Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 29 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<em>Schinus molle</em>: anatomy of leaves and stems, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of volatile oil against bed bug (<em>Cimex lectularius</em>)]]> Abstract The present work investigates the leaf and stem anatomy, chemical composition and insecticidal activities (against Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758) of the volatile oils of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, a Brazilian native traditional medicinal plant. Noteworthy micro-morphological features that can help in the identification and quality control of the species include the presence of isobilateral and amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic and cyclocytic stomata, capitate glandular and conical non-glandular trichomes, large secretory ducts in the midrib, presence of druses and prismatic crystals, and the petiole vascular system comprising of five vascular bundles arranged in U-shape and an additional dorsal bundle. The major components of the volatile oil include β-pinene (14.7%), α-pinene (14.1%), limonene (9.4%) and muurolol (11.8%). Insecticidal activities of the volatile oil against bed bugs were investigated for the first time; strong toxicity by fumigation with the volatile oil of S. molle was observed and reported herein. <![CDATA[Anatomy, histochemistry and oxalic acid content of the leaflets of <em>Averrhoa bilimbi</em> and <em>Averrhoa carambola</em>]]> Abstract Averrhoa bilimbi L. and A. carambola L., Oxalidaceae, are the only two species of the genus Averrhoa L. Their leaves are widely used in folk medicine as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes. Some species may contain, for example, calcium oxalate crystals, which may lead to risk in its use when there is predisposition of individuals with reduced renal activity. Therefore, there are still few studies on the content of oxalic acid present in them, highlighting the importance of this investigation. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative anatomical and histochemical study between the species and determining its content of oxalic acid. Semipermanent histological slides were prepared, following common plant anatomy procedures, for analysis of the leaflets in optical microscopy, polarization and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. To determine the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate content was used titration with potassium permanganate. The anatomical characterization allowed identifying the characters useful in the differentiation of the species. The histochemistry revealed the location of the metabolites. Chemical microanalyses demonstrated that the crystals are of calcium oxalate. A. carambola presented the highest levels of total oxalate and soluble oxalate. The study assists in the identification and quality control of A. bilimbi and A. carambola and brings new data on its oxalic acid content, which are important, in view of the medicinal use of the species. <![CDATA[Simultaneous quantification of six flavonoids in four <em>Scutellaria</em> taxa by HPLC-DAD method]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new HPLC method to quantify several flavonoids in the methanol extract prepared from the aerial parts of four Scutellaria L. taxa from flora of Turkey. A simple, sensitive and precise reversed phase HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six main flavonoids; scutellarein 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, hispidulin 7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, hispidulin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin and apigenin. All standard compounds showed a good linearity (R 2 &gt; 0.999) in a relatively wide concentration range (1-120 µg/ml). The limit of detection of the compounds was in the range of 0.016-1.883 µg/ml and the limit of quantification was in the range of 0.232-3.368 µg/ml. The recoveries of the selected compounds were calculated in the range of 92.20-107.93%. The amounts of flavonoids showed variation in the extracts. The developed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, and can be successfully applied to identify and quantify the flavonoid composition of Scutellaria species. <![CDATA[Extraction and purification of astaxanthin from shrimp shells and the effects of different treatments on its content]]> Abstract In this study, the extraction process and purification technology of astaxanthin from shrimp shells were established, and the effects of different treatments on the content of astaxanthin were studied. The determination results of astaxanthin in various shrimp/crab shells showed that the astaxanthin content in the Procambarus clarkia shell reached 239.96 µg/g. The effects of cool-ventilated, sun-dried and cooking conditions on the content of astaxanthin during the treatment of shrimp shells were investigated respectively and fresh shrimp shells as best extraction source was determined. The nine groups orthogonal test design with four factors and three levels (L9(3)4) was used to analyze the optimization of extraction process of astaxanthin from shrimp shells with ethanol as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent. The optimum experimental condition including the solid-liquid ratio (1:7), extraction time (20 min) and temperature (50 ºC) was proposed with the maximum extraction yield of astaxanthin. Next, silica gel column chromatography was used to purify the crude extraction of astaxanthin, and the purity of astaxanthin increased from 0.34% to 85.1% (about 250 times), which has great applications in the high value utilization of shrimp shells resources and the development of astaxanthin-related products. <![CDATA[A new tricyclic abietane diterpenoid from <em>Salvia chloroleuca</em> and evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities]]> Abstract In this study, sahandone (1) and a new diterpenoid named sahandol II (2) were isolated from the roots of Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. &amp; Aellen, Lamiaceae. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were assigned by comparison of experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra and comparing with published data. