Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-695X20150002&lang=es vol. 25 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Anatomical investigations of <em>Piper amalago</em> (jaborandi-manso) for the quality control]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200085&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Piper amalago L., Piperaceae, popularly known as jaborandi-manso, is a shrub that spans a height of 2–7 m. It can be found in the regions of Southern America downward up to the south of Brazil. Traditionally it is used to treat digestive problems, heart problems, and burns. This study aims to conduct an anatomical investigation and analysis of the leaves and stems of P. amalago through electron scanning and optical micro techniques. The analysis showed that P. amalago has a hypostomatic leaf, with a subepidermal layer on its surface. There are grandular trichomes that resemble sacs, conic non-glandular trichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, and a plano-convex midrib having a single vascular bundle in the center. The petiole is short with irregularly shaped and adaxially grooved. The stem is circular in shape and contains two circles of vascular bundles and a sclerenchymatic sheath in the perimedular region. These anatomical features of the Piper amalago's leaves and stems make it easy to pick it out among other species of the Piper genus. This is helpful when conducting quality control process. <![CDATA[Constituents of <em>Corynaea crassa</em> "Peruvian Viagra"]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200092&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract A phytochemical investigation of methanol and n-hexane extracts of tuber/roots of Corynaea crassa Hook. f., Balanophoraceae, led to the isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol, lupenone, β-amyrone, lupeol, and β-amyrine. Unusual complex 1:1 mixtures of lupenone/β-amyrone and lupeol/β-amyrine obtained from the extracts were identified by NMR and HR-MS experiments. The structure of the 1:1 lupenone/β-amyrone mixture was confirmed by X-ray analysis. These triterpene ketone derivatives, only distinguished either by 5- or 6-membered E ring, co-crystallize in one common unit cell in the solid state. <![CDATA[Comparison and evaluation of two methods for the pesticide residue analysis of organophosphates in yerba mate]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200098&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Microwave Assisted Extraction and a modified CEN-QuEChERS methodology were evaluated as extraction and clean up procedures for the simultaneous analysis of 42 organophosphate pesticides in yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis). The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Linearity, recovery percentages, relative standard deviations, detection and quantification limits and matrix effects were determined according to DG-SANCO guidelines for both methods. At 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg the evaluated methods showed percentages recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the analytes. Using Microwave Assisted Extraction methodology, 33 pesticide residues could be properly analyzed whereas only 27 could be determined with the proposed modified QuEChERS. All relative standard deviation were below 18% except for omethoate and disulfoton sulfone when evaluated by the modified QuEChERS. The limits of detection in both methodologies were 0.2 mg/kg for most of the analyzed compounds. The average detection limit for QuEChERS was 0.04 mg/kg. For 19 of the analytes determined through Microwave Assisted Extraction the lowest validated level were 0.004 mg/kg. Signal suppression/enhancement was observed for most of the pesticides, thus matrix-matched calibration curves were used for quantification. The Microwave Assisted Extraction and QuEChERS procedures studied could detect the organophosphate pesticides above the MRL fixed for "mate" by the European Union. They have been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphate pesticide residues in commercial samples and the positives were confirmed through GC–(ITD)-MS. <![CDATA[UHPLC–MS quantification of coumarin and chlorogenic acid in extracts of the medicinal plants known as guaco (<em>Mikania glomerata</em> and <em>Mikania laevigata</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200105&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In Brazil, Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, known popularly as guaco, are widely used for colds and asthma. Although coumarin is adopted as the chemical marker of both species, it was not always detected in M. glomerata, for which chlorogenic acid was identified and quantified instead. