Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia]]> vol. 27 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Anatomical characterization of ultra-structures, biominerals and histolocalization of metabolites in leaves of <em>Genipa americana</em>]]> Abstract Inserted in one of the largest families among the Angiosperms, Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae, can be found in all Brazilian territory, presenting great medicinal importance, where several uses have been attributed. In view of this, this work has the purpose of analyzing the ultrastructural, biomineral, phytochemical and histochemical characteristics of the leaves of this native species from Brazil. For this, light microscopy, polarization and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used with X-ray scattering energy, associated to chromatographic and histochemical tests. The anatomical ultrastructural characteristics of the leaves detailed information about the type and arrangement of the cuticle, trichomes, surface and arrangement of the tissues that determine the botanical identity of this species. The phytochemical tests allowed determining their chromatographic pattern and histochemistry to determine the exact storage site of these substances in the leaf. It was observed that the characterization of the crystalline macro-pattern present in the analyzed species, as well as its exact elemental composition, can be considered an important differential diagnosis factor. The results characterize the leaves of this species in different aspects, being a native species and pharmacologically promising, with different popular uses and proven pharmacological activities, and more in depth studies is needed. <![CDATA[Yeast extract elicitation increases vinblastine and vincristine yield in protoplast derived tissues and plantlets in <em>Catharanthus roseus</em>]]> Abstract Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Apocynaceae, is an immensely important medicinal plant, produces a variety of anticancerous compounds. The yield of two most investigated alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine is unfortunately very low. A vast array of technologies including elicitation have recently been used to enrich Catharanthus alkaloid in culture. Yeast extract is a biotic elicitor, the polysaccharide and the peptide moiety have been recognized as a signalling element in enriching secondary metabolites. In this study, the yeast extract elicitation on vinblastine and vincristine was studied in various protoplast derived tissues and plantlets. Four different yeast extract treatments (T1 = 0.5 g/l, T2 = 1.0 g/l, T3 = 1.5 g/l and T4 = 2.0 g/l) were prepared and used. The alkaloid was quantified and a comparative account of yield were presented by the use of High performance thin layer chromatography. The yeast extract amendment in medium improved vinblastine and vincristine yield in cultivating tissues, maximum being in germinating embryos and in in vitro raised leaf. The highest yield was in T3 (1.5 mg/l) in which 22.74% vinblastine and 48.49% vincristine enrichment was noted in germinating embryos; the enhancement was however, treatment-specific. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were investigated as addition of yeast extract caused cellular stress and had enriched level of alkaloids. <![CDATA[Chemical identification and quantification of Hu-Gu capsule by UHPLC–Q-TOF-MS and HPLC-DAD]]> Abstract Hu-Gu capsule is a traditional Chinese medical formula for preventing glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. In this work, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for chemical identification of the phytochemical compositions in positive ion mode. A total of 41 compounds were detected in Hu-Gu capsule, and 25 compounds were characterized and identified by retention time, accurate mass within 5 ppm error and characteristic fragment ions. Among of them, four major flavonoids were further quantified by high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection in the four batches. The method was validated in terms of calibration curve regression coefficient (r 2 &gt; 0.9994), repeatability (RSD &lt; 3.5%), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD &lt; 1.1%), recovery (93.0–106.4%), limit of detection (0.1 µg/ml), and limit of quantification (1 µg/ml). The research could provide the analysis of chemical composition and be helpful to control the quality of HGC. <![CDATA[Perillanolides A and B, new monoterpene glycosides from the leaves of <em>Perilla frutescens</em>]]> Abstract Two new monoterpene glycosides, perillanolides A and B, together with a known compound reported from the genus Perilla for the first time were isolated and characterized from the leaves of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, Lamiaceae, a garnish and colorant for foods as well as commonly used for traditional medicine. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidences derived from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, mass spectrometry and by comparing their physical and spectroscopic data of literature. These compounds, together with the previously isolated secondary metabolites of this species, were investigated for their inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, luteolin showed the strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.18 µM. Esculetin and scutellarein moderately inhibited the enzyme, while perillanolides A and B, and 4-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exerted weak activities. <![CDATA[Gamma radiation treatment activates glucomoringin synthesis in <em>Moringa oleifera</em>]]> Abstract Plants are a very rich source of pharmacologically relevant metabolites. However, the relative concentrations of these compounds are subject to the genetic make-up, the physiological state of the plant as well as environmental effects. Recently, metabolic perturbations through the use of abiotic stressors have proven to be a valuable strategy for increasing the levels of these compounds. Oxidative stress-associated stressors, including ionizing radiation, have also been reported to induce metabolites with various biological activities in plants. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the induction of purported anti-cancerous metabolites, glucomoringin and its derivatives, in Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae. Here, an UHPLC-qTOF-MS-based targeted metabolic fingerprinting approach was used to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation treatment on the afore-mentioned health-beneficial secondary metabolites of M. oleifera. Following radiation, an increase in glucomoringin and three acylated derivatives was noted. As such, these molecules can be regarded as components of the inducible defense mechanism of M. oleifera as opposed to being constitutive components as it has previously been assumed. This might be an indication of a possible, yet unexplored role of moringin against the effects of oxidative stress in M. oleifera plants. The results also suggest that plants undergoing photo-oxidative stress could accumulate higher amounts of glucomoringin and related molecules. <![CDATA[Identification of phenolic compounds in <em>Myricaria bracteata</em> leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry]]> Abstract Myricaria bracteata Royle, Tamaricaceae, is a species with a wide geographic range that encompasses Eastern Europe, Western and Central Siberia, Central Asia, and the Himalayas. This plant is used in traditional folk medicine in Russia (Siberia) and in China typically as an analgesic and for the treatment of some infections and certain types of intoxication. The aim of this study was to identify phenolic constituents of the leaves of M. bracteata from two considerably distant populations. Chromatographic profiles of the leaves of M. bracteata were analyzed for the first time. Seventeen compounds, mainly methyl ethers of quercetin (isorhamnetin, rhamnazin), kaempferol (kaempferide, rhamnocitrin), and ellagic acid as well as quercetin, quercetin 3-glucoside, kaempferol, luteolin, chrysoeriol, citric acid, gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, and ferulic acid were identified in hydrolyzed aqueous ethanol extracts of the leaves. Flavonols and ellagic acid were the major compounds in both samples. Isorhamnetin was the main flavonoid constituent. Kaempferide and rhamnazin were also abundant in the flavonoid complex of the leaves of M. bracteata from the Altai. This study shows that M. bracteata leaves are a source of flavonoids with possible biological activities. <![CDATA[GC–MS based metabolite profiling and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory property of black tea extracts]]> Abstract Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of hypertension. Regular consumption of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Theaceae) has been reported to lower blood pressure. The aims of the present work were to compare chemical composition and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of infusion and decoction of four samples of black tea. GC/MS based metabolomics approach helped in identification of fifty-one metabolites including ten organic acids, one inorganic acid, sixteen amino acids, two sugars, five sugar alcohols, fifteen phenols and flavonoids, two fatty acids from infusions and decoctions of four black tea samples. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis models showed good classification among the two groups, diffusion and infusion, based on metabolites. Both infusion and decoction inhibited the enzyme. However, the activity differed with samples. Multivariate analysis also segregated extracts on the basis of activity. Thearubigin, theaflavin, catechin inhibited the enzyme. Epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallic acid, caffeine showed lower activity. <![CDATA[Antinociceptive activity of <em>Cistanche salsa</em> stolons, growing in the Republic of Kazakhstan]]> Abstract Herba Cistanche (Cistanche species) in Traditional Chinese Medicine is used for the treatment of several diseases and symptoms, to include pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of the hydroethanol extract of Cistanche salsa (C.A.Mey.) Beck, Orobanchaceae, stolons in animal models of pain. Chemical composition of Herba Cistanche was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Mice Swiss Webster (25–30 g, n = 6) were orally pre-treated with Herba Cistanche (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg) and evaluated in the formalin test and in the capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking response. Kazakh Herba Cistanche is composed mainly by phenylpropanoid glycosides, from which echinacoside, acteoside and tubuloside B are the main constituents. When Herba Cistanche was administered to mice it had an effect in both phases