the studied conditions, showing improvement in the nutritional quality and with good technical aspects of candy made with goat milk. <![CDATA[Quality analysis of microwave dried iron yam chips controlled by infrared thermal imaging]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500345&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract The aim was to study the real-time temperature control by infrared thermography and the quality changes of the iron yam chips during drying processes. Microwave (MW) and heat pump (HP) were used to dry iron yam chips at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The material surface temperatures were online controlled by infrared thermal imaging system in the process of microwave drying. Temperature, drying efficiency, texture and color were estimated. The experimental results were shown on the basis of drying process characteristics and dried product qualities. Temperature fluctuations became more violent with the increase of drying time and drying temperature, and had a negative impact on the quality of dried iron yam chips. There were no significant differences of hardness and cohesiveness between both drying methods. The springiness and chewiness values of iron yams dried by HP were lower than samples dried by MW. It is worth noting that lightness and white index values of the iron yam chips dried by microwave at 70°C were obviously lower (p &lt; 0.05) than the fresh samples and the iron yam chips dried by heat pump. <![CDATA[Performance, fatty acids profile and oxidative stability of meat of rabbits fed different lipid sources]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612018000500351&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Abstract To evaluate the use of different lipid sources in diets of growing rabbits, 60 New Zealand White rabbits were evaluated on performance, carcass traits, meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen meat. The experiment was distributed in a randomized block design, in five treatments, with six replicates and two animals per experimental unit (one male and one female). The treatments consisted of five isonutritive diets, with 2.5% soybean oil (SO), sunflower oil (SFO), cottonseed oil (CO), beef tallow (BT) and poultry fat (PF). There was no effect (P &gt; 0.05) of dietary lipid sources on animal performance, carcass traits and meat composition (P &gt; 0.05). Dietary inclusion of beef tallow resulted in a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat compared to vegetable oils. The values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicated higher oxidation in the frozen meat of the animals fed with sunflower oil, cottonseed oil and bovine tallow in their diets. In conclusion, vegetable oils and animal fats can be included in growing rabbit diets without impair performance and meat quality parameters. Dietary inclusion of soybean oil is more advantageous because it promotes the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and greater lipid stability of refrigerated and frozen rabbit meat.