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method to quantify both coumarin and chlorogenic acid and apply it to extracts of plants identified as M. glomerata, M. laevigata, or as guaco, to determine the pattern of composition of these two species and to observe differences between oven-dried and lyophilized leaves. A method using ultra-high resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) in the full scan mode was validated for selectivity, matrix effect, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy. The concentration of coumarin varied between species and samples, therefore these two species should not be used interchangeably. The concentration of chlorogenic acid was also determined for all samples. The UHPLC–MS method permitted the quantification of coumarin and chlorogenic acid in 16 samples of guaco and several commercial samples were possibly misidentified. <![CDATA[Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em> trigger different effects on human neutrophils]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200111&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The tagitinins isolated of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, Asteraceae, are the most studied sesquiterpene lactones due to their wide spectrum of pharmacologic activities, especially related with nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition. Nevertheless, detailed studies about the mechanism of action of its active compounds are still lacking. Neutrophils perform a fundamental role in the inflammatory response to several etiologic factors. However, the effect of tagitinins on human neutrophil is not yet clearly known. We investigated the role of tagitinin C (1), tagitinin F (2) and tagitinin A (3) in activation and survival of human neutrophils to establish possible effects in their mechanisms of inflammation. Human neutrophils were purified from the peripheral blood and cultivated with tagitinins C (1), F (2) and A (3) in the presence or not of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The enzymatic activity, apoptosis and secretion of cytokines rate were determined after 18 h. Lipopolysaccharide-induced myeloperoxidase activity of human neutrophils was significantly inhibited only by tagitinin F (2). Apoptosis of neutrophils was increased in the presence of tagitinin C (1), and it occurred independently of the presence of lipopolysaccharide or dexamethasone. Tagitinins C (1), F (2) and A (3) decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and Tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human neutrophils. Together, these results indicate that tagitinins exhibit anti-inflammatory action on human neutrophils. However, tagitinin F (2) was the only sesquiterpene lactone that decreased secretion of inflammatory products by neutrophils without inducing neutrophil apoptosis. <![CDATA[Autotoxicity in <em>Pogostemon cablin</em> and their allelochemicals]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200117&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The effects of allelochemicals and aqueous extracts from different Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., Lamiaceae, parts and rhizosphere soil on growth parameters, leaf membrane peroxidation and leaf antioxidant enzymes were investigated in patchouli. P. cablin seedlings were incubated in solutions containing allelochemicals and aqueous extracts from different patchouli parts and its rhizosphere soil at several concentrations. Firstly, the growth parameters were significantly reduced by the highest concentration of leaves, roots and stems extracts (p &lt; 0.05). As compared to the control, plant height was reduced by 99.8% in the treatment with leaves extracts (1:10). The malondialdehyde content increased greatly when patchouli seedlings were subject to different concentrations of leaves, roots and stems extracts; meanwhile, the superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities showed an increase trend at the low concentration, followed by a decline phase at the high concentration of roots and leaves extracts (1:10). What's more, leaves and roots extracts had a more negative effect on patchouli growth than stems extracts at the same concentrations. Secondly, the total fresh mass, root length and plant height were greatly reduced by the highest strength of soil extracts. Their decrements were 22.7, 74.9, and 33.1%, respectively. Thirdly, growth parameters and enzymatic activities varied considerably with the kinds of allelochemicals and with the different concentrations. Plant height, root length and total fresh weight of patchouli were greatly reduced by p-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 μM), and their decrements were 77.0, 42.0 and 70.0%, respectively. Finally, three useful measures on reducing the autotoxicity during the sustainable patchouli production were proposed. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> anti-<em>Leishmania infantum</em> activity of essential oil from <em>Piper angustifolium</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200124&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. The main compounds were spathulenol (23.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (13.1%). P. angustifolium essential oil was highly active [the half maximum inhibitory concentration = 1.43 μg/ml] against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old World. Activity was obtained 24 h after addition of the oil (6.25–50 μg/ml), with a reduction of 100% in the infection index at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml. P. angustifolium essential oil showed low cytotoxicity for mammalian fibroblasts and macrophages (the half maximum inhibitory concentration values of 31.67 and 48.22 μg/ml, respectively), and it was 33 and 22 times more toxic to amastigotes than to mammalian cells, as indicated by selectivity indexes. The results demonstrated that P. angustifolium essential oil is a promising alternative for the study of potential drugs for visceral leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[Essential