Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-695X20170003&lang=es vol. 27 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Botanical and genetic characters of <em>Erythrina</em> × <em>neillii</em> cultivated in Egypt]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300273&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Erythrina × neillii Mabberley &amp; Lorence, Fabaceae, is a sterile hybrid between E. herbacea L. and E. humeana Spreng. Nothing was traced about its genetic, macro and micromorphology. Therefore, it was deemed of interest to study its botanical characters, in addition to the DNA fingerprint to help in the identification of the plant. The anatomical characters of the old stem and its bark are characterized by the presence of cork cells, bast fibers and sclereids. Pericycle is sclerenchymatous forming crystal sheath. The epidermises of the leaf and young stem are characterized by the presence of anomocytic and paracytic stomata, non-glandular, unicellular and multicellular two armed hairs, and glandular club shaped hair. Calcium oxalate is present in the form of crystal sheath and prisms. Secretory cavities are distributed in the phloem and cortex. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used as one of the molecular methods to differentiate between the samples of Erythrina. The DNA of Erythrina was extracted and analyzed using seven-mer random primers. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA were recognized. This characterization allows certification of the authenticity of Erythrina × neillii, in order to provide quality control for the plant. <![CDATA[Anatomy and histochemistry of leaves and stems of <em>Sapium glandulosum</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300282&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Sapium belongs to Euphorbiaceae family and comprises 23 species. Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong is popularly known in Brazil as "pau-leiteiro" and "leitosinha" and it is used in traditional medicine to cicatrisation. Its leaf extracts have shown analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The preliminary set of pharmacognostic tools used for quality assessment of medicinal plant parts is macro- and micro-anatomy and S. glandulosum has not anatomical and histochemical description. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical and histochemical characteristics of the leaf and stem of S. glandulosum as a means of providing information for quality assessment of herbal industry. The leaves and stems were investigated by employing field emission scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histochemistry techniques. The analysis showed that S. glandulosum had the following anatomical features: dorsiventral and amphistomatic leaves; paracytic stomata; tabular crystal druses; non-articulated and branched laticifers; midrib's biconvex shape with vascular systems in open arc with invaginated ends; petiole with a round shape and slight concavity on the adaxial side; six collateral vascular bundles in U-shaped organisation; a circular stem shape and a sclerenchymatous ring. In the histochemical tests lipophilic components were found in cuticle and in the latex; phenolic compounds were met in the mesophyll and in the latex; starch grains were found in the parenchymatous sheath; lignified elements were met in the sclerenchymatous ring in the cortex and in the perivascular sclerenchymatous caps, beyond in the vessel elements. These features are helpful when conducting a quality control process. <![CDATA[Distribution of phytoestrogenic diarylheptanoids and sesquiterpenoids components in <em>Curcuma comosa</em> rhizomes and its related species]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300290&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Curcuma comosa Roxb., Zingiberaceae, a phytoestrogen-producing herb with vernacularly named "Wan Chak Mod Loog" in Thailand, has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecologic diseases and sold as food supplement in the market. However, similar rhizomes of its related species may lead to the confusion in the uses of this plant. This study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of different Curcuma spp. that used as "Wan Chak Mod Loog". Characteristic major compounds were isolated and identified. Phytochemical analysis of 45 Curcuma samples representing Curcuma sp., C. latifolia, and C. comosa were analyzed and compared with their phylogenetic relationship inferred by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis. Phytoestrogen diarylheptanoids were found in all samples of C. comosa while sesquiterpenoids including hepatoxic zederone were found in C. latifolia and Curcuma sp. samples. <![CDATA[Isolation of quinoline alkaloids from three <em>Choisya</em> species by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and the determination of their antioxidant capacity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300297&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Choisya ternata Kunth, C. ternata var. sundance Kunth and the hybrid Choisya ‘Aztec-Pearl’ are three related species belonging to the Rutaceae family. Ethanol extracts were prepared from the leaves of these three species and evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using in vitro and ex vivo models. The ethanol extracts belonging to the three species produced a very high antioxidant profile as evidenced by the DPPH radical scavenging activity, the determination