Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 23 num. 6 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Saponins, tannins and flavonols found in hydroethanolic extract from <em>Periandra dulcis</em> roots]]> Periandra dulcis Mart. ex Benth. Fabaceae (Syn.: P. mediterranea (Vell.) Taub.) is native to the northern and middle parts of Brazil. In Brazilian ethnomedicine, their roots are used as anti inflammatory, expectorant, diuretic and laxative. An HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system was employed to provide a rapid method to make a tentative characterization of the compounds found in the hydroethanolic extract from P. dulcis roots. The structures of sixteen compounds found in this hydroethanolic extract were suggested mainly by MS data conjugated with the UVDAD spectra, reference compounds and available mass spectra data in literature. Saponin derivatives of hederagenin and soyasapogenol E, such as hederagenin-3-O-rhamnosyl glucosyl glucuronide, soyasapogenol E-3-O-rhamnosyl glucosyl glucuronide and periandrin isomers were found as the main constituents, with a minor content of flavonols quercetin and myricetin glycosides derivatives and hydrolysable tannins, such as dihexahydroxydiphenoyl galloyl glucoside and trisgalloyl hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose.To the best of our knowledge, with exception of periandrins found in the roots, nothing has been published about the chemical composition of P. dulcis.. <![CDATA[Essential oil compositions, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various populations of <em>Artemisia chamaemelifolia</em> at two phenological stages]]> Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill., Asteraceae, has been used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumor. This study determined the variation in chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of A. chamaemelifolia collected at two phenological stages within five natural habitats in northern Iran.The highest oil yield was obtained from the Shahkoh population with 1.10 ml/100g dry matter harvested at the 50% flowering stage. The highest values of 1,8-cineole (31.82%) was obtained from the Pelor population at the 50% flowering stage.The highest percentages of artemisia ketone (12.27%), camphor (17.21%), and borneol (13.50%) were obtained from the Kandovan population, harvested before flowering. The highest content of chrysanthenone (18.14%) was obtained from the Gadok population before flowering. The essential oil of the Kandovan population harvested at the 50% flowering stage had the highest percentages of Davanone D (28.44%) and Davanone (28.88%). The A. chamaemelifolia oils inhibited the growth of four bacterial pathogens, while these same oils exhibit weak antioxidant (DPPH) activity. The results indicated A. chamaemelifolia contained three chemotypes: 1,8-cineole, davanone and/or Davanone D, and chrysanthenone. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils obtained from various populations of A. chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages may be significant from a pharmaceutical stand point. <![CDATA[RP-HPLC analysis of manool-rich <em>Salvia officinalis</em> extract and its antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with dental caries]]> In this paper we screened the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, against a representative panel of microorganisms that cause caries, conducted a bioassay-guided fractionation to establish themselves the most active metabolite (manool) and determined the Salvia officinalis fraction with the manool highest concentration to be used to activate an ingredient in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes. Both manool and S. officinalis extract showed very promising minimal inhibitory concentration values (between 6.24 and 31.36 µ and time kill curves against the primary causative agents of dental caries (Streptococcus mutans) revealed that, at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (12.48 µ, manool required 6 h to completely kill the bacteria. Salvia officinalis extract at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (31.36 µ ) needed 12 h. The results achieved with Salvia officinalis extract motivated us to develop and validate an analytical RP-HPLC method to detect and determine manool in this extract. The validation parameters were satisfactorily met and evaluated allows us to consider the developed method suitable for use in different labs. In conclusion, our results evidenced that the manool-rich S. officinalis extract can be considered an analytically validated alternative to develop novel and effective antimicrobial agents against the main bacteria responsible for dental caries. <![CDATA[Chemical composition, antischistosomal and cytotoxic effects of the essential oil of <em>Lavandula angustifolia</em> grown in Southeastern Brazil]]> This paper reports on the chemical composition, the in vitro antischistosomal effects, and the cytotoxicity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae, grown in the Southeastern Brazil. Borneol (22.4%), epi-α-muurolol (13.4%), α-bisabolol (13.1%), precocene I (13.0%), and eucalyptol (7.9%) were the major essential oil constituents. Incubation with essential oil at 200 μg/ml killed all the adult S. mansoni worms after 24 h (LC50 117.7 and 103.9 μg/ml at 24 and 120 h of incubation, respectively). At a concentration of 50 μg/ ml, the essential oil significantly decreased the motor activity and reduced the percentage of egg development after 120 h. In addition, the essential oil separated all the coupled S. mansoni worm pairs into individual male and female at 25 and 50 μg/ml within 120 and 24 h, respectively. This oil was cytotoxic to GM07492-A cells at only concentrations higher than 200 µg/ml (IC50 243.7 µg/ml). These data indicate that LA-EO exhibits moderate in vitro activity against adult S. mansoni and exerts remarkable effects on eggs development. <![CDATA[Inhibitory effects of <em>Swietenia macrophylla</em> on myotoxic phospholipases A<sub>2</sub>]]> Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2), Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose dependent manner, the cytotoxicity, myotoxicity and edema induced by PLA2s, as well as the anticoagulant activity of Asp49 PLA2. Overall, this fraction exhibited a better inhibition of the toxic activities induced by the Lys49 PLA2 than those caused by the Asp49 PLA2. The spectral data of Sm13-16, 23 suggested the presence of aromatic compounds (UV λ max (nm) 655, 266, and 219; IR λ max KBr (cm-1): ~ 3600-3000 (OH), 2923.07 and 1438.90 (C-H), 1656.69 (C = O), 1618.63 and 1607.67 (C-O), 1285.47772.60). We suggest that phenolic compounds could interact and inhibit the toxins by several mechanisms. Further analysis of the