Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 27 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> seed oil]]> ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content) using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20). A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p &lt; 0.001) and Baobab seed oil (p &lt; 0.001) but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850). The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048) and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p &lt; 0.001) for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®). The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p &lt; 0.001) and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications. <![CDATA[Comparative morphoanatomical analysis of <em>Mikania</em> species]]> ABSTRACT Mikania belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes a wide range of promising pharmacological activities. Several species of Mikania, which is popularly known in Brazil as “guaco”, occur in Southern Brazil and their external morphology is similar. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf and stem of Mikania campanulata, Mikania cordifolia, Mikania glomerata, Mikania hastato-cordata, Mikania microptera and Mikania sessilifolia as a means of providing additional support for differentiating these taxa. The leaves and stems were investigated by employing scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy techniques. The morphological features of Mikania spp. leaves make it possible to differentiate between the species; nevertheless, when the plants were fragmented or pulverized the anatomical features of the leaves and stems supplied additional helpful data in this regard. The main anatomical characteristics were presence of hypodermis and lens shaped epidermal cells, set of trichomes; midrib, petiole and stem shape and vascular pattern; sclerenchymatous ring in the cortex, sclerenchymatous cells and secretory ducts in the pith. <![CDATA[Morphoanatomical and physicochemical profile of <em>Piper callosum</em>: valuable assessment for its quality control]]> ABSTRACT Piper callosum Ruiz &amp; Pav., Piperaceae, popularly known as “elixir-paregórico” and “matricá” in Brazil, is used in folk medicine to treat gonorrhea, general pain, and digestive disorders, and has repellent, astringent, diuretic, depurative, and haemostatic properties. Despite the fact that this plant is sold as a traditional phytotherapeutic product, we did not find reports on its quality control. We, therefore, performed macroscopic, microscopic, histochemical, and physicochemical analyses using standard methods to establish botanical authentication and purity degree parameters for leaves and stem of this species in two forms: medicinal plant and herbal drug. We observed the size, shape, color, texture, fracture surface and transection characteristics, leaf venation patterns, and calluses are valuable diagnostic characters to identify the herbal drugs when they are not ground or powdered. Since medicinal plants and herbal drugs did not differ anatomically, the following key anatomical characters for P. callosum can be used for diagnostic purposes of both types raw plant materials: epicuticular wax and cuticular flanges patterns; collenchyma features; fibers in the midrib; arrangement pattern of the vascular bundles of the midrib and petiole; shape of the midrib, leaf margin, petiole, and stem; occurrence of raphides; and morphology of the starch grains. Acid lipids, essential oils, oleoresins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids were histochemically identified. Total ash (leaves: 11.25%; stem: 5.25%), sulphated ash (leaves: 68.02%; stem: 12.50%), acid-insoluble ash (leaves: 2.82%; stem: 0.27%), moisture (leaves: 8.60%; stem: 6.10%), loss on drying (leaves: 11.08%; stem: 8.58%), and pH (leaves: 5.57, stem: 5.28) values were determined. The order of analyzed metal levels in leaf and stem herbal drugs was Al &gt; V &gt; Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Cr &gt; Ni. Similar levels of Cd and Co and low levels of Hg were found. The results obtained can be used as quality control parameters for medicinal plants and herbal drugs of P. callosum. <![CDATA[Morpho-anatomical study of <em>Stevia rebaudiana</em> roots grown <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em>]]> ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, Asteraceae, is used as a food additive because its leaves are a source of steviol glycosides. There are examples of tissue culture based on micropropagation and phytochemical production of S. rebaudiana leaves but there are few studies on adventitious root culture of S. rebaudiana. More than 90% of the plants used in industry are harvested indiscriminately. In order to overcome this situation, the development of methodologies that employ biotechnology, such as root culture, provides suitable alternatives for the sustainable use of plants. The aim of this study was