Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320150001&lang=en vol. 42 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Stress and coping in a sample of medical students in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background Medical training is a stressing situation, making medical students vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Objective The study aimed to assess the prevalence of stress and coping in students of a public medical school in Brazil, comparing the groups from the first and sixth years of training. Methods Through a cross-sectional, observational study, a sample of 232 first and sixth-year regularly registered medical students has been evaluated. Students filled a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms (ISSL), and the Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI). Results From the total sample of 232 students, 110 were first-year students and 122 sixth-year students. Stress symptoms were significantly higher in first-year students (49.1%) than in the sixth-year group (33.6%; p = 0.018). Variables significantly associated with stress were: year of the training (1st year &gt; 6th year), income (lower &gt; higher income), satisfaction with the training (dissatisfied &gt; satisfied) and the use of escape/avoidance copying strategy (positive association). Discussion Considering the higher stress symptoms among first-year medical students and the positive association of the escape/avoidance copying strategy with stress, strategies must be developed to enable students starting medical school to be better at coping with this stressful situations. <![CDATA[Factors related to positive and negative outcomes in psychiatric inpatients in a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit: a proposal for an outcomes index]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background General Hospital Psychiatric Units have a fundamental importance in the mental health care systems. However, there is a lack of studies regarding the level of improvement of patients in this type of facility. Objective To assess factors related to good and poor outcomes in psychiatric inpatients using an index composed by clinical parameters easily measured. Methods Length of stay (LOS), Global Assessment of Functioning (variation and at discharge) and Clinical Global Impression (severity and improvement) were used to build a ten-point improvement index (I-Index). Records of psychiatric inpatients of a general hospital during an 18-month period were analyzed. Three groups (poor, intermediate and good outcomes) were compared by univariate and multivariate models according to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were included, with a percentage in the groups with poor, regular and good outcomes of 16.4%, 59,6% and 24.0% respectively. Poor outcome at the discharge was associated mainly with lower education, transient disability, antipsychotics use, chief complaint “behavioral change/aggressiveness” and psychotic features. Multivariate analysis found a higher OR for diagnoses of “psychotic disorders” and “personality disorders” and others variables in relation to protective categories in the poor outcome group compared to the good outcome group. Discussion Our I-Index proved to be an indicator of that allows an easy and more comprehensive evaluation to assess outcomes of inpatients than just LOS. Different interventions addressed to conditions such as psychotic disorders and disruptive chief complaints are necessary. <![CDATA[Trust and expectation on psychiatrist and its correlation with satisfaction and adherence in patients with mental illness]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background Trust and expectation are important aspect of doctor patient relationship and its role in patient’s satisfaction and medication adherence is unclear. Objective To study the levels of trust and expectation on psychiatrist and its relationship with patient’s satisfaction and treatment adherence. Methods One hundred and twenty three consecutive outpatients were recruited on follow-up if they satisfied the selection criteria. They were assessed with socio-demographic and clinical proforma designed for this study, Patient Trust Scale, Patient Satisfaction Survey, Patient Expectations Questionnaire and Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Results There was a high mean score on trust scale (Mean 38.9, SD 8.5) and expectation questionnaire (Mean 13.5, SD 3.3). On Kruskal-Wallis H test significant group differences were observed in nuclear vs joint family type (c2 = 18.496, h2 = .151, df = 1, Sig. = .000) and knowledge of treatment option (medication only vs medication + psychotherapy) treatment option (c2 = 18.100, h2 = .148, df = 2, Sig. = .000) and occupational status (employed vs unemployed) (c2 = 3.165, h2 =.029, df = 1, Sig. = .056) on the score of PTS. Similar differences were also observed in method of treatment sought before (no treatment vs allopathic) (c2 = .065, h2 = .065, df = 3, Sig. = .005), knowledge about treatment option (medication only vs medication + psychotherapy) (c2 = .026, h2 = .161, df = 2, Sig. = .000) and occupation (employed vs unemployed) (c2 = .061, h2 = .061, df = 1, Sig. = .006) on the score of PEQ. On regression analysis (R2 = .723, F = 156.46, p = .000) value of the score on patient satisfaction was statistically significant as predicted by score on measure of expectation (beta = -0.095, t = -1.966, p = 0.052) and trust (beta = .842, t = 17.504, p = .000). Discussion Levels of patients trust and expectation on physician varies with knowledge about treatment option &amp; occupational status, and significantly associated with levels of satisfaction. <![CDATA[Post stroke depression: clinics, etiopathogenesis and therapeutics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Neuropsychiatric disorders are often associated with stroke and, among them, depression is the most prevalent. Post-stroke Depression (PSD) is related to disability, failure in returning to work, impairment in interpersonal functioning and mortality. Its etiopathogenesis is still uncertain, as well as its treatment. In Brazil, there are few data on the impact of PSD. Objective This work is dedicated to conduct a comprehensive review of the concept of PSD, its pathophysiology, morbidity and treatment. Methods PubMed, Medline and Lilacs searches of relevant terms yielded 3,265 papers in the last 10 years. We selected original studies and reviews that addressed the aspects mentioned above. Results We present the history of the notion of PSD and describe its epidemiology, looking to highlight Brazilian studies. Diagnostic criteria and clinical presentation were detailed, with emphasis on cognitive aspects. The four main pathophysiological theories proposed to PSD are presented and we discuss the various treatment strategies, involving psychopharmacologic options, brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy. Discussion This work provides comprehensive information on PSD, of great utility for clinical practice and research in this topic. <![CDATA[Associations between chronic pelvic pain and psychiatric disorders and symptoms]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a complex condition wich is associated with emotional factors, specially depression and anxiety. Objectives To make a systematic review to provide a detailed summary of relevant literature on the association between CPP and different psychiatric disorders/symptoms. Methods A systematic review of articles in the international literature published between 2003 and 2014 was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO using the terms (chronic pelvic pain) AND (psychiatry OR psychiatric OR depression OR anxiety OR posttraumatic stress OR somatoform). The searches returned a total of 529 matches that were filtered according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 18 articles were selected. Results The investigations focused mainly on the assessment of depression and anxiety disorders/symptoms, with rather high rates (17-38.6%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent among women with CPP compared to healthy groups. Comparisons between groups with CPP and with specific pathologies that also have pain as a symptom showed that depression indicators are more frequent in CPP. Depressive symptoms tend to be more common in CPP and have no particular association with pain itself, the core feature of CPP. Discussion Other aspects of CPP seem to play a specific role in this association. Anxiety and other psychiatric disorders require further investigation so that their impact on CPP can be better understood. <![CDATA[The relationship between mental disorder and violence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832015000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a complex condition wich is associated with emotional factors, specially depression and anxiety. Objectives To make a systematic review to provide a detailed summary of relevant literature on the association between CPP and different psychiatric disorders/symptoms. Methods A systematic review of articles in the international literature published between 2003 and 2014 was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO using the terms (chronic pelvic pain) AND (psychiatry OR psychiatric OR depression OR anxiety OR posttraumatic stress OR somatoform). The searches returned a total of 529 matches that were filtered according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 18 articles were selected. Results The investigations focused mainly on the assessment of depression and anxiety disorders/symptoms, with rather high rates (17-38.6%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent among women with CPP compared to healthy groups. Comparisons between groups with CPP and with specific pathologies that also have pain as a symptom showed that depression indicators are more frequent in CPP. Depressive symptoms tend to be more common in CPP and have no particular association with pain itself, the core feature of CPP. Discussion Other aspects of CPP seem to play a specific role in this association. Anxiety and other psychiatric disorders require further investigation so that their impact on CPP can be better understood.