Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320170006&lang=en vol. 44 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Does trait mindfulness level affect quitting cannabis use? A six week follow-up study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600139&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Only 29% of cannabis dependent individuals seek treatment, yet significant decreases in cannabis use are seen in 31-36% of individuals that seek treatment. Follow-up studies have found that over 60% in substance use disorders end in relapse, leading to potentially chronic and relapsing cases. New and effective therapies should be researched in order to increase the success of relapse prevention treatments. Objective: In this study we aimed to evaluate the relationship between trait mindfulness level, substance dependence severity and quitting cannabis use. Methods: A hundred and sixty four patients, diagnosed with cannabis dependence, were involved in the study; socidemographic datas were recorded and Addiction Profile Index (API), Mindfuness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) were carried out. Results: We found that the trait mindfulness level is significantly related with quitting cannabis use. Discussion: Trait mindfulness may be an important determining factor of the ability to quit substance use and achieve remission. <![CDATA[<em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection and chronic schizophrenia: is there any association?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600145&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Objectives: Herein, we sought to evaluate the association between T. gondii infection and clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 48 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 40 controls. Peripheral blood was drawn, and IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies were evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Depressive, positive and negative symptoms were assessed, respectively, by the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive performance was assessed in patients by the Brazilian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS-BR). Quality of life was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Quality of Life in Schizophrenia scale (QLS-BR). Results: The prevalence and titers of T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies did not differ between patients and controls. The positive serology for T. gondii IgG antibodies was not associated with illness symptoms, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms or quality of life. Discussion: Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis infection is not associated with severity of symptoms, quality of life, cognitive or depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. <![CDATA[Effects of sodium nitroprusside in the prevention of schizophrenia-like symptoms induced by ketamine – A translational double-blind study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600149&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Recent evidence has shown improvements in schizophrenia symptoms after the infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. In the rat model of schizophrenia using ketamine injection, pretreatment with SNP seems to prevent behavioral changes associated with positive symptoms for up to one week. Objective: We investigated whether SNP would have preventative effects on psychogenic symptoms induced by ketamine in healthy subjects. Methods: Healthy subjects (N = 38) were assigned to distinct groups that received SNP in different doses (0.15, 0.25, and 0.5 mcg/kg/min). First, participants received an infusion of SNP or placebo over 75 minutes. After 10 minutes, they were injected for 1 minute with a bolus of 0.26 mg/kg of ketamine and a maintenance dose was started 5 minutes later, with 0.25 mg/kg/h of ketamine for 50 minutes. Results: Ketamine-induced psychopathological alterations induced were reduced by SNP, as assessed with the Brief Psychological Rating Scale. Scores in the objective subscale of the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale were also lower in SNP sessions compared to placebo. SNP had protective effects against deterioration in facial emotion and identity recognition tasks induced by ketamine. Discussion: Our findings support the view that SNP has preventative properties against psychotic manifestations. <![CDATA[Beyond the DSM: trends in psychiatry diagnoses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600154&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Although widely used in clinical practice and research, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses have low validity: patients with different mental disorders can share similar symptoms, while those with the same diagnosis might have different symptoms. In fact, the DSM diagnostic system has been considered one of the main obstacles for further development of psychiatric research. Recently, it has been proposed that psychiatry nosology should be reframed according to a biologically-based etiology. Objectives: To review present and past endeavors of establishing an etiology-based nosology. Methods: Comprehensive review of articles on the topic. Results: From Hippocrates onwards, multiple attempts have been undertaken aiming to move etiology and nosology closer. The most recent efforts are represented by Developmental Psychopathology (DP) and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), which presents an operational matrix recommended to be used in clinical research instead of the DSM diagnoses. Discussion: The DSM-based nosology is faulty. RDoC and DP might be interesting alternatives for an etiology-based nosology. However, while DP has already brought promising results, RDoC is a novel proposal, whose advantages and disadvantages should gradually be identified in the upcoming years. <![CDATA[Social skills and well-being among family caregivers to patients with Alzheimer’s disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600159&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Caring for a demented relative is frequently associated with burden; yet, a subset of family caregivers may experience it as rewarding. Certain characteristics, including personality factors, may render caregivers more resilient to stress and therefore attenuate the perception of burden and its impact on quality of life. Objective: To determine the association between social skills and well being among family caregivers to patients with dementia. Methods: Forty-one family caregivers to patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) were assessed with Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette) and the Zarit Burden Interview; quality of life was estimated with WHO-QoL-bref questionnaire. Results: We found positive correlations between total SSI scores and the psychological (r = 0.450; p = 0.003) and environmental (r = 0.408; p = 0.008) domains of WHO-QoL-bref. The SSI factor ‘self-control of aggressiveness’ (SSI-F5) was negatively correlated with the magnitude of caregiver burden (r = -0.483; p = 0.001) and positively associated with the psychological domain of WHO-QoL-bref (r = 0.446; p = 0.003). Caregivers with better ‘self-assertion in the expression of positive affect’ (SSI-F2) also had better ‘social relationships’ according to WHO-QoL-bref (r = 0.402; p = 0.009). Discussion: The availability of more sophisticated repertoires of social skills may render family caregivers more resilient to burden, preserving their quality of life while enduring this task. <![CDATA[DSM-V and the diagnostic role of psychotic delusions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000600162&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Caring for a demented relative is frequently associated with burden; yet, a subset of family caregivers may experience it as rewarding. Certain characteristics, including personality factors, may render caregivers more resilient to stress and therefore attenuate the perception of burden and its impact on quality of life. Objective: To determine the association between social skills and well being among family caregivers to patients with dementia. Methods: Forty-one family caregivers to patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) were assessed with Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette) and the Zarit Burden Interview; quality of life was estimated with WHO-QoL-bref questionnaire. Results: We found positive correlations between total SSI scores and the psychological (r = 0.450; p = 0.003) and environmental (r = 0.408; p = 0.008) domains of WHO-QoL-bref. The SSI factor ‘self-control of aggressiveness’ (SSI-F5) was negatively correlated with the magnitude of caregiver burden (r = -0.483; p = 0.001) and positively associated with the psychological domain of WHO-QoL-bref (r = 0.446; p = 0.003). Caregivers with better ‘self-assertion in the expression of positive affect’ (SSI-F2) also had better ‘social relationships’ according to WHO-QoL-bref (r = 0.402; p = 0.009). Discussion: The availability of more sophisticated repertoires of social skills may render family caregivers more resilient to burden, preserving their quality of life while enduring this task.