Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-695X20140004&lang=es vol. 24 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Considerations on our 2013 impact factor]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400367&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Comparative pharmacognosy of <em>Pyrrosia petiolosa</em> and <em>Pyrrosia davidii</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400368&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pyrrosia petiolosa (Christ) Ching, Polypodiaceae, is an important medicinal pteridophyte used for the treatment of nephritis and bronchitis, while P. davidii (Giesenhagen. ex Diels) Ching, Polypodiaceae, often substitutes medicinal Pyrrosia in clinic. The present study was aimed to compare the pharmacognosy of P. petiolosa and P. davidii, including plant morphology, microscopic characteristics, physico-chemical parameters, UV and IR spectrum, and HPLC fingerprint. It was revealed that the two herbs had basically similar pharmacognostical characteristics but with certain differences. The present study contributes to the standardization and verification of these medicinal materials. <![CDATA[Microscopical descriptions and chemical analysis by HPTLC of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> in comparison to <em>Hypochaeris radicata:</em> a solution for mis-identification]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400381&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg, Asteraceae, is frequently misidentified or substituted with Hypochaeris radicata L., Asteraceae (false dandelion). To increase our knowledge of T. officinale and differentiate it from H. radicata, we investigated the two species using a combination of taxonomy, microscopy, and chromatographic studies via fingerprint profiles. Micromorphological characteristics were studied using scanning electron microscopy, while optic light microscopy was used for histochemical observations. Fingerprint profiles were constructed using HPTLC. T. officinale was found to have a morphologically distinct type of pluricellular trichomes that can be used to differentiate the two species, as these structures were not identified in H. radicata samples. Furthermore, two types of laticiferous vessels may also be distinctive characteristics of T. officinale at species level. In addition, the HPTLC data derived from methanolic extracts of H. radicata and T. officinale roots showed clearly different chemical profiles. Thus this study establishes the authenticity of T. officinale, and the observed parameters could help minimize drug substitutions in herbal medicines. <![CDATA[Growth and microcystin production of a Brazilian <em>Microcystis aeruginosa</em> strain (LTPNA 02) under different nutrient conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400389&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic and photosynthetic organisms, which can produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with different properties; including a variety of toxic compounds, also known as cyanotoxins. In this work, we describe the isolation of seven cyanobacterial strains from two reservoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. Seven different chemical variants of microcystins (MC-RR, MC-LR, MC-YR, MC-LF, MC-LW, and two demethylated variants, dm-MC-RR and dm-MC-LR) were detected in three of the ten isolated strains. One particular Microcystis aeruginosa strain (LTPNA 02) was chosen to evaluate its growth by cell count, and its toxin production under seven different nutritional regimes. We observed different growth behaviors in the logarithmic growth period for only three experiments (p &lt; 0.05). The total growth analysis identified four experiments as different from the control (p &lt; 0.01). Three microcystin variants (MC-RR, MC-LR and MC-YR) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. At the experimental end, the toxin content was unchanged when comparing cell growth in ASM-1 (N:P = 1), MLA and BG-11 (N:P = 10) medium. In all other experiments, the lowest microcystin production was observed from cells grown in Bold 3N medium during the exponential growth phase. The highest microcystin content was observed in cultures using BG-11(N:P = 100) medium. <![CDATA[Triterpenes from the <em>Protium heptaphyllum</em> resin - chemical composition and cytotoxicity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400399&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl) Marchand, Burseraceae, is popularly used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, the cellular mechanism of action remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllum resin and cytotoxicity on a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The chemical composition of the resin was determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to a Mass Spectrometer. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using an MTT assay. Annexin V-FITC, caspase-3, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme activity and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF- α) assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis and inflammatory events. The resin consisted of triterpenes, such as α- and β-amyrin. Cytotoxicity was only observed in fractions enriched with α- and β-amyrin. The resin and fractions elicited antiproliferative activity, increased activity of caspase-3 and ACE, and a decrease in the TNF-α level. Altogether, the resin and fractions enriched with α- and β-amyrin promoted cytotoxicity and apoptosis. <![CDATA[Cancer chemoprevention activity of labdane diterpenes from rhizomes of <em>Hedychium coronarium</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400408&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig, Zingiberaceae, is a medicinal plant popularly used to treat inflammatory conditions in different countries. Three labdane diterpenes [isocoronarin D (1), methoxycoronarin D (2), ethoxycoronarin D (3)] and benzoyl eugenol (4) were isolated from rhizomes and their chemopreventive potential was evaluated using in vitro assays, namely the inhibition of NF-κB, COX-1 and -2, the induction of antioxidant response element (ARE), and the inhibition of cell proliferation. Diterpene 1 activated ARE (EC50 57.6 ± 2.4 µM), while 2, 3 and 4 significantly inhibited NF-κB (IC50 of 7.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 0.3 and 32.5 ± 4.9 µM, respectively). In addition, 2 and 3 selectively inhibited COX-1 (IC50 values of 0.9 ± 0.0 and 3.8 ± 0.0 µM, respectively). These data support the potential chemopreventive activity of constituents from H. coronarium rhizomes. <![CDATA[Effects of essential oil from leaves of <em>Eugenia sulcata</em> on the development of agricultural pest insects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400413&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Essential oils are known for their insect control potential, which is mainly attributed to the presence of terpenes that interfere with hormonal and physiological processes of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia sulcata Spring ex Mart., Myrtaceae, on the development of two species of agricultural pest insects, Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Results showed that the essential oil induced mortality, and reduced numbers of adults. Topical treatment of Oncopeltus fasciatus using pure essential oil caused significant mortality rates (96.67%), while Dysdercus peruvianus had a higher tolerance, with 80% mortality at the end of the experiments. Results suggest that essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia sulcata may be used in agriculture for insect pest control. <![CDATA[A mixture of chamomile and star anise has anti-motility and antidiarrheal activities in mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400419&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Mexico and other countries. A widely used alternative in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of herbal medicines. Infusions of chamomile and star anise possess anti-inflammatory and antimotility properties that could help alleviate gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mixture of chamomile and star anise infusions on gastrointestinal activity in mice. A gastrointestinal assessment of the mixture of chamomile and star anise was carried out in mice, and the percentage of advance of administered activated carbon through the intestinal tract of the animals was measured. Furthermore, the diarrhea model was induced with castor oil. The infusions were prepared using a mix with a 50:50 ratio of the herbs, and were administered at Mix-10, 20, 40 and 80 (mg/kg) orally. The results indicate that Mix-40 and Mix-80 decreased the completion percentage of the activated carbon, delayed the appearance of diarrhea and decreased the number of evacuations in comparison with the control group. This suggests that the combination of chamomile and star anise can be used as an alternative antidiarrheal treatment. <![CDATA[Synergy in ethnopharmacological data collection methods employed for communities adjacent to urban forest]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400425&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Several ethnopharmacological techniques used for sampling and data collection cannot be used as they are for different areas and cultural groups. This study combined and adapted reported ethnopharmacological research techniques for sampling and data collection of medicinal plants in forests adjacent to urban areas, and evaluated their potential applicability. The areas considered in this study included the neighborhoods adjacent to the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Application of combined ethnopharmacological research techniques ensured a practical strategy and reliability in the collected data. Preliminary interviews with 303 questionnaires constituted the general sampling of the population, and interviews with eleven people knowledgeable of medicinal plants constituted specific sampling. Using the two techniques, it was possible to identify sixty species, which are stored in the CESJ Herbarium. Given the lack of specific ethnopharmacological research tools in the context of multi-cultural urban communities located adjacent to forest areas that require preservation, this study shows that the synergistic use of techniques provides more reliable and reproducible data. The combined use of these techniques provides safety and simplifies the tools for future use in similar studies. <![CDATA[Direct MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses of unnatural beauvericins produced by the endophytic fungus <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> SS46]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400433&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The best time of production of the cyclohexadepsipeptide beauvericin by the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum SS46 in Czapek medium was evaluated. The highest level of beauvericin production was found on day 21 of fermentative culture, as assessed by quantitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Precursor-directed biosynthesis experiments were carried out to produce new analogues of beauvericin by feeding F. oxysporum with ten analogues of L-phenylalanine. In order to evaluate which precursor analogues were incorporated by the microorganism, the obtained extracts were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The precursor-directed biosynthesis studies led to the biosynthesis of novel beauvericin derivatives by replacement of one, two, or all three L-phenylalanine residues in beauvericin with DL-3-fluorophenylalanine, L-3-fluorophenylalanine, L-4-fluorophenylalanine, or L-tyrosine. Beyond these precursor analogues, one unit of L-4-aminophenylalanine, L-4-chlorophenylalanine, DL-4-bromophenylalanine, or L-4-bromophenylalanine was also incorporated by the endophyte F. oxysporum SS46. Units of L-4-nitrophenylalanine and L-histidine were not incorporated by the microorganism to produce unnatural beauvericins. <![CDATA[<em>Eichhornia crassipes:</em> an advantageous source of shikimic acid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400439&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Pontederiaceae) is considered as one of the most productive plants on earth, and an aquatic weed, which causes serious environmental problems. In this study, this species is presented as an alternative of a renewable source of shikimic acid. Although this acid is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms, its occurrence is described for the first time in a species of the Pontederiaceae family. Shikimic acid is the lead compound for the production of the antiviral agent oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®). Semi-quantitative analyses of the plant extracts by HPLC-PDA showed that the aerial parts of E. crassipes contain higher shikimic acid concentration (0.03%-2.70% w/w) than the roots (0.05%-0.90% w/w), and that methanol is a better solvent than water for shikimic acid extraction. <![CDATA[First phytochemical studies of japecanga (<em>Smilax fluminensis</em>) leaves: flavonoids analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400443&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This is the first chemical study of the antiradical potential of Smilax fluminensis Steud., Smilacaceae, leaves crude extract and fractions and the elucidation of two structurally isolated flavonoids. Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1-6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-L-galactopyranoside were elucidated by spectrometric methods (1H and 13C NMR and mass). <![CDATA[Chemical and biological aspects of octocorals from the Brazilian coast]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400446&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This review explores the chemical and biological aspects/results reported in the literature of the octocoral species collected at the Brazilian Coast. This article summarizes the biological activities (including pharmacological, antifouling and others related to chemical ecology) for the compounds and/or extracts described elsewhere. Data and references of compounds isolated from species belonging to the same genus, which have not been investigated in Brazil yet, are presented, emphasizing the importance for research in this area. <![CDATA[Identification of medicinal plants of Urmia for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400468&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important organs of the human body and is vulnerable to different diseases. Available drugs often have low efficacy or are associated with many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative drugs are necessary to treat gastrointestinal complications. This study intended to identify medicinal plants in Urmia, Iran, that can affect common gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Data was collected from public resources via interviews and questionnaires applied from April to June 2013. Herbarium specimens were collected from the region and authenticated by a botanist. A total of 41 indigenous medicinal plants from the Urmia region, belonging to twenty families, have a traditional medicinal role in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases, diarrhea, reflux, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, constipation, bloating, among other gastrointestinal tract disorders. Analysis showed that most plants affecting the gastrointestinal tract belonged in the Asteraceae family (24%). The most used part of the plants was the seed at 17%. Decoction at 65% was the most popular form of treatment used. Some of the medicinal plants discussed in this article have new implications presented for the first time. Pharmacological studies on the therapeutic effects of the indigenous plants mentioned in this study are necessary in order to investigate their claimed clinical effects and the use of their effective compounds to produce natural and useful drugs. Currently, there is no data on the herbal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in northwestern Iran. Therefore, these findings are important for the management of gastrointestinal disorders and to conduct future studies on traditional medicine for drug development. <![CDATA[Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400481&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013. <![CDATA[Erratum on "Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines"]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2014000400502&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.