to compare morpho-anatomical transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro system used to maintain root cultures consisted of a gyratory shaker under dark and light conditions and a roller bottle system. Transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro were structurally and morphologically different when compared to the control plant; roots artificially maintained in culture media can have their development affected by the degree of media aeration, sugar concentration, and light. GC–MS and TLC confirmed that S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro have the ability to produce metabolites, which can be similar to those produced by wild plants. <![CDATA[Comparative study of <em>Passiflora</em> taxa leaves: II. A chromatographic profile]]> ABSTRACT Popularly known as passion fruit, some species of the genus Passiflora are widely used in folk medicines, such as sedatives and tranquilizers in many countries. Although these plants are employed for the same purposes, research with different species of Passiflora has indicated their heterogeneous chemical compositions. Since different chemical compositions can result in varying degrees of therapeutic efficiency, quality control based on the chemical constituents of each species is essential. To that end, the aim of this study was to compare pharmacognostically species of Passiflora in order to establish a chromatographic profile for the quality control of drugs in herbal medicines containing passion fruit. The study was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (i.e., ten species and two forms of P. edulis) – P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea, and P. setacea – from different locations and obtaining their chromatographic profiles via thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both methods used the flavonoid C-glycosides isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin as reference compounds and could ultimately establish specific profiles for each species. The chromatographic analyses discussed here can be used to assist in determining the quality and authenticity of herbal drugs derived from Passiflora species. <![CDATA[Validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for simultaneous determination of quercetin and gallic acid in <em>Leea indica</em>]]> ABSTRACT A sensitive and reliable high performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of quercetin and gallic acid in Leea indica, Vitaceae. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from hydrolysed aqueous alcoholic extract (70%) was applied on silica gel G 60 F254 plate. The plate was developed using toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid, 5:4:1 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase and detection and quantification were performed by densitometric scanning at 254 nm. The system was found to give well resolved bands for quercetin (Rf 0.63) and gallic acid (Rf 0.45) from other constituents present in the extract of L. indica. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.991 and 0.999 with relative standard deviation, 0.97–1.23% and 0.1–1.13% for quercetin and gallic acid respectively in the developed method. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by conducting recovery studies at different levels using the standard addition method. The average recovery of quercetin and gallic acid was found close to 99% suggesting the accurateness of the method. The proposed validated high performance thin layer chromatographic method offers a new, sensitive, specific and precise gauge for quantification of quercetin and gallic acid in L. indica. <![CDATA[Paniculatumoside G, a new C<sub>21</sub> steroidal glycoside from <em>Cynanchum paniculatum</em>]]> ABSTRACT A new C21 steroidal glycoside, paniculatumoside G, together with neocynapanogenin C isolated for the first time from the natural source and two known compounds were isolated and characterized from the roots and rhizomes of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag. ex H.Hara, Apocynaceae, a commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, the structure of the new C21 steroidal glycoside was elucidated as neocynapanogenin H 3-O-β-D-oleandropyranoside. <![CDATA[Laboratory evaluation of <em>Clusia fluminensis</em> extracts and their isolated compounds against <em>Dysdercus peruvianus</em> and <em>Oncopeltus fasciatus</em>]]> ABSTRACT The effects of the hexanic extracts of the fruits and flowers of Clusia fluminensis Planch. &amp; Triana, Clusiaceae, as well as their main constituents, the triterpene lanosterol and the benzophenone clusianone, were evaluated on hemipterans Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus. The topical treatments of insects with the hexanic extracts significantly affected the survival of O. fasciatus, but not that of D. peruvianus. Concomitantly, extracts delayed the development of both hemipterans. Moreover, isolated lanosterol significantly reduced both