Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 26 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Optimization of a multi-residue method for 101 pesticides in green tea leaves using gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry]]> ABSTRACT A method for analysis of 101 pesticide residues in tea leaves was developed and validated for the first time. Pure acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent rather than acetonitrile after matrix hydration based on the amount of co-extracts and recoveries performance. During clean-up procedure, primary-secondary amine/graphitized carbon black (500 mg) was selected, which exhibited outstanding properties in clean-up capabilities and recoveries of pesticides comparing to primary-secondary amine/graphitized carbon black (250 mg), NH2-Carbon and TPT absorbents. The method was validated employing gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry at the spiked concentration levels of 0.050 and 0.100 mg kg−1. For most of the targeted pesticides, the percent recoveries range from 70 to 120%, with relative standard deviations &lt;20%. The linear correlation coefficients (r 2) were higher than 0.99 at concentration levels of 0.025–0.250 mg kg−1. Limits of quantification ranged from 1.1 to 25.3 µg kg−1 for all pesticides. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticides in tea leaf samples. <![CDATA[Antinociceptive effect of semi-purified petroleum ether partition of <em>Muntingia calabura</em> leaves]]> ABSTRACT Muntingia calabura L., Muntingiaceae, is a medicinal plant for various pain-related diseases. The aims of the present study were to determine the antinociceptive profile and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of antinociception of petroleum ether partition obtained from crude methanol extract of M. calabura leaves using various animal models. The antinociceptive profile of petroleum ether fraction (given oral; 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was established using the in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception. The role of glutamate, TRPV1 receptor, bradykinin, protein kinase C, potassium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the partition's antinociceptive activity was also determined. The results obtained demonstrated that petroleum ether partition exerted significant (p &lt; 0.05) antinociception in all the chemicals-, thermal-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, bradykinin, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociception models. The antinociceptive activity was reversed following pretreatment with opioid antagonists (i.e. naloxone, β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (i.e. pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor), haloperidol (a non-selective dopaminergic), atropine (a non-selective cholinergic receptor), caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor), and yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic)). In addition, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination failed to inhibit petroleum ether partition's antinociception. In conclusion, petroleum ether partition exerts antinociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels via the modulation of, partly, the opioid (i.e. µ, κ and δ) and several non-opioids (i.e. β-adrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, adenosinergic, and α2-noradrenergic) receptors, glutamatergic, TRPV1 receptors, PKC and K+ channels systems, but not L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the effects of passion fruit peel flour (<em>Passiflora edulis</em> fo. <em>flavicarpa</em>) on metabolic changes in HIV patients with lipodystrophy syndrome secondary to antiretroviral therapy]]> ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of using passion fruit peel flour together with diet therapy and counseling in 36 patients with HIV lipodystrophy who were in an ambulatory clinic in a university hospital. The patients were divided into two groups. One received 30 g of passion fruit peel flour daily for 90 days and diet therapy counseling. The other group received only diet therapy counseling. The metabolic changes were analyzed before and after the intervention, with a significance level predetermined at p ≤ 0.05. The use of passion fruit peel flour was effective in reducing total cholesterol and triacylglycerides after 30 days. The concentrations of LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased in the blood of lipodystrophy patients after 90 days passion fruit peel flour treatment. No significant differences in food consumption were seen between groups. The use of 30 g of passion fruit peel flour for 90 days together with diet therapy counseling was effective in improving plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triacylglycerides. <![CDATA[<em>Operculina macrocarpa</em>: chemical and intestinal motility effect in mice]]> ABSTRACT Operculina macrocarpa (L.) Urb., Convolvulaceae, is used by the population as a laxative. In this work we described the isolation of the three phenolic acids present in the hydroethanolic extract of the O. macrocarpa roots. The quantification of the caffeic, chlorogenic acids and of the new caffeic dimer in the hydroethanolic and infusion extracts was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled photodiode array detector. These analyses showed the higher content of the chlorogenic, caffeic and the new 3,4'-dehydrodicaffeic acid in hydroethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts without resin in which infusion. The acid found in greater quantity is caffeic acid followed by the 3,4'-dehydrodicaffeic acid. The laxative activity was evaluated by different experimental models of intestinal transit with the hydroethanolic and infusion extracts, and the resin fraction, caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. The