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluation of the isolated compounds and the methanol crude extract and its subfractions including petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction on two human prostate cancer cell lines and a breast cancer cell lines, showed that non-polar and semi-polar subfractions had the potent cytotoxic effect on PC3 cells with the IC50 values of 24.19, 33.59, and 47.15 µg/ml, respectively. Sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of cells treated with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate subfractions showed the induction of apoptosis. Change in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase were observed. <![CDATA[Antiplasmodial evaluation of <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> and alkyl-phenols]]> Abstract The ethanol crude extract from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae) displayed significant antiplasmodial activity (IC50 0.577 µg/ml). Liquid chromatography-high resolution Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify the main compounds existing in the ethanol extract. The occurrence of anacardic acids, cardols, and 2-methylcardols derivatives was confirmed in the extract. The IC50 obtained, when the main isolated compounds were evaluated in Plasmodium falciparum D6 strain, ranged from 5.39 µM to &gt;100 µM. Tested here for the first time, the data showed that cardol triene 1 (IC50 = 5.69 µM) and 2-methylcardol triene 4 (IC50 = 5.39 µM) demonstrated good antimalarial activity. In conclusion, Anacardium occidentale nuts presented relevant biological potential, and further studies should be considered. <![CDATA[Terpenoids isolated from <em>Azadirachta indica</em> roots and biological activities]]> Abstract The chemical study of roots from Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, led to the isolation of two new terpenoids, limonoid morenolide and diterpene 17-hydroxy-sandaracopimar-8,15-dien-11-one, in addition to the four well-known limonoids nimbinene, nimbinal, nimbandiol and salannin, and three diterpenoids nimbidiol, ferruginol, and 6,7-dehydroferruginol. Their structural elucidations were based on one and bidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry spectra data which was compared to the data found in literature. The anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activities of the identified terpenoids were evaluated. <![CDATA[Anti-allergic rhinitis effects of caffeoylquinic acids from the fruits of <em>Xanthium strumarium</em> in rodent animals <em>via</em> alleviating allergic and inflammatory reactions]]> Abstract The fruits of Xanthium strumarium L., Asteraceae, have been used for various diseases in Chinese folk medicine, including allergic rhinitis, tympanitis, arthritis, ozena etc. The current study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of caffeoylquinic acids from fruits of X. strumarium on allergic rhinitis in animals. The toxicity test indicated that the caffeoylquinic acids have no obvious toxicity. By using HPLC assays combined with reference standards, ten caffeoylquinic acids were identified as the predominant constituents. Anti-allergic activities of the caffeoylquinic acids were evaluated using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test and Schultz-Dale test; dimethylbenzene induced ear edema test was performed to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effect. Then, the allergic rhinitis model in rats was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the caffeoylquinic acids against allergic rhinitis with the following indexes: allergic rhinitis symptom scores, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, histopathological examination, and histamine release. Our study revealed that the caffeoylquinic acids showed obvious anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, and its treatments were beneficial for ameliorating the nasal symptoms, decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting the releases of histamine. Collectively, the caffeoylquinic acids might be utilized as effective and safe disease therapeutic agents for allergic rhinitis. <![CDATA[Cytotoxic effects of <em>Euterpe oleraceae</em> fruit oil (açaí) in rat liver and thyroid tissues]]> Abstract Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, fruit (açaí) presents considerable potential for the development of new medicines due to its phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. More recently, special attention has been given to the pharmacological potential of the fruit's oil. This study analysed the histological and histochemical effects of different dosages of açaí oil on rat's liver and thyroid cells, in order to evaluate its cytotoxic potential after administration for consecutive days. Male Wistar rats were treated with the açaí oil by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. Liver and thyroid fragments were collected for histology (hematoxylin and eosin) and histochemistry analysis (blue of Nilo (lipids), Baker (lipids), bromophenol blue (protein), PAS (polysaccharides)). The results showed that animals exposed to açaí oil presented alterations in the liver cells, where the integrity of the liver tissue was increasingly lost as the açaí oil doses increased. Nuclear pyknosis was observed in several hepatocytes, evidencing the occurrence of cell death. Alteration in the amount of lipids, polysaccharides, vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and proliferation of Kupffer cells were observed in histochemical analyzes. As for the thyroid of the treated rats, alterations were observed in the size of the follicular lumen and also in the connective tissue found between the follicles. Under the experimental conditions employed in the present study, the cytotoxicity observed in this work is worrying, specially considering the liver, when frequent or continuous damage could lead pathological disorders in this organ. <![CDATA[Providing added value to local uses of paparahua (<em>Artocarpus altilis</em>) in Amazonian Ecuador by phytochemical data review]]> Abstract Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn.) Fosberg, Moraceae, is a native tree of Southeast Asia introduced to South America at the beginning of the 19th century. It has been used by several indigenous communities. This paper aims to preserve the traditional knowledge at risk of loss and to validate some of the applications found. Current ancestral practices were documented, by interviews in a scarcely contacted Amazonic Kichwa community from the Bobonaza River (Ecuador). The findings were compared with bibliographic citations from other Amazonian cultures. A bioinformatics literature survey of articles