the survival and development of O. fasciatus and D. peruvianus, while clusianone only reduce the survival of D. peruvianus and marginally inhibited the development of both insects. The results show the specific activity of lanosterol and clusianone against the two evaluated insect species and indicate the potential of compounds derived from C. fluminensis for the development of specific biopesticides for the control of agricultural pests. Subsequent work will examine the mode of action of lanosterol and clusianone isolates from C. fluminensis. <![CDATA[Constituents from the bark resin of <em>Schinus molle</em>]]> ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5) also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. <![CDATA[In vitro activity of the essential oil from Hesperozygis myrtoides on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Haemonchus contortus]]> ABSTRACT Commercial antiparasitics have been the main tool to control parasites, but due to the resistance development, plant extracts have been widely investigated to find new molecules. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro acaricide and anthelmintic activities of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Hesperozygis myrtoides (A.St.-Hil. ex Benth.) Epling, Lamiaceae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Four tests were conducted in vitro to screen the antiparasitic action of the essential oil. The evaluation on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was performed with the adult immersion test at concentrations ranging from 0.391 to 25 mg/ml and the larval packet test from 3.125 to 100 mg/ml. For Haemonchus contortus the egg hatch test was performed from 0.012 to 25 mg/ml and the larval development test from 0.003 to 0.4 mg/ml. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated by Probit. The main components identified in the essential oil were isomenthone (47.7%), pulegone (21.4%), limonene (7.7%), isomenthyl acetate (6.8%) and neoisomenthol (3.9%). In the larval packet test the LC50 and LC90 were 13.5 and 21.8 mg/ml, respectively. In egg hatch test, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.249 and 0.797 mg/ml, respectively, while in the larval development test were 0.072 and 0.167 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first report of the H. myrtoides evaluation against those parasites. The anthelmintic results proved its efficacy on H. contortus encouraging new research with a focus on their main bioactives. <![CDATA[Alkaloids and biological activity of beribá (<em>Annona hypoglauca</em>)]]> ABSTRACT Annona hypoglauca Mart., Annonaceae, popularly known as “beribá”, was collected in flooded areas of the Amazonian Rain Forest. The crude extract obtained from this species was found to be cytotoxic against human cancer cells. Chemical information on A. hypoglauca is scarce. So, the present work aimed the isolation and identification of its alkaloids and to test their cytotoxic activity. Alkaloids were obtained from stem by acid–base partitioning and the remaining alkaloid-free extract was partitioned with organic solvents. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry GC/MS analysis of total alkaloids allowed the identification of four aporphine alkaloids: actinodaphnine, anonaine, isoboldine and nornuciferine. Total alkaloids were fractionated by column chromatography and were purified by preparative thin-layer-chromatography, which allowed the isolation of two aporphine alkaloids, actinodaphnine and isoboldine, characterized by NMR and CG–MS analyses. This is the first report for the occurrence of actinodaphnine in Annona species. All the samples were tested in cytotoxic and antibacterial assays. Total alkaloid extract and its fractions showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. In the cytotoxicity assay, the crude extract showed a lethal effect against breast and colon cancer cells. Isoboldine-containing FA5 and actinodaphnine-containing FA6 showed activity against breast cancer cell line, while the alkaloid-free fractions did not show significant activity against cancer cell lines. <![CDATA[Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells and down-regulation of ODC1 and ADA genes by <em>Nepeta binaloudensis</em>]]> ABSTRACT Nepeta binaloudensis Jamzad, Lamiaceae, is a rare medicinal plant endemic to Iran. In spite of many studies about the chemical constituents and antibacterial effects of this species, no report has been provided about its cytotoxic and anticancer activities. In this study we have evaluated the effects of EtOH 70%, hexane and aqueous extracts of N. binaloudensis on the cell proliferation and n-hexane extract on the expression of adenosine deaminase and ornithine decarboxylase 1 genes in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) compared to non-cancer line (MCF-10A). The cell lines were subjected to increasing doses of the extracts ranging from 10 to 320 µg/ml. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Expression of adenosine deaminase and ornithine decarboxylase 1 genes was analyzed by real time PCR. N. binaloudensis inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. Among extracts of N. binaloudensis, the hexane extract was found to be more toxic compared to other extracts. Results showed a marked decrease in the expression of ornithine decarboxylase 1 and adenosine deaminase genes in cancer cell lines. At 60 µg/ml concentration of N. binaloudensis hexane extract ornithine decarboxylase 1 and adenosine deaminase mRNA expression were reduced 4.9 fold and 3.5 fold in MCF-7 cell line and 3.6 fold and 2.6 fold in MDA-MB-231 cell line compared to control, respectively. The result of our study highlights the potential influences of N. binaloudensis hexane extract on ornithine decarboxylase 1 and adenosine deaminase genes expression in breast cancer cells and its relation to inhibition of cancer cell growth. <![CDATA[Bioassay-guided fractionation and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of <em>Cassia bakeriana</em> extracts]]> ABSTRACT The antimicrobial potential of extracts of bark and leaves of Cassia bakeriana Craib, Fabaceae, against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated by the microdilution broth method. For crude ethanol extracts and organic fractions tested, the bark dichloromethane phase showed a significant antibacterial effect, with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/ml for most of the microorganisms tested. Thus, a bioassay-guided fractionation of this fraction was performed. This fractionation led to isolation of the 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid, also known as cassic acid or rhein. It is the first time that this bioactive anthraquinone has been isolated from this plant. Rhein exhibited good selectivity and high activity against anaerobic microorganisms, with MIC values ranging between 3.12 µg/ml (11.0 µM) and 25 µg/ml (88.0 µM). These results were considered very promising since the most active samples and rhein showed greater selectivity against oral microorganisms than toxicity to Vero cells. <![CDATA[Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of protein extracts from the leaves of <em>Morinda pubescens</em> on human cancer cell lines]]> ABSTRACT Biologically active proteins isolated from plant species can be used in traditional medicine as prolific resources for new drugs Morinda pubescens Sm., Rubiaceae, is a promising medicinal plant which is widely used in folk medicine to treat fever due to primary complex, ulcer and glandular swellings. In this study, proteins were extracted from the leaves of M. pubescens, and precipitated with ammonium sulphate at various saturation concentrations ranging from 20 to 80%. The precipitated protein sample obtained with 80% saturation was further purified using ultrafiltration membrane (&lt;10 kDa). SDS-PAGE analysis identified the presence of crude and ultrafiltered protein bands. FTIR spectrum of the ultrafiltered protein fractions depicted the presence of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of proteins. The ultrafiltered proteins exhibited increased cytotoxic activity on A549 cells at the concentrations ranging from 15 to 100 µg/ml. About 98% cell viability was also observed in Vero cells treated with the maximum concentration of 100 µg/ml of ultrafiltered protein extract. DNA fragmentation was observed in A549 cells treated with 10 µg/ml of ultrafiltered proteins, indicating the onset of apoptosis. <![CDATA[Metabolic profile and β-glucuronidase inhibitory property of three species of <em>Swertia</em>]]> ABSTRACT β-Glucuronidase inhibitors are suggested as potential hepatoprotective agents. Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex C.B. Clarke, Gentianaceae, is known for its hepatoprotective and anti-hepatotoxic activity in Ayurvedic system of medicine for ages. This plant is substituted by other species like S. decussata Nimmo ex C.B. Clarke and S. bimaculata (Siebold &amp; Zucc.) Hook. f. &amp; Thomson ex C.B. Clarke. The aim of the study was to compare metabolite profile and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of these three important species of Swertia and to identify the active constituents. S. chirayita (IC50 210.97 µg/ml) and S. decussata (IC50 269.7 µg/ml) showed β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity significantly higher than that of silymarin, the known inhibitor of the enzyme. The activity of S. bimaculata was low. The metabolites present in the three species were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS based metabolomics approach. Five amino acids, twenty one organic acids, one inorganic acid, eight fatty acids, twenty one phenols including xanthones, eight sugars, seven sugar alcohols, five terpenoids and amarogentin were identified. Activities of the xanthones mangiferin (IC50 16.06 µg/ml), swerchirin (IC50 162.84 µg/ml), decussatin (IC50 195.11 µg/ml), 1-hydroxy-3,5,8-trimethoxy