Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 32 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Considerations about the Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery editorial profile]]> <![CDATA[Fifty Years of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery]]> <![CDATA[Cefazolin Concentration in the Mediastinal Adipose Tissue of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery]]> Abstract Objective: To measure the concentration of cefazolin in the anterior mediastinal adipose tissue of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, determining the variation of cefazolin concentration. Methods: Two samples of approximately 1g of subcutaneous tissue were collected from 19 patients who underwent surgery in December 2015: the first sample was collected right after sternotomy and the second one, before sternal synthesis with steel wires. Antibiotic dosage was administered through high performance liquid chromatography. Results: We observed a positive and statistically significant correlation between time 1 and cefazolin concentration (r=0.489 and P=0.039). For time 2 and cefazolin concentration, there was a negative and statistically significant correlation between both variables (r=-0.793 and P&lt;0.001). A negative correlation was also observed between body mass index and cefazolin concentration at time 2 (r=-0.510 and P=0.031). The regression model showed that every 1-minute increase in time 1 corresponded to an increase of 0.240 µg/dL in cefazolin concentration, whereas every 1-minute increase in time 2 corresponded to a reduction of 0.046 µg/dL in cefazolin concentration. As for body mass index, every 1 kg/m2 increase corresponded to a reduction of about 0.510 µg/dL in cefazolin concentration. Conclusion: There was a positive and significant correlation between the initial time of surgery and cefazolin level in the first dosage. The evaluation of the second dosage showed a negative and significant correlation between cefazolin level and the second time of dosage. The concentration of cefazolin is under the influence of body mass index. <![CDATA[Recurrence Plots: a New Tool for Quantification of Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Recovery after Transplant]]> Abstract Objective: To evaluate a possible evolutionary post-heart transplant return of autonomic function using quantitative and qualitative information from recurrence plots. Methods: Using electrocardiography, 102 RR tachograms of 45 patients (64.4% male) who underwent heart transplantation and that were available in the database were analyzed at different follow-up periods. The RR tachograms were collected from patients in the supine position for about 20 minutes. A time series with 1000 RR intervals was analyzed, a recurrence plot was created, and the following quantitative variables were evaluated: percentage of determinism, percentage of recurrence, average diagonal length, Shannon entropy, and sample entropy, as well as the visual qualitative aspect. Results: Quantitative and qualitative signs of heart rate variability recovery were observed after transplantation. Conclusion: There is evidence that autonomic innervation of the heart begins to happen gradually after transplantation. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of recurrence can be useful tools for monitoring cardiac transplant patients and detecting the gradual return of heart rate variability. <![CDATA[Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Cost Coverage by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)]]> Abstract Introduction: Cost management has been identified as an essential tool for the general control and evaluation of health organizations. Objectives: To identify the coverage percentage of transferred funds from the Unified Health System for coronary artery bypass grafts in a philanthropic hospital having a consolidated costing system in the municipality of São Paulo. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research with information provided from a database composed of 1913 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft from March 13 to September 30, 2012, including isolated elective coronary artery bypass graft with the use of extracorporeal circulation. It excluded 551 (28.8%) patients, among them 76 (4.0%) deaths and 8 hospitalized patients, since the cost was compared according to the length of hospital stay. Therefore, the sample consisted of 1362 patients. Results: The average total cost per patient was $7,992.55. The average fund transfer by the Unified Health System was $3,450.73 (48.66%), resulting in a deficit of $4,541.82 (51.34%). Conclusion: The Unified Health System transfers covered 48.66% of the average total cost of hospitalization. Although the amount transferred increased with increasing costs, it was not proportional to the total cost, resulting in a percentage difference in revenue that was increasingly negative for each increase in cost and hospital stay. Those hospitalized for longer than seven days presented higher costs, older age, higher percentage of diabetics and chronic kidney disease patients and more postoperative complications. <![CDATA[Collaborative Quality Improvement in the Congenital Heart Defects: Development of the ASSIST Consortium and a Preliminary Surgical Outcomes Report]]> Abstract Objective: ASSIST is the first Brazilian initiative in building a collaborative quality improvement program in pediatric cardiology and congenital heart disease. The purposes of this manuscript are: (a) to describe the development of the ASSIST project, including the historical, philosophical, organizational, and infrastructural components that will facilitate collaborative quality improvement in congenital heart disease care; (b) to report past and ongoing challenges faced; and (c) to report the first preliminary data analysis. Methods: A total of 614 operations were prospectively included in a comprehensive online database between September 2014 and December 2015 in two participating centers. Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS) 1 and Aristotle Basic Complexity (ABC) scores were obtained. Descriptive statistics were provided, and the predictive values of the two scores for mortality were calculated by multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Many barriers and challenges were faced and overcome. Overall mortality was 13.4%. Independent predictors of in-hospital death were: RACHS-1 categories (3, 4, and 5/6), ABC level 4, and age group (≤ 30 days, and 30 days - 1 year). Conclusion: The ASSIST project was successfully created over a solid base of collaborative work. The main challenges faced, and overcome, were lack of institutional support, funding, computational infrastructure, dedicated staff, and trust. RACHS-1 and ABC scores performed well in our case mix. Our preliminary outcome analysis shows opportunities for improvement. <![CDATA[Anterior Minithoracotomy: a Safe Approach for Surgical ASD Closure & ASD Device Retrieval]]> Abstract Objective: Midline sternotomy is the preferred approach for device migration following transcatheter device closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Results of patients operated for device migration were retrospectively reviewed after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Methods: Among the 643 patients who underwent atrial septal defect with closure device, 15 (2.3%) patients were referred for device retrieval and surgical closure of atrial septal defect. Twelve patients underwent device retrieval and surgical closure of atrial septal defect through right antero-lateral minithoracotomy with femoral cannulation. Three patients were operated through midline sternotomy. Results: Twelve patients operated through minithoracotomy did not require conversion to sternotomy. Due to device migration to site of difficult access through thoracotomy, cardiac tamponade and hemodynamic instability, respectively, three patients were operated through midline sternotomy. Mean aortic cross-clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 28.1±17.7 and 58.3±20.4 minutes, respectively. No patient had surgical complication or mortality. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1.6±0.5 days and 7.1±2.2 days, respectively. Postoperative echocardiography confirmed absence of any residual defect and ventricular dysfunction. In a mean follow-up period of six months, no mortality was observed. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I without wound or vascular complication. Conclusion: Minithoracotomy with femoral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe-approach for selected group of patients with device migration following transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defect without increasing the risk of cardiac, vascular or neurological complications and with good cosmetic and surgical results. <![CDATA[Risk Factors for Delayed Extubation after Ventricular Septal Defect Closure: a Prospective Observational Study]]> Objective: The objective of our study was to determine the feasibility of early extubation and to identify the risk factors for delayed extubation in pediatric patients operated for ventricular septal defect closure. Methods: A prospective, observational study was carried out at our Institute. This study involved consecutive 135 patients undergoing ventricular septal defect closure. Patients were extubated if feasible within six hours after surgery. Based on duration of extubation, patients were divided two groups: Group 1= extubation time ≤ 6 hours, Group 2= extubation time &gt;6 hours. Results: A total of 99 patients were in Group 1 and 36 patients in Group 2. Duration of ventilation was 4.4±0.9 hours in Group 1 and 25.9±24.9 hours in Group 2 (P&lt;0.001). Univariate analysis showed that young age, low weight, low partial pressure of oxygen, trisomy 21, multiple ventricular septal defect, high vasoactive inotropic score, transient heart block and low cardiac output syndrome were associated with delayed extubation. However, regression analysis revealed that only trisomy 21 (OR: 0.248; 95%CI: 0.176-0.701; P=0.001), low cardiac output syndrome (OR: 0.291; 95%CI: 0.267-0.979; P=0.001), multiple ventricular septal defect (OR: 0.243; 95%CI: 0.147-0.606; P=0.002) and vasoactive inotropic score (OR: 0.174 95%CI: 0.002-0.062; P=0.039) are strongest predictors for delayed extubation. Conclusion: Trisomy 21, low cardiac output syndrome, multiple ventricular septal defect and high vasoactive inotropic score are significant risk factors for delay in extubation. Age, weight, pulmonary artery hypertension, size of ventricular septal defect, aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass time did not affect early extubation. <![CDATA[The Efficacy of Thoracic Ultrasonography in Postoperative Newborn Patients after Cardiac Surgery]]> Abstract Objective: In this study, the efficacy of thoracic ultrasonography during echocardiography was evaluated in newborns. Methods: Sixty newborns who had undergone pediatric