of total phenolics and flavonoid equivalent. The generation of reactive species of oxygen in leukocytes stimulated with LPS was dramatically reduced when the three ethanol extracts were used. The alkaloids anhydroevoxine and choisyine were isolated from the ethanol extract of C. ternata using HEMWat (4:6:5:5) as the solvent system by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography. This was the first time quinoline alkaloids were isolated from this species using HSCCC. These compounds were also assayed for their capacity to inhibit the generation of ROS in leukocytes stimulated by LPS and the results also suggested that they are reactive oxygenase inhibitors. <![CDATA[Cytotoxic activity of the chloroform extract and four diterpenes isolated from <em>Salvia ballotiflora</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300302&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract New compounds with chemotherapeutic activity are sought after, and plants are an important source of these compounds. Four diterpenes, 19-deoxyicetexone, 7,20-dihydroanastomosine, icetexone and 19-deoxyisoicetexone, were isolated from the hexane-washed chloroform extract of Salvia ballotiflora. The cytotoxic activity of the hexane-washed chloroform extract and its four diterpenes were tested using the MTT assay against three tumor cell lines: HeLa (cervical cancer), A549 (lung cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer), and two murine cell line: J774A.1 (epithelial cancer) and CT26 (colon cancer), and their IC50 values were determined. 19-Deoxyisoicetexone had the greatest effect on HeLa cells with IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml (9.36 µM), whereas hexane-washed chloroform extract had the best cytotoxic effect on A549 cells with an IC50 of 2.29 µg/ml. These effects of 19-deoxyisoicetexone and hexane-washed chloroform extract were with similar activity compared to cisplatin (IC50 = 1.06 µg/ml in HeLa cells, and 4.6 µg/ml (15.21 µM) in A549 cells). <![CDATA[A cytotoxic <em>Petiveria alliacea</em> dry extract induces ATP depletion and decreases β-F1-ATPase expression in breast cancer cells and promotes survival in tumor-bearing mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300306&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Metabolic plasticity in cancer cells assures cell survival and cell proliferation under variable levels of oxygen and nutrients. Therefore, new anticancer treatments endeavor to target such plasticity by modifying main metabolic pathways as glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation. In American traditional medicine Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccacea, leaf extracts have been used for leukemia and breast cancer treatments. Herein, we study cytotoxicity and antitumoral effects of P. alliacea extract in tumor/non-tumorigenic cell lines and murine breast cancer model. Breast cancer cells treated with P. alliacea dry extract showed reduction in β-F1-ATPase expression, glycolytic flux triggering diminished intracellular ATP levels, mitochondrial basal respiration and oxygen consumption. Consequently, a decline in cell proliferation was observed in conventional and three-dimension spheres breast cancer cells culture. Additionally, in vivo treatment of BALB/c mice transplanted with the murine breast cancer TS/A tumor showed that P. alliacea extract via i.p. decreases the primary tumor growth and increases survival in the TS/A model. <![CDATA[Induction of apoptosis by Moutan <em>Cortex Radicis</em> in human gastric cancer cells through the activation of caspases and the AMPK signaling pathway]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300315&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Moutan Cortex Radicis, the root bark of Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews, Paeoniaceae, has been widely used in traditional medicine therapy. Although it has been shown to possess many pharmacological activities, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer activity have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of the ethanol extract of Moutan Cortex Radicis in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Moutan Cortex Radicis treatment inhibited the cell viability of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was associated with apoptotic cell death. Moutan Cortex Radicis's induction of apoptosis was connected with the upregulation of death receptor 4, death receptor 5, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, Fas ligand, and Bax, and the downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bid. Moutan Cortex Radicis treatment also induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the proteolytic activation of caspases (-3, -8, and -9), and the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an activated caspase-3 substrate protein. However, the pre-treatment of a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly attenuated Moutan Cortex Radicis-induced apoptosis and cell viability reduction. In addition, Moutan Cortex Radicis treatment effectively activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway; however, a specific inhibitor of AMPK significantly reduced Moutan Cortex Radicis-induced apoptosis. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of Moutan Cortex Radicis may be associated with a caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways connected with adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, and Moutan Cortex Radicis as an activator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase could be a prospective application to treat human cancers. <![CDATA[Bee venom induces apoptosis and suppresses matrix metaloprotease-2 expression in human glioblastoma cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300324&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor representing with poor prognosis, therapy resistance and high metastasis rate. Increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family proteins, has been reported in many cancers including glioblastoma. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression has resulted in reduced aggression of glioblastoma tumors in several reports. In the present study, we evaluated effect of bee venom on expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 as well as potential toxicity and apoptogenic properties of bee venom on glioblastoma cells. Human A172 glioblastoma cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bee venom. Then, cell viability, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity were measured using MMT assay, propidium iodide staining, real time-PCR, and zymography, respectively. The IC50 value of bee venom was 28.5 µg/ml in which it leads to decrease of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Incubation with bee venom also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in this cell line (p &lt; 0.05). In zymography, there was a reverse correlation between bee venom concentration and total matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression can be suggested as molecular mechanisms involved in cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of bee venom against glioblastoma cells. <![CDATA[Antiproliferative effect of <em>Momordica cochinchinensis</em> seeds on human lung cancer cells and isolation of the major constituents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300329&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Gac, Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng., Cucurbitaceae, is an indigenous South Asian edible fruit and has been used therapeutically in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previous studies have shown that M. cochinchinensis seed (Momordicae Semen) has various pharmaceutical properties such as antioxidant and anti-ulcer effects as well as contains secondary metabolites with potential anticancer activities such as triterpenoids and saponins. However, its biological activities in cancer have not yet been investigated. In this study, we found that its ethanol extract reduced cell proliferation in four human lung cancer cell lines, A549, H1264, H1299 and Calu-6. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract was carried out, and resulted in isolation of two major saponins, which were identified as gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1) and quillaic acid 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (2). Treatment with these isolated compounds (1 and 2) decreased cel1 proliferation in all human lung cancer cell lines tested. In addition, the compounds attenuated primary lung endothelial cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest M. cochinchinensis seeds have antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cells as well as angiostatic effect on lung endothelial cells. <![CDATA[Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical analysis of extracts from <em>Trifolium riograndense</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300334&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Aiming to investigate new therapeutic agents with fewer side effects, the number of studies about natural products has increased. Phenolic compounds comprise a well-studied class of abundant plant-derived compounds, whose anti-inflammatory activity has been described. Isoflavones are phenolic compounds that occur mainly in the Leguminosae family, and can be found in many species, such as Trifolium riograndense Burkart, Leguminosae (clover). In this study an HPLC method was used to determine and quantify four isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and biochanin A) in hydrolyzed leaf, flower, stolon, and root extracts of T. riograndense. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using the rat paw edema method and in vitro chemotaxis model with a dry extract from the leaves, which had the highest amount of isoflavones. The major isoflavone found in all parts of the plant was formononetin. The chemotaxis assay revealed that the different concentrations (0.2–50 µg/ml) of the dry extract significantly inhibited neutrophil migration in a concentration-dependent manner (more than 90%). In the rat paw edema test, oral administration of clover extract 100 mg/kg was able to significantly inhibit the edema formation induced by carrageenan. In conclusion, chemical analyses showed that Trifolium riograndense is a plant rich in isoflavones and a new interesting option as isoflavone source. The results of the biological tests taken together show that the extract of T. riograndense has anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. <![CDATA[Polysaccharide rich fractions from barks of <em>Ximenia americana</em> inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception in mice Antinociceptive effect of <em>Ximenia americana</em> polysaccharide rich fractions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300339&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Ximenia americana L., Olacaceae, barks are utilized in folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The objective was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effect of polysaccharides rich fractions from X. americana barks. The fractions were obtained by extraction with NaOH, followed by precipitation with ethanol and fractionation by ion exchange chromatography. They were administered i.v. or p.o. before nociception tests (writhing, formalin, carragenan-induced hypernociception, hot plate), or during 14 days for toxicity assay. The total polysaccharides fraction (TPL-Xa: 8.1% yield) presented 43% carbohydrate (21% uronic acid) and resulted in two main fractions after chromatography (FI: 12%, FII: 22% yield). FII showed better homogeneity/purity, content of 44% carbohydrate, including 39% uronic acid, arabinose and galactose as major monosaccharides, and infrared spectra with peaks in carbohydrate range for COO- groups of uronic acid. TPL-Xa (10 mg/kg) and FII (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) presented inhibitory effect in behavior tests that evaluate nociception induced by chemical and mechanical, but not thermal stimuli. TPL-Xa did not alter parameters of systemic toxicity. In conclusion, polysaccharides rich fractions of X. americana barks inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception, being well tolerated by animals. <![CDATA[Antispasmodic activity from <em>Serjania caracasana</em> fractions and their safety]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300346&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In a previous study, we reported the antispasmodic and gastroprotective effects of the Serjania caracasana (Jacq.) Willd., Sapindaceae, extract. In the present study, we evaluated the LD50, hemolytic and antispasmodic activities of its fractions and characterized its major constituents by isolation and GC–MS. The animals showed non-toxic symptoms with oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg, suggesting a safe oral administration. Furthermore, a low hemolytic activity was detected for the saponin fraction. Antispasmodic activity of the fractions was evaluated through carbachol-induced contractions in rat ileum. The hexane fraction was the most potent (IC50 68.4 ± 5.9 µg/ml) followed by the dichloromethane fraction (IC50 161.3.4 ± 40.7 µg/ml). Butanol fraction was the less effective (IC50 219.8 ± 60.3 µg/ml). The phytochemical study of the S. caracasana fractions afforded the isolation of friedelin, β-amyrin, allantoin and quercitrin. This is the first time that the presence of allantoin and quercitrin in the Serjania genus has been reported. Among the isolated compounds and those characterized by GC–MS, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were present in the most active fractions, hexane and dichloromethane, and they may be related to its antispasmodic activity. In addition, spathulenol was only found in the hexane fraction and its presence might justify the highest antispasmodic activity observed for this fraction. <![CDATA[Reproductive effects of the psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300353&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage used ancestrally by indigenous Amazonian tribes and, more recently, by Christian religions in Brazil and other countries. This study aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of this beverage in male Wistar rats after chronic exposure. The rats were treated by gavage every other day for 70 days at 0 (control), 1×, 2×, 4× and 8× the dose used in a religious ritual (12 animals per group), and animals euthanized on the 71st day. Compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain in rats from the 4× and 8× groups, and a significant increase in the brain and stomach relative weight at the 8× group. There was a significant increase in total serum testosterone, and a decrease in spermatic transit time and spermatic reserves in the epididymis caudae in the 4× group, but not in the highest dose group. No significant changes were found in the other reproductive endpoints (spermatozoid motility and morphology, total spermatozoid count and daily sperm production), and histology of testis and epididymis. This study identified a no-observed-adverse-effect-level for chronic and reproductive effects of ayahuasca in male Wistar rats at 2× the ritualistic dose, which corresponds in this study to 0.62 mg/kg bw N, N-dimethyltryptamine, 6.6 mg/kg bw harmine and 0.52 mg/kg bw harmaline. A potential toxic effect of ayahuasca in male rats was observed at the 4× dose, with a non-monotonic dose–response. Studies investigating the role of ayahuasca components in regulating testosterone levels are needed to better understand this action. <![CDATA[Rats treated with <em>Hypericum perforatum</em> during pregnancy generate offspring with behavioral changes in adulthood]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300361&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Drugs used in the treatment of depression can cross the placenta giving rise to questions regarding the effects these drugs exert on the fetus. Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, is a natural product used to treat depression. However, information about its toxicity and the occurrence of alterations in the central nervous system development of the offspring is scarce. This work assessed the behavior of adult male rats born from mothers treated with Hypericum extract during gestation and analyzed the fluorescence of the extract in different organs of mothers and fetuses. Male pups were divided into three treated groups, corresponding to the administration of the Hypericum extract to mothers at the dose levels of 36 mg/kg, 72 mg/kg and 144 mg/kg, and one control group in which the mothers received distilled water. At 90 days of age, the offspring underwent the following tests: rotarod, pentobarbital-induced sleep time, elevated plus maze, hole-board and forced swimming test. The observed fluorescence indicated the presence of the extract in all tissues analyzed. The obtained results suggest lasting changes in the performances displayed in the CNS, depression and anxiety tests, indicating that the use of Hypericum during gestation could interfere with the behavioral development of the offspring reducing anxiety and depression when they become adults. We suggest that these alterations are associated with the reprogramming of the brain regions related to changes in emotional reactivity. <![CDATA[Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of dichloromethane extract from <em>Piper nigrum</em> and <em>P. longum</em> on permanent focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300369&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract White pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and long pepper (Piper longum L.) belong to family Piperaceae and are commonly used as household spices and traditional medicine worldwide, specifically in China and Southeast Asia. In Traditional Chinese Hui Medicine, these herbs are widely used for treatment of stroke. Our present study investigated effects of these herbs on inflammation in rat model with cerebral ischemia. After subjecting the rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) for 6 h, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, dichloromethane fraction from white pepper and long pepper, respectively, was intragastrically administered once a day for seven consecutive days. Cerebral cortical and hippocampal tissues were collected after seven days. Superoxide dismutase, malonaldehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 were measured by spectrophotometer. Phytochemical profile of dichloromethane fraction was determined through HPLC. Dichloromethane fraction exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing expression or production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. By contrast, dichloromethane fraction showed activity against pMCAO injury by reducing oxygen-free radicals through increased superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malonaldehyde level. HPLC analysis revealed piperine as major component of dichloromethane fraction. These results show that dichloromethane fraction provides protection against cerebral ischemia. The possible mechanism is related to anti-inflammatory activity and reduction in oxygen-free radicals. <![CDATA[<em>Pterodon pubescens</em> oil nanoemulsions: physiochemical and microbiological characterization and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory efficacy studies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300375&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Pterodon pubescens (Benth.) Benth., Fabaceae, fruits have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and have demonstrated effectiveness in inflammatory conditions. A physiochemical and microbiological stability study was conducted to investigate two nanoemulsion-based delivery systems of two different hydrophilic surfactants (polyethylene glycol-40H castor oil or polyethylene glycol-40 castor oil). The nanoemulsions, containing P. pubescens oil, lecithin, hydrophilic surfactant and water, were analyzed for droplet size distribution, polydispersity index, pH, consistency index, stability against centrifugal force, and active content/vouacapan derivatives. The physicochemical characteristics were followed for 365 days. The nanoemulsion system was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by using with a peritonitis model, immediately after preparation and after 365 days of storage at 25 °C. The stability study demonstrated that proper storage (25 °C) preserved the characteristics of the nanoemulsion containing 7.5% polyethylene glycol-40H castor oil, 5% lecithin, and 5% P. pubescens oil. Further, it ensured a shelf life of 365 days as a phytotherapeutic formulation. In the peritonitis assay induced by carrageenan, nanoemulsion prepared with polyethylene glycol-40H castor oil (125 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte migration, even after 365 days of storage (25 °C), highlighting its potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, further studies are needed to confirm its clinical effectiveness. <![CDATA[Ecuadorian honey types described by Kichwa community in Rio Chico, Pastaza province, Ecuador using Free-Choice Profiling]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300384&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Pastaza is the largest and least populated province in Ecuador, with seven native indigenous nationalities. The Kichwas from the Rio Chico community live near to the capital city Puyo, are recognized for their knowledge on stingless honey bees. From the 400 species of Neotropical Meliponini that make honey in cerumen pots, almost 100 thrive in Southern Ecuador, and confer such biodiversity to pot-honey. In this study sensory characteristics of Ecuadorian false and genuine honeys with diverse entomological origin: Apis mellifera – light amber and amber, Geotrigona leucogastra, Melipona grandis and