Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320160006&lang=pt vol. 43 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Predictors of retention in a multicomponent treatment for smokers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600134&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors that promote or hinder retention of smokers in treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was the identification of variables that predict retention of smokers who received a multicomponent treatment against smoking. Method: Participants (n = 79) simultaneously received pharmacological and psychological treatment, including an intervention phase prior to the date of smoking cessation. They were evaluated periodically in their abstinence, depressive and anxious symptoms, and were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions (nicotine patch, bupropion or nicotine patch + bupropion). Eighteen variables were grouped into four categories (demographic, consumption pattern, mood and treatment). Data were analyzed using student's t test and X2, for inclusion into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Results indicate that age of onset of regular tobacco consumption, secondary education and bupropion pharmacological treatment are significant in relation to the retention of smokers to smoking treatment. Discussion: The reported “age of onset” correlates with treatment retention (OR = 1.545, 95 % CI = 1.175-2.032). This variable has not previously been reported in the literature, and taking it into account in the design of prevention and treatment for smoking could increase their success. <![CDATA[Diagnosing social anxiety in Parkinson's disease: characteristics and frequencies according to two diagnostic criteria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600139&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Studies found inconsistent frequencies of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) (9.7%-50%). Previous reports did not test the impact of applying DSM-IV restrictive criteria that recommends the exclusion of secondary cases when diagnosing SAD in PD. Objective: Our aim is to estimate the frequency of social anxiety according to DSM-IV criteria and according to an inclusive broader approach. Methods: One hundred and ten PD patients were assessed for the presence of SAD using SCID-I, diagnosis of social anxiety were determined according to two different criteria: following and not following DSM-IV recommendation for exclusion of cases though to be secondary to a general medical condition. Results: SAD was present in 34 (31%) of patients, but 17 (15.5%) were secondary to a general medical condition. Patients with SAD were significantly younger, had earlier disease onset, had more severe PD symptoms, and were more frequently depressed. There was no difference in demographic and clinical features between primary and secondary SAD. Discussion: We conclude that the use of different diagnostic criteria may have a massive impact in the estimation of frequency of SAD in PD. <![CDATA[Simple markers for subclinical inflammation in the different phases of bipolar affective disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600143&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Recently, a growing number of publications have suggested that the immune-inflammatory system may be involved in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW) in the three different phases of BD patients compared to each other and controls. Methods: One hundred eighty-seven bipolar patients (78 euthymic, 53 manic/hypomanic and 56 depressed), and 62 age and sex matched controls were enrolled. Sociodemographic variables and complete blood count parameters of the patients and the control group were recorded. Results: The groups did not differ from each other on the hematological parameters, except for NLR and RDW. Post-hoc analyses revealed that NLR values were significantly higher in the euthymic and manic/hypomanic bipolar groups compared to control group. In addition, post-hoc analyses revealed that RDW values were significantly higher in the manic/hypomanic bipolar group relative to the control group. Discussion: Longitudinal studies evaluating the levels of inflammatory markers in the early phases of the disorder, and their relationship with the development of different episodes and medical comorbidities may be useful to understand the role of inflammation in BD. <![CDATA[Psychopathological evaluation and use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a sample of Brazilian patients with post-stroke depression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600147&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Depression is the most frequent psychiatric complication of stroke and is often undetected or inadequately treated. Objective: This study aimed to characterize psychopathological aspects of Brazilian patients admitted to an acute stroke unit, and to evaluate the performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in detecting cases of depression. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty consecutive patients admitted to an acute stroke unit were assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Modified Rankin Scale, the Functional Independence Measure, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus, the HADS, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Pathological Laughing and Crying Scale. Results: Prevalence of depression was 26.7%. Patients with post-stroke depression were more likely to present diabetes (p &lt; 0.01) and had greater disability (p &lt; 0.001) and cognitive impairment (p &lt; 0.001) in comparison to non-depressed patients. Depressed patients showed worse performance specifically on tasks of attention/calculation and language of the MMSE. ROC curve analysis of HADS provided a cutoff value of 6 for detecting depression (sensitivity: 83.3%; specificity: 83.3%). The depression subscale of HADS (HADS-D) presented sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.17%. Discussion: HADS-D showed good performance in screening for depressive symptoms after acute stroke. <![CDATA[Arterial spin labeling in patients with schizophrenia: a systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600151&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Neuroimaging studies are an invaluable source of information about the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a new magnetic resonance technique (MRI) that is able to effectively evaluate brain function without the use of radiation. Objective: To make a systematic review of studies using ASL to compare resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods: Original articles were searched for on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO electronic databases. The search terms used were ‘arterial’, ‘spin’, ‘labeling’, and ‘schizophrenia’. Only studies comparing resting-state rCBF were included, a qualitative synthesis was then performed. Results: Ten articles were included in the review among a total of 22. Decreased rCBF in schizophrenia patients was described in the anterior cingulate, cuneus, fusiform gyrus, frontal lobe, left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and parietal lobe. The putamen was the only region with increased rCBF in schizophrenia. Discussion: The evidence of the studies reviewed lends support to the concept of hipofrontality in schizophrenia. rCBF alterations were found in regions classically associated with schizophrenia. ASL seems to be valid, and reliable tool to assess schizophrenia. <![CDATA[Major depressive disorder and delirium caused by antidepressant discontinuation in elderly patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000600157&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Neuroimaging studies are an invaluable source of information about the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a new magnetic resonance technique (MRI) that is able to effectively evaluate brain function without the use of radiation. Objective: To make a systematic review of studies using ASL to compare resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Methods: Original articles were searched for on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO electronic databases. The search terms used were ‘arterial’, ‘spin’, ‘labeling’, and ‘schizophrenia’. Only studies comparing resting-state rCBF were included, a qualitative synthesis was then performed. Results: Ten articles were included in the review among a total of 22. Decreased rCBF in schizophrenia patients was described in the anterior cingulate, cuneus, fusiform gyrus, frontal lobe, left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and parietal lobe. The putamen was the only region with increased rCBF in schizophrenia. Discussion: The evidence of the studies reviewed lends support to the concept of hipofrontality in schizophrenia. rCBF alterations were found in regions classically associated with schizophrenia. ASL seems to be valid, and reliable tool to assess schizophrenia.