oil from <em>Ageratum fastigiatum</em> reduces expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in peripheral blood leukocytes subjected to <em>in vitro</em> stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200129&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardner) R.M. King &amp; H. Rob., a member of the Asteraceae family popularly known in Brazil as "matapasto", is indicated in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Despite its popular use, little is known about its potential effect on the parameters involved in an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. fastigiatum and to evaluate the frequency of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma producing cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate in the presence of essential oil from A. fastigiatum. Non-toxic concentrations of essential oil from A. fastigiatum were evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood leucocytes using the trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry. GC–MS analysis revealed that the prevalent compounds identified in the essential oil from A. fastigiatum sample were α-pinene, limonene, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, 1,2-humulene-epoxide, 1,6-humulanodien-3-ol, and α-cadinol. Results showed that exposure to essential oil from A. fastigiatum at concentrations of 0.5 × 10−2 and 1 × 10−2 µl/ml caused no alterations in leukocyte viability as compared to the control group. Both concentrations lowered the percentage of tumor necrosis factor alpha (+)-lymphocytes and neutrophils. There were no changes in the percentage of lymphocytes positive for the interferon gamma cytokine. Our results suggest that part of the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to A. fastigiatum may be due to the effect of some of its components in decreasing the number of cells that produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. <![CDATA[HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from <em>Securigera securidaca</em> flowers and its anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200134&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Securigera securidaca (L.) Degen &amp; Döefl., Fabaceae, has been widely used in the Iranian, Indian and Egyptian folk medicine as antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic remedy. Phenolic profiling of the ethanolic extract (90%) of the flowers of S. securidaca was performed via HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis in the positive and negative ion modes. The total polyphenols and flavonoids in the flowers were determined colorimetrically, and the quantification of their components was carried out using HPLC-UV. Total phenolics and flavonoids estimated as gallic acid and rutin equivalents were 82.39 ± 2.79 mg/g and 48.82 ± 1.95 mg/g of the dried powdered flowers, respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the extract allowed the identification of 39 flavonoids and eight phenolic acids. Quantitative analysis of some flavonoids and phenolics (mg/100 g powdered flowers) revealed the presence of isoquercetrin (3340 ± 2.1), hesperidin (32.09 ± 2.28), naringin (197.3 ± 30.16), luteolin (10.247 ± 0.594), chlorogenic acid (84.22 ± 2.08), catechin (3.94 ± 0.57) and protocatechuic acid (34.4 ± 0.15), in the extract. Moreover, the acute toxicity, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the extract were investigated using alloxan induced diabetes in rats in a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bwt. The ethanolic extract was safe up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the flower extract showed marked decrease in blood glucose level by 31.78%, 66.41% and 63.8% at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bwt, respectively, at p &lt; 0.05. Regarding the anti-hyperlipidemic effect, a dose of 400 mg/kg of the flower extract showed the highest reduction in serum triacylglycerides and total cholesterol levels (68.46% and 51.50%, respectively at p &lt; 0.05). The current study proved the folk use of the flowers of S. securidaca as anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic agent which could be attributed to its high phenolic content. <![CDATA[Study of hypocholesterolemic activity of Algerian <em>Pistacia lentiscus</em> leaves extracts <em>in vivo</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200142&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Plants are a large source of new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potentials. However, only a small amount of worldwide plants have been phytochemically investigated. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia lentiscus L., Anacardiaceae, leaves were evaluated for hypocholesterolemic activity in vivo. In this study, hypercholesterolemia was induced in animals by feeding them high cholesterol (1%) food. The extracts of P. lentiscus were orally administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight along with a high cholesterol diet for thirty successive days. Lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, triacylglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein were measured in the plasma. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. Flavonoid content was found to be more present in the ethanolic extract (8.218 ± 0.009 mg of QE/g) compared to the aqueous extract (3.107 ± 0.014 mg of QE/g). The administration of P. lentiscus extracts produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (154.6 ± 18.10, 71.2 ± 4.38 and 99.36 ± 18.77 mg/dl respectively) in the ethanolic extract, while the aqueous extract showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triacylglyceride (203.6 ± 9.18 and 97.6 ± 3.57 mg/dl respectively). The results of the investigation demonstrated that P. lentiscus leaf extract has hypocholesterolemic properties and might be used for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia associated disorders. <![CDATA[<em>Stevia rebaudiana</em> loaded titanium oxide nanomaterials as an antidiabetic agent in rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200145&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, Asteraceae, is a plant with hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. S. rebaudiana (SrB) has become a lead candidate for the treatment of the diabetes mellitus. However, chronic administrations of S. rebaudiana are required to cause the normoglycemic effect. Importantly, nanomaterials in general and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in particular have become effective tools for drug delivery. In this work, we obtained TiO2 nanomaterials with SrB at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM) by sol–gel method. After this nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Where it was demonstrated, the presence of the S. rebaudiana in TiO2 nanomaterials, which were observed as hemispherical agglomerated particles of different sizes. The nanomaterials were evaluated in male rats whose diabetes mellitus-phenotype was induced by alloxan (200 mg/kg, i.p.). The co-administration of TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM) induced a significant and permanent decrease in the glucose concentration since 4 h, until 30 days post-administration. Likewise, the concentrations of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerides showed a significant recovery to basal levels. The major finding of the study was that the TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM) has a potent and prolonged activity antidiabetic. TiO2 can be considered like an appropriated vehicle in the continuous freeing of active substances to treat of diabetes mellitus. <![CDATA[<em>Diplotaxis simplex</em> suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in mice by inhibiting key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200152&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Nutritional properties of Diplotaxis simplex Spreng., Brassicaceae, an edible wild cruciferous largely distributed in North Africa, were investigated. Potassium (3690–3780 mg/100 g) and calcium (900–1170 mg/100 g) were the most concentrated minerals. Linoleinic acid was found to be the main fatty acid (25.4–27.7%), followed by palmitic acid (13.2–15.3%). Moreover, lipidic fraction of leaves was characterized by a relatively high rate of ethyl linoleate (14.4%) and phytol (17.6%). Ethyl acetate extract of D. simplex flowers showed concentration-dependent α-amylase (IC50 3.46 mg/ml) and α-glucosidase (IC50 0.046 mg/ml) inhibitory activities. The positive in vitro enzymes inhibition was confirmed by a maltose tolerance test, which showed that treatment with flowers extract significantly inhibited the rise in blood glucose levels of maltose-loaded mice comparable to the standard antihyperglycemic agent acarbose. From these results, it may be concluded that D. simplex flowers can be used effectively as a safer alternative therapy to control postprandial hyperglycemia. <![CDATA[Involvement of GABAergic pathway in the sedative activity of apigenin, the main flavonoid from <em>Passiflora quadrangularis</em> pericarp]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200158&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In the current study we showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of Passiflora quadrangularis L., Passifloraceae, pericarp results in a significant prolongation of the sleep duration in mice evaluated in the ethyl ether-induced hypnosis test which indicates sedative effects. Apigenin, the main flavonoid of the extract, induced a similar sedative response when applied alone, at a dose equivalent to that found in the extract, suggesting that apigenin is mediating the sedative effects of P. quadrangularis extract. In addition, the sedative effect of apigenin was blocked by pretreatment with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 mg/kg), suggesting an interaction of apigenin with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. However, apigenin at concentrations 0.1–50 µM failed to enhance GABA-induced currents through GABAA receptors (α1β2γ2S) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Nevertheless, based on our results, we suggest that the in vivo sedative effect of the P. quadrangularis extract and its main flavonoid apigenin maybe be due to an enhancement of the GABAergic system. <![CDATA[Acute genotoxicity analysis <em>in vivo</em> of the aqueous extract of <em>Maytenus guyanensis</em> Amazonian chichuá]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200164&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs. <![CDATA[Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of <em>Hamelia patens</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200170&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae), a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg) was