Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320160004&lang=pt vol. 43 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Thought and language disorders in very early onset schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400067&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background Thought and language disorders are main features of adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders however studies on such abnormalities are scant in young patients with very early onset psychosis (VEOS). The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between language and thought disorders in patients with very early onset schizophrenia (SCZ), schizoaffective disorders (SCA) and bipolar disorders (BD). Method Forty-one patients (18 SCZ, 16 BD, and 7 SCA) with mean age less than 15 years old were assessed through a series of neurocognitive and psycholinguistic tests, including the Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLC). Results SCZ group performed worse in all tests as well as the TLC, followed by SCA and BD groups respectively. Thought disorders were related to deficits in executive functioning and semantic processing, and the metaphors’ test was the best predictor of TLC functioning. Discussion TD in SCZ, SCA and BD are one of the most important features in patients with VEOS and that the evaluation of metaphor comprehension can be an important instrument in the early detection of this disorder. <![CDATA[Relationships of anxiety and depressive symptoms with pain perception in post-mastectomy women. An intragroup analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400074&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background Breast cancer confronts women with a threat to life and is classified among the most traumatic life experiences. The disease is often accompanied by strong negative emotions, often in the form of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Studies also point to the presence of chronic pain breast-cancer survivors. Objective To determine the relationships of: (1) anxiety and depressive symptoms with the experienced severity and interference of pain in post-mastectomy women; (2) anxiety and depressive symptoms with beliefs about pain. Method The studied group consisted of 53 women after radical mastectomy, experiencing chronic pain, despite positive results of cancer treatment. IPQ-R (Illness Perception Questionnaire – Revised) and HADS (The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were applied. Results Correlation and regression analyses confirmed relationships of anxiety and depressive symptoms with pain in the group of post-mastectomy women. Cluster analysis separated three groups of patients, differing in the severity of depressive symptoms and anxiety. For each group, a different pattern of beliefs about pain was characteristic. Discussion The study has shown that psychological determinants play a significant role in the perception of pain severity and interference, which are related to anxiety, depressive symptoms and a system of beliefs about pain duration. <![CDATA[Patterns of chronic benzodiazepine use in the elderly]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400079&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background In several countries, prevalence studies demonstrate that chronic use of BZD in the elderly population is very high. This scenario has reached pandemic proportions for decades and is an important public health problem. Objectives To examine the independent association between chronic benzodiazepine use in depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, as well as other clinical and sociodemographic factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was developed from a population-based survey and conducted from March, 2011 to December, 2012 using a random sample of 550 elderly people who were enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data was collected from identifying epidemiological and health data (sociodemographic, self-perception health, self-reported diseases, smoking, alcohol and pharmacotherapeutic evaluation) and from the diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders. Results Elderly patients diagnosed with depression, anxiety, concomitant depression/anxiety and bipolar disorders, and those who were using antidepressants have a higher risk of benzodiazepine use. Individuals who self-reported drinking alcohol had a lower risk of benzodiazepine use. Discussion Benzodiazepines are often used by the elderly for long periods, which has a direct impact on the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and on vulnerable groups such as the elderly, who may be unnecessarily taking these drugs. <![CDATA[Heritability of social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of methodological designs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400083&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background The investigation of heritability stands out as an important means to establish the weight of genetic and environmental factors in the development of social anxiety disorder. Objective This study aims to make a critical review of methodological designs used in the investigation of the social anxiety disorder (SAD) heritability. Methods We reviewed 31 research articles published until October 2015 and found through the electronic search bases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus and manual searches in the reference lists of the selected references. Most of the investigations involved adult samples and twins to assess heritability. Results There was great variability in the screening and diagnostic instruments used in the studies, leading to different outcomes. Structural equation models proved to be the most adequate to assess SAD heritability, allowing better estimates of this aspect of the disorder. SAD heritability rates varied between 13% and 76% in the articles reviewed. Discussion We discuss methodological aspects that may affect the quality and the development of improved studies to investigate SAD heritability such as sample size, quality of screening instruments, and use of diagnostic interviews. More homogeneous investigations involving larger samples and standardized instruments and methods are desirable and opportune. <![CDATA[Quality of life in euthymic bipolar I patients: a prospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400093&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background The investigation of heritability stands out as an important means to establish the weight of genetic and environmental factors in the development of social anxiety disorder. Objective This study aims to make a critical review of methodological designs used in the investigation of the social anxiety disorder (SAD) heritability. Methods We reviewed 31 research articles published until October 2015 and found through the electronic search bases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus and manual searches in the reference lists of the selected references. Most of the investigations involved adult samples and twins to assess heritability. Results There was great variability in the screening and diagnostic instruments used in the studies, leading to different outcomes. Structural equation models proved to be the most adequate to assess SAD heritability, allowing better estimates of this aspect of the disorder. SAD heritability rates varied between 13% and 76% in the articles reviewed. Discussion We discuss methodological aspects that may affect the quality and the development of improved studies to investigate SAD heritability such as sample size, quality of screening instruments, and use of diagnostic interviews. More homogeneous investigations involving larger samples and standardized instruments and methods are desirable and opportune. <![CDATA[Study 329 and the use of paroxetine in child and adolescent unipolar depression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832016000400094&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background The investigation of heritability stands out as an important means to establish the weight of genetic and environmental factors in the development of social anxiety disorder. Objective This study aims to make a critical review of methodological designs used in the investigation of the social anxiety disorder (SAD) heritability. Methods We reviewed 31 research articles published until October 2015 and found through the electronic search bases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus and manual searches in the reference lists of the selected references. Most of the investigations involved adult samples and twins to assess heritability. Results There was great variability in the screening and diagnostic instruments used in the studies, leading to different outcomes. Structural equation models proved to be the most adequate to assess SAD heritability, allowing better estimates of this aspect of the disorder. SAD heritability rates varied between 13% and 76% in the articles reviewed. Discussion We discuss methodological aspects that may affect the quality and the development of improved studies to investigate SAD heritability such as sample size, quality of screening instruments, and use of diagnostic interviews. More homogeneous investigations involving larger samples and standardized instruments and methods are desirable and opportune.