of the formalin test (77% activity at 30 mg/kg for phase 1 and 62% activity at 100 mg/kg for phase 2) suggesting analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Kazakh Herba Cistanche was able to reduce the animals licking time after injection of glutamate (81% reduction at 30 mg/kg) and capsaicin (81% reduction at 100 mg/kg). We conclude that phenolics present in the hydroethanol extract of C. salsa could be responsible for its pharmacological profile. In order to source a good quality raw material for Traditional Chinese Medicine we recommended this Kazakh species to be standardized using echinacoside and acteoside as markers. <![CDATA[Antiproliferative effects of pinostrobin and 5,6-dehydrokavain isolated from leaves of <em>Alpinia zerumbet</em>]]> Abstract Natural products are a major source of drugs for the treatment of cancer. The species Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt &amp; R.M. Sm, Zingiberaceae, is widely distributed in Brazil where it is known as “colônia”. The leaves are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and dyspepsia, however, the effects of A. zerumbet extracts and isolated substances on human cancer cells remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts from A. zerumbet leaves and to investigate their in vitro antiproliferative activity. The isolated phytochemicals included kaempferol, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain, 5,6-dehydrokavain, and pinostrobin. The hydroalcoholic extract inhibited cellular proliferation only at high concentrations, while the dichloromethane extract showed a moderate antiproliferative effect against leukemia and lung tumor cell lines. 5,6-Dehydrokavain showed potent cytostatic activity against glioblastoma cells and a moderate effect on all other tumor cell lines. Pinostrobin showed potent activity against leukemia and breast tumor cell lines and moderate cytostatic effect against ovarian cell. Furthermore, this is the first report on the isolation of kaempferol and pinostrobin from A. zerumbet leaves. Moreover, the purification process described in this study was effective. These results suggest that A. zerumbet leaves are a promising source of anticancer compounds. <![CDATA[Anti-adhesion potential of non-polar compounds and extracts from <em>Ficus natalensis</em>]]> Abstract Four triterpenoids, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraene-3-one 1, stigma-4-ene-3-one 2, 3β-hydroxy-21β-H-hop-22(29)-ene 3, sitosterol and a quinone, tectoquinone 4, were isolated from the leaf, stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus natalensis subsp. natalensis, Moraceae, a medicinal fig found in Africa. The pure compounds 1–4 and crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against five Gram-negative and seven Gram-positive strains and for their potential anti-biofilm activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was observed with all pure compounds tested at 250 µg against the majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains. The dichloromethane-soluble fruit extract was active against sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus xylosus. Compounds 2, 3 and 4 demonstrated broad-spectrum antibiotic effects against eight of the twelve bacterial strains tested. In the anti-biofilm assay, exposure to ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous methanol leaf, stem bark and fruit extracts decreased adhesion with a biofilm reduction of ≥100% for all three tested organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus. The methanol leaf extract demonstrated the most potent anti-adhesion potential against E. coli (218% biofilm reduction). The greatest ability to decrease adhesion was observed with compounds 2, 3 and 5 against P. aeruginosa at the lowest concentration tested (100 µg ml−1). <![CDATA[Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of <em>Casearia sylvestris</em>]]> Abstract Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil for the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. This species was included as of interest by Brazilian Unified Health System. Although preclinical studies described cardiovascular protective effects and apparent absence of toxicity, no studies have evaluated its carcinogenic potential. In this study, we proposed a short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats, aiming to check the safety of this species to use it as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. C. sylvestris leaves were obtained and the crude extract was prepared by maceration from methanol/water. Wistar rats were orally treated for 12 weeks with 50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1 of crude extract or vehicle. Body weight, daily morbidity and mortality were monitored. Blood and bone marrow samples were collect for micronucleus test, comet assay and tumor markers evaluation. Vital organs were removed to macro and histopathological analyses. The crude extract did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and no alterations were observed in important tumor markers. Finally, no detectable signs of injury through gross pathology or histopathological examinations were observed. Our results certify the absence of the crude extract toxicity, indicating its safety, even at prolonged exposure as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. <![CDATA[Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on <em>Terminalia laxiflora</em>]]> Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark), T. laxiflora (wood), A. seyal (bark), Persicaria glabra (leaves) and Tamarix nilotica (stem) showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values &lt;50 µg/ml). Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml); therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects. <![CDATA[Isovitexin as marker and bioactive compound in the antinociceptive activity of the Brazilian crude drug extracts of <em>Echinodorus scaber</em> and <em>E. grandiflorus</em>]]> Abstract Echinodorus scaber Rataj and Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. &amp; Schltdl.) Micheli, Alismataceae, are popularly used to relieve inflammatory complaints and as diuretic. A study on the antinociceptive effect and selected marker compounds in eleven extracts from different locations was undertaken and their antinociceptive effect was assessed. The fingerprints were compared by HPLC-DAD and the content of vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were determined. All samples presented antinociceptive activity reducing the writhes by 36.4-62.5% and 47.4-79.8% at 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively; indomethacin (5 mg/kg) reduced writhes by 82.6-90.1%. The content of the flavonoids C-glycosides, however, presented a strong variation. Isovitexin and isoorientin were found in all the samples, with content ranging from traces to 14.70 µg/mg and 2.12-84.27 µg/mg extract, respectively, while vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside occurred in quantifiable amounts only in 3 out of 11 samples ranging from 5.43 to 33.13 µg/mg extract; vitexin was not detected at all or detected in trace amounts. According to the fingerprints, the samples could be arranged in four main groups. All eleven extracts showed antinociceptive activity. Isovitexin was the only flavonoid present in all samples and can be regarded, acting in synergy with the other compounds or not, as the responsible for the antinociceptive activity. Therefore, isovitexin is a good choice as chemical marker when the antinociceptive activity of E. scaber and E. grandiflorus is investigated. <![CDATA[<em>Punica granatum</em> suppresses colon cancer through downregulation of Wnt/β-Catenin in rat model]]> Abstract This study aims to elucidate the beneficial effect of Punica granatum L., Lythraceae (pomegranate) peel extract in the management of colon cancer induced intrarectally with N-methylnitrosourea. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered N-methylnitrosourea (2 mg in 0.5 ml water/rat) intrarectally three times/week for five weeks to induce colorectal cancer, followed by treatment with either 5-fluorouracil (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or Punica peel extract (2.25 or 4.5 g/kg, p.o.). Developed tumor elevated plasma TGF-β, and Bcl2, serum epidermal growth factor, carcinoembryonic antigen, colon cancer specific antigens, and matrix metalloproteinase-7. Besides, immune-histochemical studies revealed an increase in COX-2, cyclin D1 and survivin content, as well as upregulation of the expression of colonic β-Catenin, K-ras and C-myc genes. These results were further supported by the histological findings. Punica peel extract-treated rats, particularly those treated with a high dose, exhibited a marked reduction in the aforementioned parameters and improved the histological organization of the colon tissue. These alterations were consistent with those mediated through 5-fluorouracil. The present study encourages the use of P. granatum L. against colon cancer. Because Punica peel extract promotes apoptosis, mitigates inflammation and suppresses tumor cell proliferation in vivo, the potential mechanism underlying these activities might depend on the inhibition of the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway. <![CDATA[Sedative and muscle relaxant activities of diterpenoids from <em>Phlomidoschema parviflorum</em>]]> Abstract Phlomidoschema parviflorum (Benth.) Vved. (Basionym: Stachys parviflora Benth.) Lamiaceae, have significance medicinal importance as it is used in number of health disorders including diarrhea, fever, sore mouth and throat, internal bleeding, weaknesses of the liver and heart genital tumors, sclerosis of the spleen, inflammatory tumors and cancerous ulcers. The present contribution deals with the sedative and muscle relaxant like effects of diterpenoids trivially named stachysrosane and stachysrosane, isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of P. parviflorum. Both compounds (at 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p) were assessed for their in vivo sedative and muscle relaxant activity in open field and inclined plane test, respectively. The geometries of both compounds were optimized with density functional theory. The molecular docking of both compounds were performed with receptor gamma aminobutyric acid. Both compounds showed marked activity in a dose dependent manner. The docking studies showed that both compounds interact strongly with important residues in receptor gamma aminobutyric acid. The reported data demonstrate that both compounds exhibited significant sedative and muscle relaxant-like effects in animal models, which opens a door for novel therapeutic applications. <![CDATA[Iridoids from leaf extract of <em>Genipa americana</em>]]> Abstract Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae, is a plant native from Brazil popularly known as “jenipapo”. Two iridoids, 1-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4aH,5H,7aH-cyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carbaldehyde (1), and iridoid 7-(hydroxymethyl)-1-methoxy-1H,4aH,5H,7aH-cyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carbaldehyde (2) were isolated and identified in the leaf extract of G. americana. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified for the first time in G. americana, and 1 has not been yet described in literature. These substances were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, high resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C 1D; as well as 2D nuclear magnetic resonance. Moreover, the presence of flavonoids was detected by a preliminary analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography. <![CDATA[Quantification of catechin in the spray-dried extract of <em>Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus</em>]]> Abstract This paper describes the quantification of catechin in the spray-dried extract of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) Landrum, Myrtaceae, citral chemotype using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method employs a RP-18 column with acetonitrile:water-orthophosphoric acid 0.05% (gradient system) and UV detection at 210 nm. The method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The response was linear over a range of 5–200 µg/ml (r &gt; 0.999). The range of recoveries was 92.27–102.54%. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision studies were 4.30 and 3.78%, respectively. This assay can be readily utilized as quality control method for catechin in the dried extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus. <![CDATA[An overview of dermatological and cosmeceutical benefits of <em>Diospyros kaki</em> and its phytoconstituents]]> Abstract Diospyros kaki L.f. belonging to family Ebenaceae, commonly known as persimmon is used as a medicinal plant in Chinese traditional medicine since many years for different ailments including cosmetics and dermatologic applications. Traditionally this plant is used to treat different skin conditions including pimples, skin eruptions and eczema. Present interest has been focused toward use of natural bioactive compounds in various curative and beautifying applications in dermatological and cosmeceutical disciplines. The objective of this article is to present cumulative data on potential use of D. kaki for its possible role in dermatologic and cosmetic applications. Scientific data has revealed an excellent position of D. kaki in both dermatology and cosmetic discipline making it a valuable choice in respective field. Active principles from different plant parts have shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, photo-protective, and anti-wrinkle effects with appreciable activities against tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase enzymes. Promising antioxidant activity and skin whitening potential, augmented by reduction in sebum contents, and reduction in size and number of skin pores make it a suitable choice as cosmetic ingredient. Data has been summarized and presented on available molecular mechanism that can contribute toward phytoconstituents usage in cosmetics and dermatology mediated by different cellular pathways. Crude extracts and some of phytochemical obtained from this plant such as isoquercitrin and hyperin have better reported activities than well-known cosmetic ingredients viz., arbutin, kojic acid and hydroquinone with possibility of having no side effects. Photo protection against degenerative effects of UVA, UVB and gamma radiation can help skin to fight well against oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. Further investigation need to be directed toward human subjects for evaluation of these reported activities for obtaining optimum commercial and industrial benefits from this valuable plant. <![CDATA[Vouacapane diterpenoids isolated from <em>Pterodon</em> and their biological activities]]> Abstract The Pterodon genus comprises two native species in Brazil, known as “sucupira-branca” or “faveira”. Their fruits have long been used in Brazilian natural medicine, mainly for the treatment of infections and inflammations. The pharmacological properties of these fruits have often been linked with vouacapane diterpenoids. This review evaluated the scientific research in the period from 1973 to February 2017, aiming to answer how difficult it still is to develop a scientifically supported product based on Pterodon vouacapanes. Therefore, this paper reviews purification, identification, and quantification methods applied to vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon, as well as the performance of these phytochemicals in pharmacological tests described in the literature. Data analysis results support conventional notions that suggest vouacapane diterpenoids from Pterodon have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the studies carried out so far still represent partial assessment of the vouacapane activities and further studies need to be completed. Pterodon diterpenoids have also been associated with larvicidal, leishmanicidal, cardiovascular, and antitumor activities, which reinforces the genus' potential as a source of phytomedicines. Some remaining gaps about the reviewed activities were mentioned, while trends and perspectives for future research were proposed.