Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-695X20140006&lang=en vol. 24 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Morpho-anatomical characteristics of Baccharis glaziovii in support of its pharmacobotany]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600609&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Baccharis glaziovii Baker, Asteraceae, also known as carqueja or carqueja-arbustinho, is a native shrub of Brazil that reaches 0.5-2.5 m in height. It is a dioecious species that blossoms from September to December. This species has cladodes, which are winged stems that belong to the “carquejas” and are widely used indiscriminately by the population due to their gastric and diuretic properties. Carquejas are included in section Caulopterae and are difficult to identify even for taxonomists or Baccharis specialists. In the present study, a morpho-anatomical (cladodes and leaves) analysis of the medicinal plant was undertaken to improve its identification and add to the knowledge of section Caulopterae. Fragments of cladodes and leaves were collected and prepared in accordance with standard optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The morpho-anatomical characteristics found in B. glaziovii, include three-winged stems showing wings in a regular arrangement around the stem axis, short and petiolate leaves, flagelliform and simple non-glandular trichomes, concave-convex midrib, petioles with a concave shape and a slight projection on the adaxial face and convex with three projections on the abaxial surface, and calcium oxalate crystals in the form of raphides, styloids and pyramidal in the perimedullary region of the cladode, when evaluated as a whole, provide support for the quality control. <![CDATA[Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600617&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluated regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity. <![CDATA[Dynamic accumulation of sesquiterpenes in essential oil of <em>Pogostemon cablin</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600626&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Sesquiterpenes Essential oil produced by patchouli was one of the most important naturally occurring base materials used in the perfume industry, containing various sesquiterpenes. Three different parts (leaves, stems and roots) of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., Lamiaceae, were profiled in relation to different maturation phases in this paper, evaluating the variations in content of the major sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. Twelve sesquiterpenes were analyzed by GC-MS throughout the maturity of P. cablin. Patchouli alcohol (37.54%-51.02% in leaves, 28.24%-41.96% in stems and 14.55%-35.12% in roots) was the major sesquiterpene during the maturation of the plant. The average content of several other sesquiterpenes (α-bulnesene, α-guaiene, seychellene, β-humulene and caryophyllene) were higher than 3% among leaves, stems and roots. The content of essential oil, patchouli alcohol, α-bulnesene and several other compounds were highly accumulated at 210 days of maturation after cultivation of P. cablin. Thus, this period was the best moment to exploit the maximum level of these high value-added compounds in P. cablin. Furthermore, our results indicated that the essential oil extracted from leaves of P. cablin has the highest potential to be used in the perfume industry. <![CDATA[Chemical diversity and antileishmanial activity of crude extracts of Laurencia complex (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600635&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chemical profiles of extracts of four species from Laurencia complex (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from different populations collected along Southeast Brazilian coast were assessed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a Diode Array Detector in order to observe geographic chemical variability. Aiming to evaluate the impact of chemical diversity on potential pharmaceutical uses, the extracts were tested against the promastigote form of Leishmania amazonensis. The most active extracts were submitted to anti-amastigote and cytotoxicity assays. Principal Component Analysis of the chromatograms resulted in four major groups of chemical profiles according to the presence of leishmanicidal chamigranes (-)-elatol and obtusol. The existence of chemotypes, displaying variable pharmacological action, is proposed for the differences observed in L. dendroidea samples. Although all extracts were found active against promastigote form of L. amazonensis, their efficacy was remarkably different and not related to the variation of (-)-elatol and obtusol, which indicates the presence of additional compounds with antileishmanial activity. Moreover, the active extracts also displayed anti-amastigote activity and none of them were considered cytotoxic. The results highlight that the knowledge of chemical geographic variability can be valuable in the search of new antileishmanial compounds from marine sources. <![CDATA[Nitric oxide production, inhibitory, antioxidant and antimycobacterial activities of the fruits extract and flavonoid content of <em>Schinus terebinthifolius</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600644&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The extract of the fruits from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, was obtained by exhaustive extraction with methanol. Its fractions and isolated compounds were collected by fractionation with RP-2 column chromatography. The crude extract, the flavonoid fraction and the isolated compound identified as apigenin (1), were investigated regarding its inhibitory action of nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated macrophages, antioxidant activity by DPPH and the antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The samples exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the nitric oxide production (e.g., 1, IC50 19.23 ± 1.64 µg/ml) and also showed antioxidant activity. In addition, S. terebinthifolius samples inhibited the mycobacterial growth ( e.g., 1, IC50 14.53 ± 1.25 µg/ml). The necessary concentration to produce 50% of the maximum response (IC50) of these activities did not elicit a significant cytotoxic effect when compared with the positive control (100% of lysis). The antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activity displayed by S. terebinthifolius corroborates