Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-608320180005&lang=pt vol. 45 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Effectiveness of outpatient-based group cognitive-behavioral therapy in Japanese patients with mood disorders and neurotic disorders]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500107&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Although the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) has been studied, evidence is still not sufficient. Objective: The aim of the present study is to consider the effectiveness of GCBT with mood disorders and neurotic disorders. Methods: The present study assessed a total of 32 patients who were classified as F3 (mood disorders) or F4 (neurotic disorders) according to the ICD-10, and who attended GCBT sessions offered at The Tokai University Hospital. Depression and mood in these patients were assessed before and after GCBT by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: A comparison of pre- and post-GCBT CES-D scores among all patients as well as within F3 and F4 groups showed a significant decrease in CES-D scores after GCBT. As for the POMS, a comparison of pre- and post-GCBT scores among all patients showed a significant improvement in “vigor” and “confusion” scores after GCBT. Discussion: The present study demonstrated that GCBT can relieve depression and improve some mood states. Furthermore, the GCBT sessions offered proved to be effective even when administered to a group of participants consisting of both mood disorders and neurotic disorder patients. <![CDATA[The comparison of risky and ambiguity decision making and cool executive functions between patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and healthy controls]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500112&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Executive functioning has been evaluated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Cool and hot executive functioning discrimination provided a different way of conceptualising executive functions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare ambiguity and risky decision-making and cool executive functions in an OCD and a healthy control group. The relationship between decision-making and cool executive functioning was investigated. Methods: Sixty-two OCD patients and 48 healthy control participants were compared. Decision-making was measured using the Iowa Gambling Task. The cool executive functioning was assessed using the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Results: The OCD group completed the WCST and the Stroop Test statistically significantly with a lower score than that of the control group. The OCD group had impaired response inhibition and set-shifting that indicate impaired cool executive functioning. In contrast to a lack of a statistically significant difference, the risky decision-making performance was worse in the OCD group than in the healthy control group and in the unmedicated OCD patients than in the medicated OCD patients. Discussion: The OCD patients had a poorer performance in risky decision-making and cool executive functioning. There was a link between risky decision-making performance and impaired cool executive functions. <![CDATA[The relationships among impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity and nonsuicidal self-injury characteristics in patients with phobias]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500119&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: The relationship between impulsivity and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been revealed in several mental disorders other than phobias. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity, and NSSI characteristics in patients with phobias, and to compare these relationships with healthy controls. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of outpatients (n = 109) who had been diagnosed with social phobia, agoraphobia or simple phobia in addition to healthy individuals (n = 51) serving as the control group. Data collection tools were the socio-demographic form, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS), and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3). Results: Mean BIS-11 and ASI-3 scores in the social phobia and agoraphobia groups were found to be significantly higher than those in the control group. In addition, a positive correlation was found between ISAS and cognitive anxiety sensitivity scores in the agoraphobia and simple phobia groups. Discussion: The study revealed a positive correlation between cognitive anxiety sensitivity and NSSI in both the agoraphobia and simple phobia groups. The results of this study indicate that anxiety sensitivity may play a regulatory role between impulsivity and NSSI in some sub-groups of phobia. <![CDATA[How women with intimate partner violence (IPV) reason about other's intentions: effect of IPV on counterfactual inferences among healthy high socioeconomic level women from Turkey]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500125&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a specific type of human thought involving mental representations of alternatives to past situations by perceiving the immediate environment from an imagined perspective. CFT problems and deficits in counterfactual inference ability are related to psychopathologies. Objective: We aimed to assess the CFT in a sample of high sociocultural-healthy women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure to determine whether exposure to different types of IPV has effects on CFT. Methods: Three hundred thirty-six women recruited the study. Data was collected by Violence Exposure Questionnaire and Counterfactual Inference Test. Results: Compared with non-victims, physical IPV victims significantly generate fewer counter-factual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. In addition, the reaction of rumination (judgemental) in response to a temporal nearly happened event was significantly lower among both physical and emotional IPV victims. Among victims, deficits in the CIT is positively correlated with the number of physical, emotional and economic abuses but the degree of correlations were weak. Discussion: We demonstrated that IPV exposure is severe in healthy women at the high socioeconomic level and is associated with the decrease in CFT ability. <![CDATA[Association of mindfulness and impulsivity with obesity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500130&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: The prevalence of obesity has more than doubled over the past three decades. Impulsivity is a multidimensional personality trait that potentially contributes to the development and maintenance of obesity. Mindful awareness can potentially minimize the automatic and inattentive reactions around food. Objectives: In our study, we aimed to research the relationship between impulsivity and mindful attention. Methods: The study population consisted of 60 outpatients aged 18 and older, with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 30 kg/m2 presenting to the psychiatry clinics of a secondary health care facility. The participants completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results: The average age of participants was 39 years, BMI was 35.70 ± 4.54 kg/m2. BMI was not statistically significantly correlated with any of the scales, and the MAAS total score was negatively correlated with the impulsiveness scores, except for the motor impulsiveness subscale score. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively associated with impulsiveness scores, except for motor impulsiveness. Discussion: This study showed that there was a negative relationship between impulsivity and mindfulness. Therefore, using mindfulness techniques may decrease impulsivity, and may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviors and weight regulation. <![CDATA[The meaning of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: a risk factor or a specific form of dementia?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-60832018000500135&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: The prevalence of obesity has more than doubled over the past three decades. Impulsivity is a multidimensional personality trait that potentially contributes to the development and maintenance of obesity. Mindful awareness can potentially minimize the automatic and inattentive reactions around food. Objectives: In our study, we aimed to research the relationship between impulsivity and mindful attention. Methods: The study population consisted of 60 outpatients aged 18 and older, with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 30 kg/m2 presenting to the psychiatry clinics of a secondary health care facility. The participants completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results: The average age of participants was 39 years, BMI was 35.70 ± 4.54 kg/m2. BMI was not statistically significantly correlated with any of the scales, and the MAAS total score was negatively correlated with the impulsiveness scores, except for the motor impulsiveness subscale score. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively associated with impulsiveness scores, except for motor impulsiveness. Discussion: This study showed that there was a negative relationship between impulsivity and mindfulness. Therefore, using mindfulness techniques may decrease impulsivity, and may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviors and weight regulation.