Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320170005&lang=es vol. 44 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[False memories in social anxiety disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500113&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention. <![CDATA[Efficacy indicators of four methods in outpatient addiction treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500117&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background In Portugal, as far as we know, there are no recent studies that evaluated the comparative efficacy of therapeutic modalities in addiction problems by reference to a holistic and psychosocial model of effectiveness. Objectives Using a sample of Portuguese patients in outpatient treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, this study aimed to examine if a combined treatment modality (group therapy with individual intervention) had greater overall efficacy when compared to other three types of treatment without group therapy. Methods This is a correlational and cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of patients (N = 254) from an outpatient treatment in the Intervention Service on Addictive Behaviors and Substance Dependence. At the time of data collection, the patients were attending four types of treatment, such as receiving intervention based on individual psychological counseling (n = 66); receiving individual psychiatric counseling (n = 68); receiving both individual psychological and psychiatric counseling (n = 102); and receiving not only individual counseling (i.e., psychology or psychiatry), but also attending group therapy (n = 18). Results Using MANOVA and Wilks’s multivariate test criterion, there was a significant effect of treatment modality on the global efficacy, Λ = 0.88, F(9, 603) = 3.75, p &lt; 0.0001. Examination of mean estimates indicated that patients in a combined therapeutic modality revealed more treatment involvement compared to patients in other therapeutic modalities without group therapy. Discussion The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of integrating interventions in a collaborative way. A combined therapeutic modality, adding group therapy, was associated with positive effects, such as more levels of peer support and involvement in treatment, and increasing the individual’s probability to remain abstinent. <![CDATA[Burnout syndrome and coping strategies in Portuguese oncology health care providers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500122&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Burnout is a multidimensional syndrome and includes symptoms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment at work. Oncology health care providers are at high risk to develop symptoms of burnout because of work-related stressors. Adaptive coping strategies adopted to deal with stressors may prevent the development of burnout. Objective The present study aims to assess the association between burnout, functional coping strategies, and occupational factors in a sample of oncology providers, mostly nurses. Methods Sociodemographic Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Problem Solving Inventory “Inventário de Resolução de Problemas” were administered. Descriptive, correlational, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results The study showed that emotional exhaustion correlated with lower levels of adaptive coping, less years of experience in Oncology, and a greater amount of hours worked per week. Personal accomplishment was associated with the adaptive coping strategies. No further statistically significant associations were identified. Discussion Our findings support the importance of adaptive coping strategies in order to prevent symptoms of burnout when health professionals face potentially stressful occupational factors. Training aimed at improving adaptive coping skills may prevent burnout syndrome for health care professionals working in Oncology. <![CDATA[Music performance anxiety: a critical review of etiological aspects, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500127&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Music performance anxiety (MPA) is understood as a sub-type of social anxiety and is characterised by fears of a musical presentation. Objective To carry out a critical literature review on clinical and etiological aspects, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment of MPA. Methods Electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Lilacs as well as specific periodicals were used based on the key-words symptoms, diagnosis, aetiology, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment. Results MPA is highly prevalent among musicians (&gt; 16%), regardless of culture and formation. Cognitive, behavioural and physiological factors are associated with the aetiology of MPA, including biological and psychological predispositions. In addition, one should highlight factors related to the individual, aspects related to tasks and musical situation as perceived causes and/or predictor variables of MPA. As for the coping strategies, one can also highlight the use of breathing/relaxing techniques, increased musical practice, use of homeopathy and substances without medical prescription. Discussion MPA is impacting in the musician’s life. Despite the increasing interest in its study, it is necessary to better understand this complex phenomenon, mainly in the therapeutic context, in addition to the publicising and offering of services for prevention and treatment of MPA. <![CDATA[Is there seasonality in hospitalizations for major depressive disorder in Canada?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500134&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Canada, a temperate country with four defined seasons incurs an annual productivity loss of over $30 billion on major depressive disorder (MDD); however it remains unknown whether inpatient hospitalization for MDD exhibits seasonal variations. Objective Our study objective was to determine if there are seasonal variations in hospitalization rates for MDD in Canada. Methods We used time series analysis to determine monthly rates of hospitalizations for MDD from 2006 – 2013, on data from population level health-administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. We also stratified analysis by gender and three age groups: 18 to 39, 40 to 65 and those over 65. We compared demographic and comorbidity profiles of patients admitted in April, August and December to elucidate if patient characteristics differed by season of admission. Results We identified a total of 130,336 admissions for MDD for 95,439 unique patients. Baseline characteristics of the patients were similar across seasons. We did not detect significant seasonality of hospitalizations for MDD across any of the gender or age subgroups. Discussion Our results question the popularly held belief that hospitalizations for MDD vary with seasons. These findings highlight the need for uniform hospital resource allocation for MDD throughout the year in Canada. <![CDATA[Trismus secondary to valproate treatment in a woman with bipolar disorder: a case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832017000500137&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Canada, a temperate country with four defined seasons incurs an annual productivity loss of over $30 billion on major depressive disorder (MDD); however it remains unknown whether inpatient hospitalization for MDD exhibits seasonal variations. Objective Our study objective was to determine if there are seasonal variations in hospitalization rates for MDD in Canada. Methods We used time series analysis to determine monthly rates of hospitalizations for MDD from 2006 – 2013, on data from population level health-administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. We also stratified analysis by gender and three age groups: 18 to 39, 40 to 65 and those over 65. We compared demographic and comorbidity profiles of patients admitted in April, August and December to elucidate if patient characteristics differed by season of admission. Results We identified a total of 130,336 admissions for MDD for 95,439 unique patients. Baseline characteristics of the patients were similar across seasons. We did not detect significant seasonality of hospitalizations for MDD across any of the gender or age subgroups. Discussion Our results question the popularly held belief that hospitalizations for MDD vary with seasons. These findings highlight the need for uniform hospital resource allocation for MDD throughout the year in Canada.