compounds present in the active fraction could be a relevant contribution in the treatment of accidents caused by snake envenomation. <![CDATA[The effect of the essential oils from five different <em>Lippia</em> species on the viability of tumor cell lines]]> Several Lippia species have been used in folk medicine mainly for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. Their biological properties have been partially associated to the terpenoids found in their essential oils. According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and is described as a complex group of diseases with several hallmarks. One of its acceptable defining features is the cell proliferation beyond their boundaries forming the tumors. Importantly, some drugs currently available were discovered by the investigation of plant secondary metabolites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effect of the essential oils extracted from five Lippia species against tumor cell lines. The results indicated that mouse colon carcinoma CT26.WT cell line viability was significantly reduced showing an IC50 of 19.05, 30.20 and 36.30 µg/ml when treated with the essential oils of L. sidoides, L. salviifolia and L. rotundifolia, respectively. Human lung carcinoma A549 cell line also had a compromised viability to the action of L. alba carvone chemotype essential oil. The tested essential oils did not compromise viability of the normal cell line CHO. These finds suggest that the studied Lippia essential oils might be good candidates for further in-depth studies. <![CDATA[Influence of the intraperitoneal administration of antitumor <em>Abarema auriculata</em> extract on mice behavior]]> The organic extract EB689, obtained from the stem of Abarema auriculata (Benth.) Barneby &amp; J.W.Grimes, Fabaceae, commonly known as "saboeiro-ferro", was chemically studied, as well as its influence over behavioral effects such as locomotion, emotionality and anxiety, after intra-peritonial administration were assessed. The open-field and elevated-plus maze were used in experiments divided into two stages. The first stage aimed for the identification of the main effects over behavior using a reduced number of animals against half-fold diluted doses of EB689. The same variables were also tested in a second stage of the experiment using the non-lethal intra-peritoneal dose of 4.8 mg/kg in a larger number of animals. It was observed that EB689 clearly decreased locomotion, which was probably caused by internal hemorrhage causing hypovolemic shock. Although it is the first time lupeol and eucryphin are described in A. auriculata, it is still not clear if they are involved in the toxicology of A. auriculata. The undesirable effects of EB689 are better understood, the basis for further pharmacological assays aiming antitumor activity are supported. <![CDATA[Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of <em>Calotropis procera</em> leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats]]> Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day), vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c.) or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day) were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group) for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg) reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity. <![CDATA[Systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by <em>Parkia platycephala</em> ethanolic extract in female Wistar rats]]> The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Parkia platycephala Benth., Fabaceae, on systemic and reproductive parameters. In toxicity on the estrous cycle, four groups of not-pregnant Wistar rats received distilled water and the doses 250, 500 and 1000 of plant extract for thirty days, at the end of which they were examined as to the frequency of their phases. The systemic toxicity was assessed through the consumption of water and food and by measuring body mass. After the extract was administered, serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin (total, direct and indirect), urea and creatinine were dosed. The evaluation of the organs (brain, heart, hypophysis, adrenal glands, liver, spleen, uterus and ovaries) in their macroscopic aspects, relative and absolute masses and histological structure showed that the plant extract induced a decrease of water and food consumption and of body mass. It caused an increase in the luteal phase and a decrease in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and rose serum alkaline phosphatase levels.The data exhibit systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by plant extract in female Wistar rats. <![CDATA[Extracts from the leaves of <em>Campomanesia velutina</em> inhibits production of LPS/INF-γ induced inflammatory mediators in J774A.1 cells and exerts anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects <em>in vivo</em>]]> Campomanesia velutina (Cambess) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, popularly known as "gabiroba" or "guavira", is used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat several diseases, including inflammation and rheumatism. Extraction and isolation from leaves of the plant afforded the active compound myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, also known as myricitrin. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. velutina and its ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions were evaluated in inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw oedema) and analgesic models (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate test). Moreover, the ethanolic extract, its fractions and the isolated compound were also in vitro evaluated for their ability to modulate NO, TNF-α and IL-10 production from J774A.1 macrophages stimulated by LPS/IFN-γ. In vivo assays showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions. The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract and A was demonstrated in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. In vitro assays demonstrated that ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions fraction and myricitrin inhibited NO production from macrophages J774A.1. Also Myricitrin induced production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. None of the samples was able to inhibited TNF-α production. The results demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of C. velutina. <![CDATA[Progress in micropropagation of <em>Passiflora</em> spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review]]> Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic material, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed. <![CDATA[Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects]]> Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.