Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320160005&lang=es vol. 43 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Cross-cultural adaptation of the Events Schedule-Alzheimer’s Disease to Brazilian Portuguese]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500095&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Engagement in pleasant activities for elders with cognitive impairment may improve mood and reduce behavior problems. The Pleasant Events Schedule-Alzheimer’s Disease (PES-AD) has been described as a useful tool for this purpose, and its transcultural adaptation allows professionals to aid caretakers and elders in identifying pleasurable activities. Objective Submit the PES-AD to process of cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The PES-AD was submitted to a five-stage process of cross-cultural adaptation as follows: 1) translation; 2) summary of translation; 3) back-translation; 4) evaluation of equivalences: semantic, idiomatic, cultural, conceptual; and 5) pre-testing. Results The five-stage process was conducted on 36 items and three were adjusted. In the evaluation of equivalencies, four items had a level of agreement less than 0.8 and so were modified according to judges’ suggestions. Discussion Submitting the PES-AD to a five-stage, cross-cultural adaptation maintained the original instrument’s content validity. <![CDATA[The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in primary care: applicability and psychometric characteristics of the original and short form]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500103&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has negative implications for people’s lives, but is often underdiagnosed in the elderly. There is a shortage of instruments to assess geriatric anxiety. Objectives To analyze the applicability and psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form (GAI-SF) within primary care. Methods Fifty-five seniors were classified as non-demented by a multidisciplinary panel. The protocol included the GAI, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Depression Scale D-10, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Bayer Scale for Activities of Daily Living (B-ADL) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). A sub-sample also completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results The GAI and GAI-SF showed good internal consistency (0.89; 0.62, respectively) and test-retest stability (0.58, 0.97). The GAI and GAI-SF correlated significantly with the SRQ-20 (0.74, 0.55) and BAI (0.75, 0.58). Discussion The psychometric characteristics of the Brazilian versions of the GAI and GAI-SF suggest these instruments are suitable for application in the Brazilian elderly population within the primary care setting. <![CDATA[Social dysfunction and skills in schizophrenia: relationship with treatment response and severity of psychopathology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500107&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Social dysfunction is an important outcome for schizophrenia and can be measured by the evaluation of social skills. Objectives To compare social skills in patients with schizophrenia classified according the degree of treatment response and severity of psychopathology with normative controls by using the Del Prette Social Skills Inventory (SSI). Methods Cross-sectional study where the 38 questions SSI was applied to 62 outpatients with schizophrenia and compared with data of 99 normal controls from the general population. The SSI was evaluated by five domains. Psychopathology was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients were classified as Treatment Resistant (TRS) and Non Treatment Resistant (NTRS) by the International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project (IPAP) criteria. ANCOVA was used to control for demographic differences between populations. Results Patients showed significantly more impaired than controls except for aggressiveness control. When variables such as age, age of onset, schooling or medication dose entered as covariates, differences between controls and patients, or TRS with NTRS, almost disappeared. The SSI and PANSS showed an inverse relationship between their domains. Discussion The SSI may represent a useful tool for evaluation of social skills in schizophrenia. Antipsychotics may exert a protective effect on social skills. <![CDATA[Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500112&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population. <![CDATA[Interventions for music performance anxiety: results from a systematic literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500116&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Music performance anxiety (MPA) is characterised by fears related to performing music. It may result in damages to personal life and professional career, so treatment and prevention are very important. Objective To undertake a systematic literature review on the effectiveness/efficacy of MPA interventions and to integrate these findings to those in the literature reviewed previously. Methods We used PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases and keywords music*, performance anxiety, treatment, therapy and intervention and manual research. We selected articles published between October-2002/July-2016. Results Out of 97 articles, 23 were reviewed. Sixteen studies presented inter-group experimental design, and seven presented pre-post experimental design. The intervention modalities reviewed were cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), virtual reality exposure, biofeedback, yoga, meditation, music therapy and the Alexander technique. Although the interventions presented some indicators of efficacy in the MPA outcomes and improvement in performance quality, important methodological limitations were observed: low number of individuals and non-specific criteria for their inclusion/exclusion. This reinforces previous findings regarding methodological fragilities associated with this context. Discussion CBT is the most frequently studied modality and with the greatest number of effectiveness indicators. The remaining modalities indicate tendencies in positive outcomes that require further and efficient investigation in more rigorous studies with greater methodological control. <![CDATA[Resolution of Othello-like syndrome following ventricular shunting in a post traumatic normal pressure hydrocephalus subject]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000500132&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Music performance anxiety (MPA) is characterised by fears related to performing music. It may result in damages to personal life and professional career, so treatment and prevention are very important. Objective To undertake a systematic literature review on the effectiveness/efficacy of MPA interventions and to integrate these findings to those in the literature reviewed previously. Methods We used PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases and keywords music*, performance anxiety, treatment, therapy and intervention and manual research. We selected articles published between October-2002/July-2016. Results Out of 97 articles, 23 were reviewed. Sixteen studies presented inter-group experimental design, and seven presented pre-post experimental design. The intervention modalities reviewed were cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), virtual reality exposure, biofeedback, yoga, meditation, music therapy and the Alexander technique. Although the interventions presented some indicators of efficacy in the MPA outcomes and improvement in performance quality, important methodological limitations were observed: low number of individuals and non-specific criteria for their inclusion/exclusion. This reinforces previous findings regarding methodological fragilities associated with this context. Discussion CBT is the most frequently studied modality and with the greatest number of effectiveness indicators. The remaining modalities indicate tendencies in positive outcomes that require further and efficient investigation in more rigorous studies with greater methodological control.