that report experiments on the chemical constituents was executed. The major findings are that some uses given in this population may be considered surprising, but the molecular profile of this species justifies its local value. It has cycloartenol (terpenoid), artoindonesianin F (stilbenoid), and different groups of flavonoids (chalcones, prenylflavones, oxepinoflavones, pyrano-flavones, xanthones). This information can prove effective in a search for novel drugs, focused to merge potential innovative uses of the plant. <![CDATA[Adsorption/desorption characteristics and enrichment of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin from <em>Flos populi</em> using macroporous resin]]> Abstract In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin from Flos populi extract (Populus tomentosa Carrière, Salicaceae) on twelve macroporous resins (NKA-9, HPD-600, HPD-826, HPD-750, HPD-400, DM-130, AB-8, SP-825, X-5, D-101, HPD-100, HPD-200) were evaluated. Both high adsorption and desorption capacities of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin from Flos populi extract on SP-825 resin indicated that SP-825 resin was appropriate and its data were well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. To get the optimal separation process, the influences of factors such as flow rates, loading sample volumes, concentrations of desorption solution were further investigated. Column packed with SP-825 resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments. After one round of treatment, the contents of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin in the final products were 3.75-fold, 3.67-fold and 3.54-fold increased with recovery yields of 87.25, 85.19 and 82.22%, respectively. The results showed that the preparative enrichment of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin was available via adsorption and desorption on SP-825 resin. This method is a promising basis for the large-scale preparation of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin from Flos populi. <![CDATA[<em>Paullinia cupana</em>: a multipurpose plant - a review]]> Abstract Seeds of guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae) feature diverse pharmacological functions, for example, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, stimulating, and cognitive functions, as well as liver protection and weight loss. Many of these actions are probably due to the high content of methylxanthines and tannins in its seeds. In Brazil, the world's largest producer of guarana, the plant material is predominantly used in the soft drinks industry, although it is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Although the Amazon region has the largest cropping area, the state of Bahia is the main guarana producer in Brazil (71%). This review focuses mainly on the possible pharmacological actions of guarana that have been investigated. Moreover, it discusses less-considered topics, such as the toxicology and quality control of seeds and extractives of guarana that will ultimately influence the safety of its use. In addition, it presents a detailed discussion of the methods used to prepare herbal drugs and their extracts, focusing on the importance of standardization and on the direct impact of preparatory factors, on the pharmacological properties of guarana extracts. <![CDATA[<em>Toona sinensis</em>: a comprehensive review on its traditional usages, phytochemisty, pharmacology and toxicology]]> Abstract Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem, Meliaceae, a deciduous plant native to eastern and southeastern Asia, is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This paper was aimed to summarize the current advances in traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of T. sinensis. In this review, various types of data of T. sinensis are discussed in the corresponding parts of this paper, and perspectives for possible future studies of this plant are discussed. The main constituents of T. sinensis are terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids, etc., and its pharmacological activities include anti-tumor effects, antioxidant activities, anti-diabetic effects and anti-inflammatory effects. Although a series of phytochemical and pharmacological researches of this plant have been conducted, the active constituents and action mechanism of these activities should be also further explored. Furthermore, the present review also indicates that T. sinensis has potentials to develop into drugs for treating various diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity, particularly in cancer, diabetes and inflammatory disorders. In conclusion, the paper provides a full-scale profile of the traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of T. sinensis, and also provides potential therapeutic uses and drug development prospects of this plant. <![CDATA[Central nervous system and analgesic profiles of <em>Lippia</em> genus]]> Abstract Many people use medicinal plants to relieve disorders related to the central nervous system, such as depression, epilepsy, anxiety and pain, even though the effectiveness of most of them has not yet been proven through scientific studies. Plants of the Lippia genus, Verbenaceae, are widely used in ethnobotany as a food, for seasoning and in antiseptic remedies. They are also marketed and used for the treatment of different types of pain, including stomach ache, abdominal pain and headache, as well as being used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants. Despite their widespread use, there are no reviews on the central nervous system profile of plants of this genus. Therefore, the databases Medline-PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using the terms Lippia and biologic activity. Thirty-five papers were found. Eleven species of Lippia showed central nervous system activity, with leaves and the aerial parts of plants being the most commonly used, especially in aqueous and ethanol extracts or volatile oil. The species are composed mainly of terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, including polyketides, flavonoids and in less quantity some alkaloids. Although several species of Lippia present analgesic activity, most studies have not explored the mechanisms responsible for this effect, however, there is some evidence that volatile oils and constituents of the extracts may be responsible for the relief of some CNS disorders, but the effects on pain modulation seem to be the most exploited so far.