Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 25 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Useful Brazilian plants under the view of the writer-naturalist João Guimarães Rosa]]> ABSTRACTThis study shows the results of a wide but non-exhaustive review on plants cited in the literacy work of the writer-naturalist João Guimarães Rosa (J.G. Rosa). Information about popular names and use of plants were recovered through a review in seven works of the author. The assignment of the scientific names was based in other previous ethnobotanical studies performed in similar areas of Cerrado in Minas Gerais state. For each species, data about their presence in the Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia, or use for preparing commercial products were checked. A total of 964 popular names for plants were recovered, 59 of them being more frequently cited. From the total citations, 57 native species have their use described by the author but curiously, only thirteen are referred to as medicinal. It is assumed that the literature from J.G. Rosa is very rich in data about the utility of the plants from the Cerrado; however, the present work shows that his interest was rather the literary (poetic) creation, and we demystify that supposition. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> alpha glucosidase inhibition and free-radical scavenging activity of propolis from Thai stingless bees in mangosteen orchard]]> ABSTRACTThe chemical component and biological activity of propolis depend on flora area of bee collection and bee species. In the study, the propolis from three stingless bee species, Lepidotrigona ventralis Smith, Lepidotrigona terminata Smith, and Tetragonula pagdeni Schwarz, was collected in the same region of mangosteen garden from Thailand. Total phenolic content, alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect, and free-radical scavenging activity using FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays were determined. The most potent activity of propolis extract was investigated for bioactive compounds and their quantity. The ethanol extract of T. pagdeni propolis had the highest total phenolic content 12.83 ± 0.72 g of gallic acid equivalents in 100 g of the extract, and the strongest alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 of 70.79 ± 6.44 µg/ml. The free-radical scavenging activity evaluated by FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays showed the FRAP value of 279.70 ± 20.55 µmol FeSO4 equivalent/g extract and the IC50 of 59.52 ± 10.76 and 122.71 ± 11.76 µg/ml, respectively. Gamma- and alpha-mangostin from T. pagdeni propolis extract were isolated and determined for the biological activity. Gamma-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity for both alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect and free-radical scavenging activity. Using HPLC quantitative analysis method, the content of gamma- and alpha-mangostin in the extract was found to be 0.94 ± 0.01 and 2.77 ± 0.08% (w/w), respectively. These findings suggested that T. pagdeni propolis may be used as a more suitable raw material for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products and these mangostin derivatives as markers. <![CDATA[Antimicrobial activity of the myrsinoic acid A from <em>Myrsine coriacea</em> and the semi-synthetic derivatives]]> ABSTRACTThe antimicrobial activity of the myrsinoic acid A isolated from Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R.Br. ex Roem. &amp; Schult., Primulaceae, and a two semi-synthetics derivatives was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration during evaluation of the antimicrobial activity. The myrsinoic acid A showed no activity against the selected microorganisms but the hydrogenated and acetylated derivatives were active against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. <![CDATA[Evaluation of limonoid production in suspension cell culture of <em>Citrus sinensis</em>]]> ABSTRACTThe use of cell and plant tissue culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances are total limonoid aglycones, which are produced by "pera" orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae) and have received considerable attention because of their anticancer actions. The main objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the levels of limonoid aglycones in seeds, callus cultures (originating from seeds), callus cultures (originating from hypocotyls), cell suspensions from hypocotyls cells, and cell suspensions from cotyledons. The cell cultures or C. sinensis were obtained by inoculating two strains of callus in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 7.0 µM benzyl aminopurine, and 3% (w/v) sucrose in the dark. The highest concentrations of limonoid aglycone that were obtained were observed in cotyledon cell lines (240 mg/100 g dry weight) that were produced on day 21 of culture and hypocotyl cell lines on day 7 (210 mg/100 g dry weight). Explants of different origins under the same culture conditions had different limonoid aglycone content. The present results may suggest strategies for enhancing the productivity of biologically important limonoid aglycones and investigating the complex pathways of these secondary metabolites in plant tissue cultures. <![CDATA[Cucumin S, a new phenylethyl chromone from <em>Cucumis melo</em> var. <em>reticulatus</em> seeds]]> ABSTRACTA new phenylethyl chromenone, cucumin S [(R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone] (1), along with five known compounds: 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (3), luteolin (4), quercetin (5), and 7-glucosyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (6) were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Ser., Cucurbitaceae, seeds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means (1D and 2D NMR), as well as HRESIMS, optical rotation measurement, and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds 1–6 were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. Compounds 3, 4, and 5 showed potent activities compared to propyl gallate at concentration 100 µM. <![CDATA[Multi-elemental analysis of <em>Ziziphora clinopodioides</em>from different regions, periods and parts using atomic absorption spectrometry and chemometric approaches]]> ABSTRACTIn this study, ten trace elements in Ziziphora clinopodioidesLam., Lamiaceae, from different regions, periods and parts in Xinjiang were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry following microwave-assisted acid digestion. The decreasing sequence of elements levels was K &gt; Ca &gt; Mg &gt; Fe &gt; Cu &gt; Zn &gt; Na &gt; Mn &gt; Cd &gt; Pb. Chemometric approaches, such as correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to classify Z. clinopodioides according to its elements contents. Principal component analysis revealed 83.51% of the variance with the first four principal component variables. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated five groups from the eighteen regions, and the result of classification can correspond to the geographical distribution for the most regions. Variation in the elements exhibited a decreasing trend, but of different types in the studied periods. Elemental contents distributed in leaves were higher than those in flowers and stems. Therefore, chemometric approaches could be used to analyze data to accurately classify Z. clinopodioides according to origins. This study provided some elemental information on chemotaxonomy, diversity, changing pattern, distribution, and metabolism of Z. clinopodioides at spatial and temporal levels, and could be used as a reference of planting and quality standards. <![CDATA[<em>In vivo</em> potential hypoglycemic and <em>in vitro</em> vasorelaxant effects of <em>Cecropia glaziovii</em>standardized extracts]]> ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cecropia glaziovii Snethl, Urticaceae, extracts on the oral glucose tolerance curve, on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and vasorelaxant effect after the extraction process, and to standardize the extractive solutions. The effects of the process variables and their interactions were calculated in relation to dry residue, pH, total phenolic results and chemical marker content. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts (400 mg/kg), chlorogenic (2 or 15 mg/kg) and caffeic acids (2 mg/kg) were investigated on the oral glucose tolerance curve and on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanol extracts 4d20 and 8d20 significantly improved glucose tolerance in the hyperglycemic rats. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids, as well as the association of the compounds were able to significantly reduce glycemia after oral gavage treatments. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts did not alter the glycemia. The aqueous extracts (8020 and 9030) and only the higher dose of chlorogenic acid presented a significant effect on serum glucose lowering in diabetic rats. Additionally, the IC50 reveals that the ethanol extracts presented more potent vasodilator effects than the aqueous extracts in aortic rings. This study shows that C. glazioviistandardized extracts exhibits antihyperglycemic action, is able to improve glucose tolerance and has a potent vascular relaxing effect. These results are probably linked to concentrations of the main phenolic compounds of the extracts. <![CDATA[Screening of flavonoids rich fractions of three Indian medicinal plants used for the management of liver diseases]]> ABSTRACTThe decoctions of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Fabaceae, Bauhinia variegata L., Fabaceae, and Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, are traditionally used for the treatment of various types of hepatic disorder. Phytochemical studies have shown that total flavonoids from these plants were the major constituents of the picked out part of each plant. The present study was planned to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of flavonoid rich fractions of the B. monosperma, B. variegata and O. gratissimum against paracetamol induced liver damage. Flavonoid rich fractions were isolated by solvent fractionation from each plant. Each fraction was subjected to various qualitative chemical tests to findout the metabolites. Flavonoid fractions of each plant were subjected for pharmacological screening. The rats were monitored for change in liver morphology, biochemical parameters like serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin for the groups receiving the flavonoid-rich fractions. All flavonoid rich fractions showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The histological studies supported the biochemical parameters. From the results of biochemical analysis and histopathological studies, it can be accomplished that in the ethyl acetate fraction of O. gratissimum showed highest hepatoprotective activity as compared to other fractions. The present study was the first evidence of flavonoid-rich fractions of each plant have a remarkable hepatoprotective effect. All fractions contain a potent hepatoprotective agent suggested to be a flavone, which may find clinical application in amelioration of paracetamol-induced liver damage. <![CDATA[Clinical safety evaluation of a tea containing <em>Cissampelos sympodialis</em> in healthy volunteers]]> ABSTRACTCissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, is widely used by Indian tribes and folk medicine to treat various inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Clinical toxicological trials were made with the tea of C. sympodialis, a medicinal plant. The study took place at Lauro Wanderley Hospital/UFPB-PB, where seventeen healthy volunteers were chosen, among those six men and eleven women who orally ingested, during four weeks uninterruptedly, 150 ml of the tea, once a day. Before the first ingestion and after the last one, the participants were subjected to clinical and laboratorial tests for their overall conditions in order to analyze the toxicity of the plant. The results demonstrated that the volunteers neither experience clinical nor laboratorial alterations, as well as no significant adverse effects, apart from little change detected in their hematological tests. Nevertheless, none demonstrated any pathological conditions, just alterations of the normal human being physiology. Therefore, it is concluded that these data complement that obtained during pre-clinical studies and confirm a low toxicity of this plant. <![CDATA[Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of <em>Passiflora edulis</em>]]> ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF); P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE)). This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component. <![CDATA[<em>Musanga cecropioides</em> leaf extract exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities in animal models]]> ABSTRACTExtract obtained from the leaves of Musanga cecropioides R. Br. ex Tedlie, Urticaceae, a tree growing in Africa, is used traditionally in the treatment of edema and rheumatism. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of ethanol extract were studied using the carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and xylene-induced edema tests as well as the formalin, mouse writhing and tail clip tests. Significant dose dependent inhibition was observed in the carrageenan model with peak inhibition at 150 mg/kg (71.43%, 90 min, p &lt; 0.001). In the histamine and serotonin models, the extract caused significant inhibition of 83.33% (p &lt; 0.05) and 45% (p &lt; 0.01) at 120 min respectively. For the xylene model, the extract showed maximum inhibition (59.25%) at 200 mg/kg. Also, M. cecropioides produced significant anti-nociceptive activity in the mouse writhing (55.12%, p &lt; 0.01), formalin (81.88%, p &lt; 0.01) and tail clip (11.78%, p&lt; 0.001) tests at 200 mg/kg respectively. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that the ethanolic leaf extract of M. cecropioidespossesses anti-inflammatory effect possibly mediated via histaminergic and serotonergic inhibition and anti-nociceptive effect mediated via peripheral mechanism with mild central involvement. <![CDATA[Response Surface Methodology IV-Optimal design applied to the performance improvement of an RP-HPLC-UV method for the quantification of phenolic acids in <em>Cecropia glaziovii</em> products]]> ABSTRACTChlorogenic and caffeic acids are bioactive phenolic compounds present in Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Urticaceae, products that have been used as analytical markers. This paper reports a chemometric study aimed at improving chromatographic performance for quantification of these markers by RP-HPLC. The organic to aqueous content ratio, the acid content of the mobile phase, and the elution method were analyzed using a Response Surface Methodology IV-Optimal design. The resolution between peaks, retention time, tailing and retention factors, number of theoretical plates and peak widths were evaluated. The optimized conditions were mathematically determined as (A) trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v), (B) 12% (v/v) acetonitrile and (C) increasing gradient. The method was considered specific, fast, precise, reliable and linear in the ranges of 1.0–200.0 and 2.5–100.0 µg/ml for the chlorogenic and caffeic acids, respectively. The adequate conditions to separate and quantify both phenolic acids in C. glaziovii products were demonstrated. Satisfactory resolution was achieved when compared to a previously published chromatographic method which is unable to separate the chlorogenic acid and an interfering compound presented under certain extractive conditions, demonstrating the importance of systematic studies, specifically when analyzing complex plant matrices. <![CDATA[Identification of terpenes and phytosterols in <em>Dipteryx alata</em> (baru) oil seeds obtained through pressing]]> ABSTRACTThe oil from seeds of Dipteryx alata Vogel, Fabaceae, popularly known as baru, was extracted by hydraulic and continuous screw pressing. A total of eleven chemical constituents obtained by hydraulic pressing, including steroids, mono and sesquiterpenes and tocopherol derivatives were identified by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Compounds limonene, β-elemene, γ-elemene, α-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and cycloartenol are being described for the first time in the baru oil. <![CDATA[Chemical constituents of <em>Cycas vespertilio</em>]]> ABSTRACTChemical investigation of Cycas vespertilio A. Lindstr. &amp; K.D. Hill, Cycadaceae, a plant endemic to the Philippines, yielded pinoresinol (1), sesamin (2), paulownin (3), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and triacylglycerols from the cone base; 1, 3, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, triacylglycerols, and lariciresinol (4) from the cataphylls; β-sitosterol from the megasporophyll lamina; β-sitosterol and a mixture of trans-4-hydroxycinnamate fatty acid esters (5) and cis-4-hydroxycinnamate fatty acid esters (6) from the unripe sarcotesta; and β-sitosterol and triacylglycerols from the ripe sarcotesta. The structures 1–6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. <![CDATA[Microsomal metabolism of erythraline: an anxiolitic spiroalkaloid]]> ABSTRACTThe genus Erythrina, Fabaceae, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Their flowers, fruits, seeds and bark are frequently used in folk medicine for its effects on the central nervous system such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, sedative, and hypnotic effects. Erythraline has been reported as one of the active compounds from Erythrina, but until now there are no pharmacokinetics data about this compound and only few results showing a putative metabolism were reported. To improve the information about erythraline metabolism, this article reports and discusses, for the first time, the in vitrometabolism biotransformation of erythraline by cytochrome P450 enzymes. <![CDATA[Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview]]> ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. <![CDATA[The genus <em>Cordia</em>: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects]]> ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments. <![CDATA[<em>Carthami flos:</em> a review of its ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and clinical applications]]> ABSTRACTCarthami flos, the dried floret of Carthamus tinctorius L., Asteraceae (safflower), has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a broad range of ailments, such as coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, gynecologic disease, stroke, and hypertension. However, although several studies on Carthami flos have been done consecutively, the results are usually scattered across various documents. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the traditional uses, pharmacology, clinical applications, and toxicology of Carthami flos in China and thereby to provide a basis for further investigation of its use to treat dissimilar diseases. Various ethnomedical uses of Carthami flos have been documented in many ancient Chinese books. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Carthami flos show a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as protective effects on brain tissue, on osteoblasts, and in myocardial ischemia, as well as anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antitumor, and antidiabetic activities. To date, safflower and safflor yellow injections have been used to treat coronary heart disease, chronic pulmonary heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, orthopedic diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the toxicology of Carthami flos, among the side effects that have been observed are allergic reaction, spermatogenetic failure, fatty liver, and nephrotoxicity.