evaluated in acute (14 days) and subacute (28 days) assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry) was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg) were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate) and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin). In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and &gt;5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17%) and 200 mg/kg (25%) showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity. <![CDATA[Propolins and glyasperin A from stingless bee nests]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200177&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of the propolis collected from bee (Tetragonula biroi Friese) hives in San Roque, Sorsogon, Philippines afforded propolin A (1), propolin E (2), propolin H (3), glyasperin A (4), squalene, a mixture of lupeol, α-amyrin and β-amyrin, and another mixture of urs-12-en-3-one, olean-12-en-3-one and lup-12-en-3-one. The structures of 2–4 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, while 1 was identified by comparison of its NMR data with 2. <![CDATA[Two new diterpenoids from <em>Leonurus japonicus</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200180&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Two new labdane-type diterpenoids, 5-ethoxy-3-(2-((R)-4-hydroxy-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-3-oxo-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl)ethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (1), and 5-hydroxy-4-(2-((1R,3S,7aS)-1-hydroxy-4,4,7a-trimethyl-3-propionyloctahydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)ethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae. Their chemical structures were determined by analysis of 1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and by comparison with known analogs. <![CDATA[Cytotoxicity screening of essential oils in cancer cell lines]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200183&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxicity activity of the essential oils of Tagetes erecta L., Asteraceae (TE-OE), Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd, Lamiaceae (TR-OE), Bidens sulphurea (Cav.) Sch. Bip., Asteraceae (BS-OE), and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae (FV-OE), traditionally used in folk medicine, against the tumor cell lines murine melanoma (B16F10), human colon carcinoma (HT29), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), and human glioblastoma (MO59J, U343, and U251). Normal hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) were included as control. The cells were treated with essential oil concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 400 µg/ml for 24 h. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the XTT assay; results were expressed as IC50, and the selectivity index was calculated. The results were compared with those achieved for classic chemotherapeutic agents. TE-OE was the most promising among the evaluated oils: it afforded the lowest IC50 values for B16F10 cells (7.47 ± 1.08 µg/ml) and HT29 cells (6.93 ± 0.77 µg/ml), as well as selectivity indices of 2.61 and 2.81, respectively. The major BS-EO, FV-EO and TE-EO chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as being (E)-caryophyllene (10.5%), germacrene D (35.0%) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0%) (BS-EO); limonene (21.3%) and (E)-anethole (70.2%) (FV-EO); limonene (10.4%), dihydrotagetone (11.8%), α-terpinolene (18.1%) and (E)-ocimenone (13.0%) (TE-EO); and fenchone (6.1%), dronabinol (11.0%), aromadendrene oxide (14.7%) and (E,E)–farnesol (15.0%) (TR-EO). 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0%), (E)-anethole (70.2%) and α-terpinolene (18.1%), respectively. These results suggest that TE-OE may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells. <![CDATA[Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of <em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> essential oil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2015000200189&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area for innovative products, including insecticides. Dengue is a tropical disease which is considered a critical health problem in developing countries, due to negative impacts to the environment caused by synthetic chemicals used for vector control (Aedes aegypti). Thus, developing of natural products based insecticidal are considered very promising. On this context, the aim of the present study was to obtain an O/W nanoemulsion containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, essential oil and evaluate its larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Low energy method was employed, allowing achievement of small droplets. The nanoemulsion also presented low polydispersity and mean droplet below 200 nm, even after 30 days of storage. Potential mortality levels were observed after 24 h (80 ± 10%) and 48 h (90 ± 10%) in A. aegypti larvae at final concentration of 250 ppm, related to R. officinalis essential oil. This study contributes to nanobiotechnology of natural products, presenting a potential larvicidal nanoemulsion prepared with R. officinalis essential oil. Moreover, nanoemulsion production involved a non-heating procedure, describing easy technique which may be useful for integrative control programs.