its ethnopharmacological use of this specie as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, our results suggest that the flavonoids of S. terebinthifolius are responsible for the activities found. We, describe for the first time the activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the inhibition of nitric oxide production for S. terebinthifolius. <![CDATA[Halistanol sulfate A and rodriguesines A and B are antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents against the cariogenic bacterium <em>Streptococcus mutans</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600651&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the present investigation we report the antibacterial activity of halistanol sulfate A isolated from the sponge Petromica ciocalyptoides, as well as of rodriguesines A and B isolated from the ascidian Didemnum sp., against the caries etiologic agent Streptococcus mutans. The transcription levels of S. mutans virulence genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB, as well as of housekeeping genes groEL and 16S, were evaluated by sqRT-PCR analysis of S. mutans planktonic cells. There were no alterations in the expression levels of groEL and 16S after antimicrobial treatment with halistanol sulfate A and with rodriguesines A and B, but the expression of the genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB was down-regulated. Halistanol sulfate A displayed the most potent antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, with inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of biofilm-associated gene expression in planktonic cells. Halistanol sulfate A also inhibited the initial oral bacteria colonizers, such as Streptococcus sanguinis, but at much higher concentrations. The results obtained indicate that halistanol sulfate A may be considered a potential scaffold for drug development in Streptococcus mutans antibiofilm therapy, the main etiologic agent of human dental caries. <![CDATA[Antifungal activity and mechanism of action of monoterpenes against dermatophytes and yeasts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600660&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dermatomycosis causes highly frequent dermal lesions, and volatile oils have been proven to be promising as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of geraniol, nerol, citral, neral and geranial (monoterpenes), and terbinafine and anidulafungin (control drugs) against seven opportunistic pathogenic yeasts and four dermatophyte species was evaluated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution tests. Monoterpenes were more active against dermatophytes than yeasts (geometric mean of minimal inhibitory concentration (GMIC) of 34.5 and 100.4 µg.ml-1, respectively). Trichophyton rubrum was the fungal species most sensitive to monoterpenes (GMIC of 22.9 µg.ml-1). The trans isomers showed higher antifungal activity than the cis. The mechanism of action was investigated evaluating damage in the fungal cell wall (Sorbitol Protection Assay) and in the cell membrane (Ergosterol Affinity Assay). No changes were observed in the MIC of monoterpenes in the sorbitol protection assay.The MIC of citral and geraniol was increased from 32 to 160 µg.ml-1 when the exogenous ergosterol concentrations was zero and 250 µg.ml-1, respectively. The monoterpenes showed an affinity for ergosterol relating their mechanism of action to cell membrane destabilization. <![CDATA[Phenolic extract of <em>Parkia</em> biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600668&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO) once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight) in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation. <![CDATA[Wound healing properties and mucilage content of <em>Pereskia aculeata</em> from different substrates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600677&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Physiologic growth parameters Wound healing Pereskia aculeata Mill., Cactaceae, is a cactus with high mucilage production, well-known for its nutritional properties. Folk use consists on skin injuries, and mucilage is probably involved in the wound healing activity. This work studied some aspects of its cultivation, specifically regarding soil (substrate), to correlate the effects of nutritional content to mucilage production and to the wound-healing property. Plants were grown under five different soil treatment (sand, crude soil, sand and soil, sand and cattle manure, soil and cattle manure), and after eight months extracts were prepared by turbo-extraction to obtain a crude hydroethanolic extract. We evaluated the effects of these extracts on swelling index, cytotoxicity, and in vitro wound healing property. The results show that the substrate used in cultivation may interfere with mucilage production, but not with cytotoxicity and wound healing, this shows the safety of its use, despite the soil treatment received along the various biomes where P. aculeata is cultivated. Furthermore, morphological studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of the mucilage-containing extract on the fibroblast cell culture, corroborating its folk use for wound healing. <![CDATA[Validation of a spectrophotometric methodology for the quantification of polysaccharides from roots of <em>Operculina macrocarpa</em> (jalapa)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600683&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The roots from Operculina macrocarpa (L.) Urb., Convolvulaceae, are widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as a laxative and purgative. The biological properties of this drug material have been attributed to its polysaccharides content. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the polysaccharide content in drug material from O. macrocarpa by spectrophotometric quantitative analysis. The root was used as plant material and the botanical identification was performed by macro and microscopic analysis. The plant material was used to validate the spectrophotometric procedures at 490 nm for the quantification of the reaction product from drug polysaccharides and phenol-sulfuric acid solution. The analytical procedure was evaluated in order to comply with the necessary legal requirements by the determination of the following parameters: specificity, linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and robustness. This study provides with a simple and valid analytical procedure (linear, precise, accurate and reproducible), which can be satisfactorily used for quality control and standardization of herbal drug from O. macrocarpa. <![CDATA[Properties and controlled release of chitosan microencapsulated limonene oil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600691&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chitosan microcapsules containing limonene essential oil as active ingredient were prepared by coacervation using three different concentrations of NaOH (0.50, 1.00, 1.45 wt%) and fixed concentrations of chitosan and surfactant of 0.50 wt%. The produced microcapsules were fully characterized in their morphology and chemical composition, and the kinetic release analysis of the active ingredient was evaluated after deposition in a non-woven cellulose fabric. The concentration of 1.00 and 1.45 wt% clearly show the best results in terms of dimension and shape of the microcapsules as well as in the volatility results. However, at the concentration of 1 wt% a higher number of microcapsules were produced as confirmed by FTIR and EDS analysis. Free microcapsules are spherical in size with disperse diameters between 2 and 12 μm. Immobilized microcapsules showed sizes from 4 to 7 μm, a rough surface and loss of spherical shape with pore formation in the chitosan walls. SEM analysis confirms that at higher NaOH concentrations, the larger the size of the microcapsules. This technique shows that by tuning NaOH concentration it is possible to efficiently control the release rate of encapsulated active agents demonstrating great potential as insect repellent for textiles. <![CDATA[Development of a larvicidal nanoemulsion with Copaiba (Copaifera duckei) oleoresin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600699&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Copaiba (Copaifera duckei Dwyer, Fabaceae) oleoresin is an important Amazonian raw material. Despite its insecticidal potential, poor water solubility remains a challenge for the development of effective and viable products. Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area to solve this problem, especially oil-in-water nanoemulsions. On this context, the aim of the present study was to develop oil-in-water nanoemulsions using copaiba oleoresin dispersed through a high internal phase; and evaluate its potential insecticidal action against Aedes aegypti larvae. Overall, 31 formulations were prepared, ranging from 11.5 ± 0.2 to 257.3 ± 4.1 nm after one day of manipulation. Some of them reached small mean droplet sizes (&lt; 200 nm) and allowed achievement of a nanoemulsion region. The formulation consisted of 5% (w/w) of copaiba oil, 5% (w/w) of surfactant and 90% (w/w) of water, which presented mean droplet size of 145.2 ±0.9 nm and polidispersity of 0.378 ± 0.009 after one day of manipulation, and these were evaluated for larvicidal potential. According to mortality level (250 ppm - 93.3 after 48 h), this nanoemulsion was classified as a promising insecticidal agent against Aedes aegypti larvae. The present study allowed the development of low-cost ecofriendly green natural-based nanoformulations with potential larvicidal activity, using a nanobiotechnology approach. <![CDATA[Ethno-gynecological knowledge of medicinal plants used by Baluch tribes, southeast of Baluchistan, Iran]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600706&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge on the treatment of various gynaecological disorders by Baluch Tribes of Iran. The ethical guidelines adopted by the International Society of Ethnobiology were strictly followed during the field survey. Data were collected during 2013-2014 based on interviews, group conversations and close consultation with local informants. Participants were selected using the snowball sampling technique. Secondary methods of data collection were also used for triangulation. A quantitative analysis including the informant consensus factor and use value was performed to evaluate the medicinal plants. A total of 33.3% Baluch women reported high affiliation with herbal remedies for gynaecological problems, while others attribute was also positive for medicinal plants. A total of eighty plant species belonging to 43 botanical families were documented. Levels of Relative frequency of citation decreased as follows: Nigella sativa (0.92), Pistacia atlantica (0.91), Anethum graveolens (0.88), Carum carvi (0.87) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (0.85). Results of the informant consensus factor showed that menstrual problems (0.87) and vaginal infection (0.74) were the most common problems of women in the studied area. The use value and informant consensus factor validated that the relative importance of plant species and shared knowledge of herbal therapies between Baluch womenfolk of this area is still rich. <![CDATA[Rapid assessment of quality of deer antler slices by using an electronic nose coupled with chemometric analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600716&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assessed by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and could also be an important tool for categorization of complex aroma mixtures for the control of quality of drugs or food. <![CDATA[Ragged Robin (<em>Lychnis flos-cuculi</em>) - a plant with potential medicinal value]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000600722&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lychnis flos-cuculi L., Caryophyllaceae, contains a number of active compounds belonging to several chemical groups. Previous studies have led to the identification of phytoecdysteroids, triterpenoids saponins, volatile compounds, fatty acid derivatives, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Research on pharmacological activity showed that plant extracts inhibited the growth of bacteria and fungi. The antimitotic properties of preparations from the herb L. flos-cuculi were also reported. The phytochemical analyses demonstrated that this taxon contains pharmaceutically promising compounds, but more phytochemical and pharmacological studies of L. flos-cuculi are needed for further information regarding this plant. This review summarizes reports regarding chemical composition and biological activity of L. flos-cuculi as well as several cognate species, which pose opportunities related to in vitro propagation and cell and tissue cultures. In vitro-regenerated plantlets could be a good source of genetically uniform plant material for future research.