Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320160002&lang=es vol. 43 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and mediumship: a comparative study between spiritist mediums and controls]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000200020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Mediumship and spirit possession are cultural phenomena found worldwide. The Spiritism, popular in Brazil, is a religious tradition that emphasizes mediumship. The “absorption hypothesis” (the association of marked increases in focused attention with concomitant decreases in self-awareness) is one of the neuropsychological explanatory theories for these experiences. We measured electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power in frontal electrodes within theta, alpha and beta bandwidths, as well as cross-regional cortical coherences, in female Spiritist experienced mediums (n = 10) and in female non-medium control subjects from the same religious context (n = 10). Scalp EEG signals were captured simultaneously from participants in each of the two groups in three different moments: before, during and immediately after mediumistically speaking. Compared to non-medium controls, the mediums had greater beta power on some electrodes in all phases of the experiment, greater theta power on one electrode at the communication phase and greater alpha power on one electrode at the post-communication phase. No condition effects (within-group comparisons) were detected in any group. No group effects were noted for cross regional cortical coherences. No ictal EEG pattern was observed, except for one participant in the mediums group. These findings support the hypothesis that absorption could have a mechanistic role in anomalous sensorial experiences such as mediumship. The coherence pattern in mediums during the anomalous experience differed from prior studies on pathological dissociation and on hypnotic states. Cognitive control processes seem to be engaged during the anomalous sensorial experiences. <![CDATA[Relationship between major depressive disorder and ACE gene I/D polymorphism in a Turkish population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000200027&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex disease and a significant health problem that is prevalent across the world. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has an important role in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and converts inactive angiotensin I to a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide angiotensin II. Levels of ACE in plasma vary according to the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of ACE gene. Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the influence ACE gene I/D variations on the risk of MDD. Methods In the present case-control study, we analyzed ACE I/D polymorphism in 346 MDD patients and 210 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction technique. Results Comparing the two groups, no significant difference was observed with regard to either genotype distributions or allele frequencies of the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. Discussion Our findings suggest that the ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with MDD in Turkish case-control study. Further studies are still needed. <![CDATA[Changing negative core beliefs with trial-based thought record]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000200031&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Trial-based thought record (TBTR) is a technique used in trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT), and simulates a court trial. It was designed to restructure unhelpful core beliefs (CBs) during psychotherapy. Objective To confirm previous findings on the efficacy of TBTR in decreasing patients’ adherence to self-critical and unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions, as well as assessing the differential efficacy of the empty-chair approach relative to the static format of TBTR. Methods Thirty-nine outpatients were submitted to a 50-minute, one-session, application of the TBTR technique in the empty-chair (n = 18) or conventional (n = 21) formats. Patients’ adherence to unhelpful CBs and the intensity of corresponding emotions were assessed after each step of TBTR, and the results obtained in each format were compared. Results Significant reductions in percent values both in the credit given to CBs and in the intensity of corresponding emotions were observed at the end of the session (p &lt; .001), relative to baseline values. ANCOVA also showed a significant difference in favor of the empty-chair format for both belief credit and emotion intensity (p = .04). Discussion TBTR may help patients reduce adherence to unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions and the empty-chair format seems to be more efficacious than the conventional format. <![CDATA[Music performance anxiety (MPA): endocrine variables and their impact on female]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000200034&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Trial-based thought record (TBTR) is a technique used in trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT), and simulates a court trial. It was designed to restructure unhelpful core beliefs (CBs) during psychotherapy. Objective To confirm previous findings on the efficacy of TBTR in decreasing patients’ adherence to self-critical and unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions, as well as assessing the differential efficacy of the empty-chair approach relative to the static format of TBTR. Methods Thirty-nine outpatients were submitted to a 50-minute, one-session, application of the TBTR technique in the empty-chair (n = 18) or conventional (n = 21) formats. Patients’ adherence to unhelpful CBs and the intensity of corresponding emotions were assessed after each step of TBTR, and the results obtained in each format were compared. Results Significant reductions in percent values both in the credit given to CBs and in the intensity of corresponding emotions were observed at the end of the session (p &lt; .001), relative to baseline values. ANCOVA also showed a significant difference in favor of the empty-chair format for both belief credit and emotion intensity (p = .04). Discussion TBTR may help patients reduce adherence to unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions and the empty-chair format seems to be more efficacious than the conventional format. <![CDATA[Sudden onset of Cotard’s syndrome as a clinical sign of brain tumor]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000200035&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background Trial-based thought record (TBTR) is a technique used in trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT), and simulates a court trial. It was designed to restructure unhelpful core beliefs (CBs) during psychotherapy. Objective To confirm previous findings on the efficacy of TBTR in decreasing patients’ adherence to self-critical and unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions, as well as assessing the differential efficacy of the empty-chair approach relative to the static format of TBTR. Methods Thirty-nine outpatients were submitted to a 50-minute, one-session, application of the TBTR technique in the empty-chair (n = 18) or conventional (n = 21) formats. Patients’ adherence to unhelpful CBs and the intensity of corresponding emotions were assessed after each step of TBTR, and the results obtained in each format were compared. Results Significant reductions in percent values both in the credit given to CBs and in the intensity of corresponding emotions were observed at the end of the session (p &lt; .001), relative to baseline values. ANCOVA also showed a significant difference in favor of the empty-chair format for both belief credit and emotion intensity (p = .04). Discussion TBTR may help patients reduce adherence to unhelpful CBs and corresponding emotions and the empty-chair format seems to be more efficacious than the conventional format.