results showed all extracts and compounds tested had significant activity in the experimental model tested. These results obtained are essential for the future development of a pharmaceutical product with safety and efficacy. <![CDATA[Cholinesterase inhibitory activity and structure elucidation of a new phytol derivative and a new cinnamic acid ester from <em>Pycnanthus angolensis</em>]]> ABSTRACT The leaves of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., Myristicaceae, are used as memory enhancer and anti-ageing in Nigerian ethnomedicine. This study aimed at evaluating the cholinesterase inhibitory property as well as isolates the bioactive compounds from the plant. The acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potentials of extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated by colorimetric and TLC bioautographic assay techniques. The extract inhibited both enzymes with activity increasing with purification, ethyl acetate fraction being most active fraction at 65.66 ± 1.06% and 49.38 ± 1.66% against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, respectively while the supernatant had 77.44 ± 1.18 inhibition against acetylcholinesterase. Two new bioactive compounds, (2E, 18E)-3,7,11,15,18-pentamethylhenicosa-2,18-dien-1-ol (named eluptol) and [12-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-oxo-cyclopenta-1,3-dien-1yl)-11-methyl-dodecyl](E)-3-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)prop-2-enoate (named omifoate A) were isolated from the plant with IC50 of 22.26 µg/ml (AChE), 34.61 µg/ml (BuChE) and 6.51 µg/ml (AChE), 9.07 µg/ml (BuChE) respectively. The results showed that the plant has cholinesterase inhibitory activity which might be responsible for its memory enhancing action, thus justifying its inclusion in traditional memory enhancing preparations <![CDATA[A subchronic toxicity study of ethanol root extract of baked <em>Aconitum flavum</em> in rats]]> ABSTRACT The genus Aconitum has strong toxicity, but the acute toxicity of baked Aconitum flavum Hand.-Mazz., Ranunculaceae, was reduced significantly on the premise of keeping anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, the risk associated with long-term use is unknown. In a sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered A. flavum at doses of 0.76–3.03 g/kg for 90 days and further recovered for 14 days. Our results showed that oral treatment with A. flavum for 90 days caused significant changes in some hematological indicators at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg, such as red blood cell, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These results indicated that the A. flavum affects the structure and function of red blood cell. Furthermore, significant changes were observed in the white blood cell at dose of 3.03 g/kg in male rats, which confirmed tissue damage or toxicity. The liver function tests exhibited non-significant alterations in aspertate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and avenin-like storage proteinsgene. But other parameters, such as total protein and albumin were obviously decreased at all doses. A. flavum also caused a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride at all doses. For kidney function, there were significant elevations in urea and creatinine at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg. The levels of certain electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) were significantly different after 90 days of treatment with A. flavum (3.03 and 1.52 g/kg). Organs were observed by light microscopy after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Hemosiderin depositions in the spleen were observed in the A. flavum group. These data demonstrated that the subtoxicity of A. flavum was reduced considerably by baked, but the subchronic toxicity effects on the liver, kidney and spleen should not be ignored. <![CDATA[The effect of the carotenoid bixin and annatto seeds on hematological markers and nephrotoxicity in rats subjected to chronic treatment with cisplatin]]> ABSTRACT This study assessed the protective effect of the carotenoid bixin and annatto seeds against possible nephrotoxicity induced with a single peritoneal administration of pharmacological cisplatin in male Wistar rats. After 48 h, the blood cell differential count showed a significant reduction in neutrophil counts in rats that received a diet rich in bixin when compared to the group that received only cisplatin. The use of cisplatin led to an increase in kidney weight. The carotenoid bixin attenuated renal injury, characterized by increased polymorphonuclear infiltration. No protective effect was observed with respect to Annatto. These results demonstrate the role of toxic cisplatin and suggest that bixin affords a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult Wistar rats. <![CDATA[Chemical profiles of traditional preparations of four South American <em>Passiflora</em> species by chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic techniques]]> ABSTRACT Several species of the genus Passiflora are distributed all over South America, and many of these species are used in popular medicine, mainly as sedatives and tranquilizers. This study analyzes the chemical profile of extracts of four Passiflora species used in folk medicine, focusing on the flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. We employed simple and fast fingerprint analysis methods by high performance liquid chromatography, ultra performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques. The analysis led to the detection and identification of C-glycosylflavonoids in all the plant extracts, these being the main constituents in P. tripartita var. mollissima and P. bogotensis. Saponins were observed only in P. alata and P. quadrangularis, while harmane alkaloids were not detected in any of the analyzed extracts in