Scaptotrigona sp. (S. ederi np Schwarz) were investigated with Kichwa assessors (four female and four male, aged 18–62 years old). The panel was asked to taste and to identify sensory attributes of honey (appearance, taste, smell, aroma, mouthfeel, other tactile sensations), and to score their intensities in 10 cm unstructured line scales anchored with the words weak and strong, using the Free-Choice Profile methodology The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was used on the data. The first and second dimensions accounted for by 61.1% of the variance. In the descriptive sensory evaluation, darker honeys (amber A. mellifera, false and Geotrigona) were separated from (light amber A. mellifera, Melipona and Scaptotrigona) by the first dimension; whereas thicker honeys (A. mellifera and false) were discriminated from thinner honeys (Geotrigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona) by the second dimension. The assessors were able to evaluate and differentiate honey types without previous sensory training. Remarkably, two Kichwa ladies immediately spit out the false honey, in contrast to an acceptance study on 18-honeys, where the false honey was scored among the preferred ones by 58 participants of the First Congress on Apiculture and Meliponiculture in Ecuador. Therefore, results suggest that Ecuadorian native Kichwas keep a sensory legacy of ancestral knowledge with forest products such as honey. <![CDATA[Plants from the Brazilian Traditional Medicine: species from the books of the Polish physician Piotr Czerniewicz (Pedro Luiz Napoleão Chernoviz, 1812–1881)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300388&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The Brazilian flora is very rich in medicinal plants, and much information about the traditional use of the Brazilian plants is only available from early literature and we are facing a rapid process of loss of biodiversity. To retrieve data about useful plants registered in the books of the Polish physicist P.L.N. Chernoviz, who lived in Brazil for 15 years in the 19th century. The aim is to improve our knowledge about Brazilian plants, and to ensure the benefits of sharing it with potential users. Data about Brazilian plants were obtained from six editions of the book Formulary and Medical Guide (Formulário e Guia Médico), published in 1864, 1874, 1888, 1892, 1897 and 1920. All this information was then organized in boxes, and correlated with pharmacological studies from PubMed and Lilacs. A total of 238 species were recorded and 117 different traditional uses were registered for the plants. The most common uses were to treat general skin diseases and intermittent fevers, as purgative, diuretics and andidiarrheal. From the total, only 61 species (25.6%) have been to date subject to pharmacological studies and had their activities confirmed. Chernoviz books represent an important source of data about plants used in traditional medicine of Brazil. Their records were collected at a time when Brazil's native vegetation was still largely intact, and traditional medicine was practiced based on native plants. We argue that these plants must be prioritized in development of medicines, submitting them to clinical studies or by considering their traditionality, as established by WHO. Strategies for the protection of the traditional knowledge are also necessary. <![CDATA[Utilization of dynamic light scattering to evaluate <em>Pterodon emarginatus</em> oleoresin-based nanoemulsion formation by non-heating and solvent-free method]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2017000300401&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, Fabaceae, is a great source of bioactive compounds. The most known and studied herbal derivative from this species is an ambar-colored oleoresin that contains vouacapane diterpenes and volatile terpenoids, such as β-caryophyllene. Some recent papers aimed to generate nanoemulsions using this oleoresin for biological applications. However, they used high-energy methods that elevate costs of the process or heating procedures, which offer the disadvantage of possible volatile substances loss. Thus, as part of our ongoing studies with nanobiotechnology of natural products, especially regarding preparation of nanoemulsions with promising plant-based oils by low cost and low energy methods, we decided to evaluate the ability of non-heating and solvent-free method to generate P. emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsions. Two non-ionic surfactants were used to generate the nanoemulsions by a simple homogenization method with vortex stirrer. Low mean droplet size (&lt;180 nm) and low polydispersity index (&lt;0.200) were observed even after one day of preparation. The low coefficient of variation for the analyzed parameters of different batches and similar profile for droplet size distribution suggested reproducibility of the method. After 30 days, some degree of droplet growth was observed on nanoemulsion prepared with polyethyleneglycol 400 monooleate, while almost no alteration was observed for nanoemulsion prepared with polysorbate 85. Programmed temperature ramp analysis revealed that no major effects on droplet size and polydispersity index were observed, suggesting the robustness of formed nanoemulsions. Thus, the present study shows for the first time the formation of sucupira-based nanoemulsions by a simple, low cost and ecofriendly method. This study opens new perspectives for bioactive evaluation of this novel nano-product.