xanthone (IC50 245.97 µg/ml), bellidifolin (IC50 390.26 µg/ml) were significantly higher than that of silymarin (IC50 794.62 µg/ml). Quinic acid (IC50 2.91 mg/ml), O-acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 48.4 mg/ml), citric acid (IC50 1.77 mg/ml), D-malic acid (IC50 14.82 mg/ml) and succinic acid (IC50 38.86 mg/ml) also inhibited the enzyme β-glucuronidase. The findings suggest that constituents, in addition to the xanthones, probably also contribute to the bioactivity of different Swertia species by synergistic effect. Further in vivo study is required to support the claim. <![CDATA[Anti-biofilm activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> MRSA and MSSA of neolignans and extract of <em>Piper regnellii</em>]]> ABSTRACT Many infections worldwide are associated with bacterial biofilms. The effects of isolated neolignans (conocarpan and eupomathenoid-5) and the dichloromethane extract of Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC., Piperaceae, were tested against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus biofilms and S. aureus planktonic cells. The dichloromethane extract presented better results than isolated neolignans against all of the biofilms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration &lt;400 µg/ml for preformed biofilms and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration of 15.6 µg/ml for biofilm formation. The minimum inhibitory concentration to planktonic cells was &lt;12.5 µg/ml. These results indicate a good effect of the dichloromethane extract against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus biofilms and efficient prophylaxis. <![CDATA[Synergistic antifungal activity of the lipophilic fraction of <em>Hypericum carinatum</em> and fluconazole]]> ABSTRACT Hypericum species, Hypericaceae, are recognized as a source of therapeutical agents. Purified fractions and isolated compounds have been shown antimicrobial activity. As the indiscriminate use of antifungals and the increase of infections caused by emerging species are leading to the search of new alternative treatments, the aim of this study was to continue the study with Hypericum carinatum Griseb. lipophilic fraction, rich in phloroglucinol derivatives, investigating the effect of its association with fluconazole against emerging yeasts (Candida krusei, C. famata, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans). The synergistic activity between H. carinatum lipophilic fraction and fluconazole was assessed by two methodologies for multiple dose–response analysis: checkerboard and isobologram. Regarding synergistic experiments, the effect of the association was higher than the effect of fluconazole alone against Candida krusei and C. famata isolates (MIC fluconazole decreased about eight and four folds, respectively), suggesting that, somehow, H. carinatum lipophilic fraction compounds are facilitating the action of this drug. On the other hand, when tested against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. parapsilosis, fluconazole showed better results than the association. Thus, against Candida krusei and C. famata, the lipophilic fraction of H. carinatum was able to reduce the MIC values of fluconazole and could be considered as a potential alternative to be used against emerging yeast species. <![CDATA[Natural products assessed in animal models for orofacial pain – a systematic review]]> ABSTRACT Orofacial pain is related to tissues of the head, face, neck and all the intraoral structures; it is rather debilitating to the patient and also difficult to treat. There are relatively few studies dedicated to the use of natural products to alleviate orofacial pain in preclinical experiment models (performed in experimental animals which provide support for clinical trials). Main objectives of the present systematic review summarize the studies on natural products assessed in animal models for orofacial pain seeking to give evidence to future development of new pharmaceutical products to manage the orofacial pain. Our review includes a thorough search of literature using the terms of orofacial pain, facial pain, medicinal plants and natural products. This search was performed using to retrieve English language articles in Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of eighteen studies were included in our survey for the inclusion criteria. Firstly, this review identified 210 citations from electronic search, after removal of duplicates and screening for relevant titles and abstracts, a total of eighteen articles were selected to the inclusion criteria established. Our findings suggest that natural products can be a promising or a trump tool for the development of new drugs to treat orofacial pain conditions, but the researchers that deal with experimental preclinical trials of new drugs (including natural products or synthetic drugs) for orofacial pain conditions urgently need to show translational evidence (with clinical approach) of these compounds.