concentrations higher than 0.0187 ppm, the detection limit determined for the UPLC method. <![CDATA[Foliar anatomy of <em>Viola maculata</em> growing in Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina]]> ABSTRACT Viola maculata Cav., Violaceae, grows in the underwood along the Los Andes mountain system from Neuquén to Tierra del Fuego and Islas Malvinas. It is also known as violeta amarilla or as pilundeu, and is used in popular medicine by the Mapuches as stimulant, in dermatology, and as a lavage in eye diseases. The aim of this work is to examine the morpho-anatomical traits of the leaves and petiole of V. maculata (collected at Parque Nacional Los Alerces, Patagonia, Argentina). Cross sections and scanning electron microscopy of leaves blade and petiole showed a simple organization with simple unicellular trichomes and cells containing tannins, and crystals of calcium oxalate mainly in the spongy parenchyma. As V. maculata is used in traditional medicine, the specification of the anatomical characters is relevant to describe the species. <![CDATA[Phytochemical screening of the dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of <em>Eriosema campestre</em> var. <em>macrophylum</em> roots and its antiproliferative effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes]]> ABSTRACT Eriosema campestre var. macrophylum (Grear) Fortunato, Fabaceae, is a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado and the decoction of its roots has been used by folk medicine for the therapy of inflammatory diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of the dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre roots on the proliferative response of lymphocytes and to examine the profile of IL-2 production. The effect of dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre on the proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes was evaluated by using flow cytometry and the cell supernatants were assayed for IL-2 concentrations by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phytochemical screening of E. campestre roots was performed to determine the main secondary metabolites through chromogenic and precipitation reactions and by using HPLC-PAD. In addition to the presence of subclasses of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols) in dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre, we observed that the extract induced a concentration-dependent decrease in IL-2 levels on the supernatant of the cell cultures as well as an antiproliferative effect on T lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The anti-inflammatory effects attributed to E. campestre by folk medicine may partly be explained by its antiproliferative action on T lymphocytes. <![CDATA[Coumarins of <em>Loricaria ferruginea</em>]]> ABSTRACT In the presented research we isolated and characterized compounds from Loricaria ferruginea (Ruiz &amp; Pav.) Wedd., Asteraceae. To the best of our knowledge no data on any compounds from L. ferruginea have been published to this day. As main compounds of the hexane extract we found four known coumarins: 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin; 5,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin; 5-hydroxyobliquine and 5-methoxyobliquine. All the structures were determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. <![CDATA[Isolation and characterization of flavanols from <em>Anthocephalus cadamba</em> and evaluation of their antioxidant, antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and COX-2 inhibitory activities]]> ABSTRACT In search of lead molecules for use in disease prevention and as food additive from natural sources, two flavanols were isolated from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Rubiaceae. Their structures were established as 6-hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin and 6-hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin-(4→6‴)-(-)-epicatechin on the basis of spectroscopic data. Both the compounds exhibited potent antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity. 6-Hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin scavenged DPPH, ABTS+.and superoxide anion radicals with IC50 values of 6.09 µg/ml, 5.95 µg/ml and 42.70 µg/ml respectively whereas the IC50 values for 6-hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin-(4→6‴)-(-)-epicatechin were 6.62 µg/ml for DPPH free radicals, 6.93 µg/ml for ABTS radical cations and 49.08 µg/ml for superoxide anion radicals. Both the compounds also exhibited potent reducing potential in reducing power assay and protected the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton's reagent in DNA protection assay. In SOS chromotest, 6-hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin decreased the induction factor induced by 4NQO (20 µg/ml) and aflatoxin B1 (20 µg/ml) by 31.78% and 65.04% respectively at a concentration of 1000 µg/ml. On the other hand, 6-hydroxycoumarin-(4"→8)-(-)-epicatechin-(4→6‴)-(-)-epicatechin decreased the genotoxicity of these mutagens by 37.11% and 47.05% respectively. It also showed cytotoxicity in COLO-205 cancer cell line with GI50 of 435.71 µg/ml. Both the compounds showed moderate cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity. <![CDATA[GABAergic effect of valeric acid from <em>Valeriana wallichii</em> in amelioration of ICV STZ induced dementia in rats]]> ABSTRACT Valeriana wallichii DC., Caprifoliaceae, is used to have anti-ulcer, anti-spasmodic, anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, anti-anxiety, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-asthmatic and diuretic activities. V. wallichii is reported to contain valpotriates, valeric acid, valerenic acid, valechlorine, valerianine, resins and alkaloids. Valeric acid, found in V. wallichii appears similar in structure to the neurotransmitter GABA. Valeric acid also acts as an NMDA-receptor antagonist. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of V. wallichii containing valeric acid and its possible mechanism of action in amelioration of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neurodegeneration in Wistar rats. The rhizomes of V. wallichii were powdered coarsely and extracted by percolation method using dichloromethane. Wistar rats (220–250 g) of either sex were divided into 5 groups, comprising 6 animals each. Valeric acid was isolated from plant extract and characterized using FT-IR. Picrotoxin (2 mg/kg) was used as GABA-A antagonist. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin administration caused significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in escape latency, retention transfer latency on morris water maze on 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th day and elevated plus maze on 19th and 20th day respectively, as compared to normal untreated rats. Treatment with V. wallichii extract 100 and 200 mg/kg and valeric acid 20 and 40 mg/kg significantly decreased the escape latency and retention transfer latency, as compared to intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin group. Plant extract and valeric acid also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and restored glutathione level in rat brains. Administration of picrotoxin significantly reversed the effects produced by plant extract and valeric acid in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin treated rats. The findings may conclude that valeric acid present in V. wallichii has significant GABAergic effect in amelioration of experimental dementia. <![CDATA[Effect of exogenous phytohormones treatment on glycyrrhizic acid accumulation and preliminary exploration of the chemical control network based on glycyrrhizic acid in root of <em>Glycyrrhiza uralensis</em>]]> ABSTRACT One-year-old Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC, Fabaceae, was treated with three exogenous phytohormones in June and July, namely gibberellin, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), methyl jasmonate at different concentrations. Control plants were treated with water. Roots of controls and hormones-treated G. uralensis plants were harvested at different times, and the contents of seven main chemical components were determined. Root glycyrrhizic acid content of plants treated in June increased significantly compared with controls, and the difference was significant. As for plants treated in July, root glycyrrhizic acid content increased in which sprayed with appropriate concentrations of hormones, but the effects of hormones were more evident in plants treated in June coincided with the vigorous growth period than those treated in July. Gibberellin at 40 mg/l and auxin at 40 mg/l applied in the two treatment periods significantly promoted the accumulation of glycyrrhizic acid in G. uralensis root. Treatment with methyl jasmonate at 100 and 25 mg/l in June and July, respectively, also increased glycyrrhizic acid content significantly. The determination of major active compositions indicated that liquiritin, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside and liquiritin apioside contents were positively related to glycyrrhizic acid content. The study preliminarily found phytohormones and the main chemical components associated with glycyrrhizic acid content, and these discoveries could provide a basis for establishing a chemical control network with glycyrrhizic acid as the core, confirming the secondary product metabolic pathways in the network and completely uncovering synthesis mechanism underlying glycyrrhizic acid-combined functional gene polymorphism. <![CDATA[Amazon emulsions as cavity cleansers: antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and changes in human tooth color]]> ABSTRACT The copaiba oleoresin, Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Fabaceae, is a phytotherapeutic agent with antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of, and tooth color changes caused by four copaiba oil emulsions (Emulsion 1, 10% CM; Emulsion 2, 10% C. multijuga + 1% biotech product; Emulsion 3, 30% C. multijuga; and Emulsion 4, 30% C. multijuga + 1% biotech product). The antibacterial activities against microorganisms causing dental caries (Streptococcus mutans ATCC25175, S. oralis ATCC10557, S. salivarius ATCC7073, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC7469) were tested using three parameters: minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, and cell viability by fluorescence microscopy. The emulsions were assessed for cytotoxicity by means of the hemolytic assay and cell culture (murine fibroblast cells NHI3T3) using Alamar BlueTM. The dentin color change caused by the emulsions was examined at 10 s, 30 s, and 10 min. The emulsions showed antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested with an MIC of 125 µl/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration was higher than minimum inhibitory concentration for the tested microorganism and the fluorescence confirmed that the cells were viable at minimum inhibitory concentration values. The emulsions had a hemolytic activity of 71.16% (Emulsion 3) and 44.67% (Emulsion 4) at a concentration of 30 µl/ml. In cell culture assay, NHI-3T3 cells treated with the emulsions showed 6–16% viability. Emulsion 1 caused clinically imperceptible color change in dentin at 10 s (ΔE = 3.21), Emulsion 2 at 30 s (ΔE = 2.70) and 10 min (ΔE = 3.08), and Emulsion 4 at 10 min (ΔE = 3.03). Emulsion 3 caused color change at all times tested. This research documented positive data regarding antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, and tooth color changes when using copaiba oleoresin emulsions, showing its potential for use in dentistry. <![CDATA[<em>Cissampelos sympodialis</em> has anti-viral effect inhibiting dengue non-structural viral protein-1 and pro-inflammatory mediators]]> ABSTRACT Dengue is the most important viral infection transmitted among humans by arthropod-borne. There are currently no vaccines or specific therapeutical treatment. Therefore, immunomodulatory compounds from plants have been widely examined for their antiviral effects. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, has scientifically proven to present immunomodulatory activities. Here we assessed the antiviral activity of leaf hydroalcoholic extract, warifteine or methylwarifteine from C. sympodialis in an in vitro dengue virus infection model. The results demonstrated that leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine treatment did not reduce dengue virus-Ag+ hepatocyte (Huh-7 cell) rates in present experimental conditions. However, we assessed the potential antiviral effect of leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine on dengue virus-infection by the production of inflammatory molecules, TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2. Dengue virus infection enhanced TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2 production in infected Huh-7 cells and leaf hydroalcoholic extract but not warifteine/methylwarifteine treatments, significantly reduced these molecules in infected cells. In dengue virus-infected Huh-7 cells, non-structural protein-1 is produced and leaf hydroalcoholic extract significantly inhibited it independently of alkaloids. Our findings imply that leaf hydroalcoholic extract may attenuate dengue virus infection in Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the enhanced of pro-inflammatory mediators and non-structural protein-1 production induce by dengue virus independently of warifteine/methywarifteine its major compound. <![CDATA[Distribution patterns of flavonoids from three <em>Momordica</em> species by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry: a metabolomic profiling approach]]> ABSTRACT Plants from the Momordica genus, Curcubitaceae, are used for several purposes, especially for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Commonly known as bitter gourds, melon and cucumber, these plants are characterized by a bitter taste owing to the large content of cucurbitacin compounds. However, several reports have shown an undisputed correlation between the therapeutic activities and polyphenolic flavonoid content. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate data models such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, three Momordica species (M. foetida Schumach., M. charantia L. and M. balsamina L.) were chemo-taxonomically grouped based on their flavonoid content. Using a conventional mass spectrometric-based approach, thirteen flavonoids were tentatively identified and the three species were found to contain different isomers of the quercetin-, kaempferol- and isorhamnetin-O-glycosides. Our results indicate that Momordica species are overall very rich sources of flavonoids but do contain different forms thereof. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report on the flavonoid content of M. balsamina L. <![CDATA[Profile of bioactive compounds of <em>Capparis spinosa</em> var. <em>aegyptiaca</em> growing in Egypt]]> ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.) Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%). Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma) using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches. <![CDATA[Physical stability and clinical efficacy of <em>Crocodylus niloticus</em> oil lotion]]> ABSTRACT The stability and the anti-ageing, skin hydrating and anti-erythema effects of a commercialized Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, Crocodylidae, oil lotion was determined. The lotion was stored at controlled conditions over six months during which several stability tests were performed. For the clinical efficacy studies lotion was applied on volar forearm skin (female volunteers) and compared to a liquid paraffin-containing reference product. Skin hydrating and anti-ageing effects were determined with a Corneometer®, Cutometer® and Visioscan®, following single (3 h) and multiple applications (12 weeks). The Vapometer® and Mexameter® were utilized to determine this lotion's anti-erythema effects on sodium lauryl sulfate irritated skin. The lotion demonstrated good stability over 6 months. The reference product increased skin hydration and decreased skin wrinkles to a larger extent than the C. niloticus lotion after a single application, whereas the C. niloticus lotion decreased skin scaliness better than the reference product. During the long-term study, the reference product overall increased skin hydration more than the C. niloticus lotion, whereas C. niloticus lotion increased skin elasticity to a larger extent than the reference product. C. niloticus lotion increased skin wrinkles and decreased skin scaliness over 12 weeks. Compared to non-treated, irritated skin, C. niloticus lotion demonstrated some potential anti-inflammatory characteristics. <![CDATA[Larvicidal activity of <em>Ramalina usnea</em> lichen against <em>Aedes aegypti</em>]]> ABSTRACT The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-propyl-methyl benzoate and (+)-usnic acid identified from the lichen Ramalina usnea (L.) R. Howe, Ramalinaceae, was tested against the third instar larvae of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. The methanol extract and three fractions showed activity, killing 100% and 96.6% of the larvae at a concentration of 150 µg/ml at 24 h. The isolated compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-propyl-methyl benzoate and the (+)-usnic acid showed larvicidal activity, presenting LC50 values of 4.85 and 4.48 µg/ml, respectively. This is the first study of its kind reporting the larvicidal activity against the A. aegypti mosquito with compound (1).