cardiac surgery were successively evaluated between March 1, 2015, and September 1, 2015. Patients were evaluated for effusion, pulmonary atelectasis, and pneumothorax by ultrasonography, and results were compared with X-ray findings. Results: Sixty percent (n=42) of the cases were male, the median age was 14 days (2-30 days), and the median body weight was 3.3 kg (2.8-4.5 kg). The median RACHS-1 score was 4 (2-6). Atelectasis was demonstrated in 66% (n=40) of the cases. Five of them were determined solely by X-ray, 10 of them only by ultrasonography, and 25 of them by both ultrasonography and X-ray. Pneumothorax was determined in 20% (n=12) of the cases. Excluding one case determined by both methods, all of the 11 cases were diagnosed by X-ray. Pleural effusion was diagnosed in 26% (n=16) of the cases. Four of the cases were demonstrated solely by ultrasonography, three of them solely by X-ray, and nine of the cases by both methods. Pericardial effusion was demonstrated in 10% (n=6) of the cases. Except for one of the cases determined by both methods, five of the cases were diagnosed by ultrasonography. There was a moderate correlation when all pathologies evaluated together (k=0.51). Conclusion: Thoracic ultrasonography might be a beneficial non-invasive method to evaluate postoperative respiratory problems in newborns who had congenital cardiac surgery. <![CDATA[Relationship between High Red Cell Distribution Width and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Extracorporeal Circulation]]> Abstract Objective: Cardiac surgical operations involving extracorporeal circulation may develop severe inflammatory response. This severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is usually associated with poor outcome with no predictive marker. Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a routine hematological marker with a role in inflammation. We aim to determine the relationship between RDW and SIRS through our study. Methods: A total of 1250 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were retrospectively analyzed out of which 26 fell into the SIRS criteria and 26 consecutive control patients were taken. RDW, preoperative clinical data, operative time and postoperative data were compared between SIRS and control groups. Results: The demographic profile of the patients was similar. RDW was significantly higher in the SIRS versus control group (15.5±2.0 vs. 13.03±1.90), respectively with P value &lt;0.0001. There was significant mortality in the SIRS group, 20 (76.92%) as compared to 2 (7.6%) in control group with a P value of &lt;0.005. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that there was significant association with high RDW and development of SIRS after extracorporeal circulation (OR for RDW levels exceeding 13.5%; 95% CI 1.0-1.2; P&lt;0.05). Conclusion: Increased RDW was significantly associated with increased risk of SIRS after extracorporeal circulation. Thus, RDW can act as a useful tool to predict SIRS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Hence, more aggressive measures can be taken in patients with high RDW to prevent postoperative morbidity and mortality. <![CDATA[Effect of Different Levels of Peep on Oxygenation during Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients Submitted to CABG Surgery: Randomized Clinical Trial]]> Abstract Introduction: During and after coronary artery bypass grafting, a decline in multifactor lung function is observed. Due to this fact, some patients may benefit from non-invasive ventilation after extubation targeting lung expansion and consequently improved oxygenation. Objective: To test the hypothesis that higher levels of positive end expiration pressure during non-invasive ventilation improves oxygenation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia in Feira de Santana. On the first day after surgery, the patients were randomized: Group PEEP 10, Group PEEP 12 and Group PEEP 15 who underwent non-invasive ventilation with positive end expiration pressure level. All patients were submitted to analysis blood pressure oxygen (PaO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2). Results: Thirty patients were analyzed, 10 in each group, with 63.3% men with a mean age of 61.1±12.2 years. Mean pulmonary expansion pre-therapy PaO2 was generally 121.9±21.6 to 136.1±17.6 without statistical significance in the evaluation among the groups. This was also present in PaO2/FiO2 and SaO2. Statistical significance was only present in pre and post PEEP 15 when assessing the PaO2 and SaO2 (P=0.02). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, non-invasive ventilation with PEEP 15 represented an improvement in oxygenation levels of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. <![CDATA[Noninvasive Ventilation During Immediate Postoperative Period in Cardiac Surgery Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> Abstract Objective: To verify the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation compared to conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy in the mortality rate and prevention of pulmonary complications in patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis recorded in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (number CRD42016036441). The research included the following databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PEDro, LILACS and manual search of the references of studies published until March 2016. The review included randomized controlled trials with patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery, which compared the use of noninvasive ventilation, BiLevel modes, continuous positive airway pressure, intermittent positive pressure breathing and positive pressure ventilation with conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy, and assessed the mortality rate, occurrence of pulmonary complications (atelectasis, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, hypoxemia), reintubation rate, ventilation time, time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), length of hospital stay and partial pressure of oxygen. Results: Among the 479 selected articles, ten were included in the systematic review (n=1050 patients) and six in the meta-analysis. The use of noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the risk for atelectasis (RR: 0.60; CI95% 0.28-1.28); pneumonia (RR: 0.20; CI95% 0.04-1.16), reintubation rate (RR: 0.51; CI95%: 0.15-1.66), and time spent in the ICU (-0.04 days; CI95%: -0.13; 0.05). Conclusion: Prophylactic noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the occurrence of pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia, reintubation rate and time spent in the ICU. The use is still unproven and new randomized controlled trials should be carried out. <![CDATA[Tadalafil: Protective Action against the Development of Multiple Organ Failure Syndrome]]> Abstract Introduction: Multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) is a pathology associated to unspecified and severe trauma, characterized by elevated morbidity and mortality. The complex inflammatory MOFS-related reactions generate important ischemia-reperfusion responses in the induction of this syndrome. Nitric oxide elevation, through the activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), has the potential of counteracting the typical systemic vasoconstriction, and platelet-induced hypercoagulation. Tadalafil would possibly act protectively by reducing cGMP degradation with consequent diffuse vasodilatation, besides reduction of platelet-induced hypercoagulation, thus, preventing multiple organ failure syndrome development. Methods: The experimental protocol was previously approved by an institution animal research committee. Experimental MOFS was induced through the stereotaxic micro-neurosurgical bilateral anterior hypothalamic lesions model. Groups of 10 Wistar rats were divided into: a) Non-operated control; b) Operated control group; c) 2 hours after tadalafil-treated operated group; d) 4 hours after tadalafil-treated operated group; e) 8 hours after post-treated operated group. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the neurosurgical procedure and submitted to histopathologic examination of five organs: brain, lungs, stomach, kidneys, and liver. Results: The electrolytic hypothalamic lesions resulted in a full picture of MOFS with disseminated multiple-organs lesions, provoked primarily by diffusely spread micro-thrombi. The treatment with tadalafil 2 hours after the micro-neurosurgical lesions reduced the experimental MOFS lesions development, in a highly significant level (P&lt;0.01) of 58.75%. The treatment with tadalafil, 4 hours after the micro-neurosurgically-induced MOFS lesions, also reduced in 49.71%, in a highly significant level (P&lt;0.01). Finally, the treatment with tadalafil 8 hours after the neurosurgical procedure resulted in a statistically significant reduction of 30.50% (P&lt;0.05) of the experimentally-induced MOFS gravity scores. Conclusion: The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, tadalafil, in the doses and timing utilized, showed to protect against the experimentally-induced MOFS. <![CDATA[Methodological Quality of Randomized Clinical Trials of Respiratory Physiotherapy in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: a Systematic Review]]> Abstract Objective: To assess methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials of physiotherapy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the intensive care unit. Methods: The studies published until May 2015, in MEDLINE, Cochrane and PEDro were included. The primary outcome extracted was proper filling of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool's items and the secondary was suitability to the requirements of the CONSORT Statement and its extension. Results: From 807 studies identified, 39 were included. Most at CONSORT items showed a better adequacy after the statement's publication. Studies with positive outcomes presented better methodological quality. Conclusion: The methodological quality of the studies has been improving over the years. However, many aspects can still be better designed. <![CDATA[Repair of Double Orifice Left AV Valve (DOLAVV) with Endocardial Cushion Defect in Adult]]> Abstract Double orifice left atrioventricular valve (DOLAVV) or double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly manifesting either as an isolated lesion (mitral stenosis or mitral insufficiency) or in association with other congenital cardiac defects. Signs of mitral valve disease are usually present along with the symptoms of associated coexistent congenital heart diseases. Mitral insufficiency due to annular dilatation is seen when DOLAVV is associated with endocardial cushion defects. Surgical intervention like mitral valve repair or replacement is required in 50% of patients and yields good results. We report a case of a 56-year-old lady who successfully underwent surgical correction of DOLAVV with partial atrioventricular canal defect.