Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 32 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Education: The Key of SBCCV. Performance of BJCVS, The Facts]]> <![CDATA[Thirtieth Anniversary of the Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. And Devising the Next Decades]]> <![CDATA[Techniques, Timing & Prognosis of Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Repair: a Re-look at Old Dogmas]]> Abstract Objective: The study aimed to identify the factors affecting the prognosis of post myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular septal rupture (VSR) and to develop a protocol for its management. Methods: This was a single center, retrospective-prospective study (2009-2014), involving 55 patients with post MI VSR. The strengths of association between risk factors and prognosis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The UNM Post MI VSR management and prognosis scoring systems (UPMS &amp; UPPS) were developed. Results: Thirty-day mortality was 52.5% (35% in the last 3 years). Twenty-eight (70%) patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting. Residual ventricular septal defect was found in 3 (7.5%) patients. The multivariate analysis showed low mean blood pressure with intra-aortic balloon pump (OR 11.43, P=0.001), higher EuroSCORE II (OR 7.47, P=0.006), higher Killip class (OR 27.95, P=0.00), and shorter intervals between MI and VSR (OR 7.90, P=0.005) as well as VSR and Surgery (OR 5.76, P=0.016) to be strong predictors of mortality. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (P=0.17) and location (P=0.25) of VSR did not affect the outcome. Mean follow-up was 635.8±472.5 days and 17 out of 19 discharged patients were in NYHA class I-II. Conclusion: The UNM Post-MI VSR Scoring Systems (UPMS &amp; UPPS) help in management and prognosis, respectively. They divide patients into 3 groups: 1) Immediate Surgery - Patients with scores of &lt;25 require immediate surgery, preferably with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and have poor prognosis; 2) Those with scores of 25-75 should be managed with "Optimal Delay" and they have intermediate outcomes; 3) Patients with scores of &gt;75 can undergo Elective Repair and they are likely to have good outcomes. <![CDATA[A New Experimental Device for Transapical Access of the Aortic and Mitral Valves as well as the Aorta in its Various Segments]]> Abstract Objective: To present the results of a new experimental device developed to facilitate the transapical access in endovascular treatment of structural heart diseases. It aims to reduce the risk of bleeding and complications in this type of access and demonstrate the device as a safe, fast and effective alternative. Methods: CorPoint is composed of three parts: introducer, base with coiled spring, and closing capsule. By rotating movements, the spring is introduced into the myocardium and progressively approaches the base to the surface of the heart. Guidewires and catheters are inserted through the hollow central part and, at the end of the procedure, the capsule is screwed over the base, therefore stopping any bleeding. Results: The device was implanted in 15 pigs, weighing 60 kg each, through an anterolateral thoracotomy, while catheters were introduced and guided by fluoroscopy. All animals had minimal bleeding; introducers with diameter up to 22 Fr were used and various catheters and guidewires were easily handled. After finishing the procedure, the closing capsule was attached and no bleeding was observed at the site. Conclusion: This new device has proved effective, fast and secure for the transapical access. This shows great potential for use, especially by ensuring an easier and direct access to the mitral and aortic valves; the shortest distance to be traveled by catheters; access to the ascending and descending aorta; decreased bleeding complications; decreased surgical time; and the possibility of allowing the technique to evolve and become totally percutaneous. <![CDATA[Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety and Coping Strategies after Heart Transplantation]]> Abstract Introduction: Heart transplantation is the therapeutic procedure indicated to increase the survival of patients with refractory heart failure. Improvement in overall functioning and quality of life are expected factors in the postoperative period. Objective: To identify and evaluate mental disorders and symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, quality of life and coping strategies in the post-surgical situation of heart transplantation. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative study with patients who have undergone heart transplantation. Participants answered to the Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (Ways of Coping Scale) (EMEP) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). For data analysis, the significance level was considered P≤0.05. Results: A total of 33 patients participated in the study. The BDI-II results indicated that 91% (n=30) of the patients presented a minimal level. In BAI, 94% (n=31) of the patients demonstrated minimal level of anxiety symptoms. WHOQOL-BREF showed a perception of quality of life considered good in all domains. The EMEP data have registered a problem-focused coping strategy. According to MINI, a single case of major depressive episode, current and recurrent was recorded. Conclusion: Although most participants in the sample had symptoms of depression and anxiety, only one patient was identified with moderate symptoms in both domains. The most used strategy was coping focused on the problem. Patients have classified the perceptions of quality of life as 'good', pointing out satisfaction with their health. <![CDATA[Coronary Perfusion Pressure during Antegrade Cardioplegia in On-Pump CABG Patients]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether aortic tension estimated by palpation and cardioplegia infusion line pressure provide results equivalent to those obtained with direct aortic intraluminal pressure measurement. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation were analyzed. Sanguineous cardioplegic solution in a ratio of 4:1 was administered using a triple lumen antegrade cannula. After crossclamping, cardioplegia was infused and aortic root pressure was recorded by surgeon (A) considering the aortic tension he felt in his fingertips. At the same time, another surgeon (B) recorded his results for the same measurement. Concomitantly, the anesthesiologist recorded intraluminal pressure in the aortic root and the perfusionist recorded delta pressure in cardioplegia infusion line. None of the participants involved in these measurements was allowed to be informed about the values provided by the other examiners. Results: The Bland-Altman test showed that a considerable variation between aortic wall tension was found as measured by palpation and by intraluminal pressure, with a bias of -9.911±18.75% (95% limits of agreement: -46.7 to 26.9). No strong correlation was observed between intraluminal pressure and cardioplegia line pressure (Spearman's r=0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.7; P&lt;0.0001). Conclusion: These findings reinforce that cardioplegia infusion should be controlled by measuring intraluminal pressure, and that palpation and cardioplegia line pressure are inaccurate methods, the latter should always be used to complement intraluminal measurement to ensure greater safety in handling the cardioplegia circuit. <![CDATA[Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in an Average Brazilian Intensive Care Unit: Should We Perform Less or Better?]]> Abstract Introduction: Few data can be found about cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit outside reference centers in third world countries. Objective: To study epidemiology and prognostic factors associated with cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit (ICU) in an average Brazilian center. Methods: Between June 2011 and July 2014, 302 cases of cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit were prospectively evaluated in 273 patients (age: 68.9 ± 15 years) admitted in three mixed units. Data regarding cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were collected in an "Utstein style" form and epidemiologic data was prospectively obtained. Factors associated with do not resuscitate orders, return of spontaneous circulation and survival were studied using binary logistic regression. Statistical package software used was SPSS 19.0 (IBM Inc., USA). Results: Among 302 cardiac arrests, 230 (76.3%) had their initial rhythm recorded and 141 (61.3%) was in asystole, 62 (27%) in pulseless electric activity (PEA) and 27 had a shockable rhythm (11.7%). In 109 (36.1%) cases, cardiac arrest had a suspected reversible cause. Most frequent suspected cardiac arrest causes were hypotension (n=98; 32.5%), multiple (19.2%) and hypoxemia (17.5%). Sixty (19.9%) cardiac arrests had do not resuscitate orders. Prior left ventricle dysfunction was the only predictor of do not resuscitate order (OR: 3.1 [CI=1.03-9.4]; P=0.04). Among patients that received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 59 (24.4%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation and 12 survived to discharge (5.6%). Initial shockable rhythm was the only return of spontaneous circulation predictor (OR: 24.9 (2.4-257); P=0.007) and survival (OR: 4.6 (1.4-15); P=0.01). Conclusion: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate was high considering ICU patients, so was mortality. Prior left ventricular dysfunction was a predictor of do not resuscitate order. Initial shockable rhythm was a predictor of return of spontaneous circulation and survival. <![CDATA[Transverse Sternal Split: a Safe Mini-invasive Approach for Perventricular Device Closure of Ventricular Septal Defect]]> Abstract Objective: Perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect through midline sternotomy avoids the cardiopulmonary bypass, however, lacks the cosmetic advantage. Perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect with transverse split sternotomy was performed to add the cosmetic advantage of mini-invasive technique. Methods: Thirty-six pediatric patients with mean age 7.14±3.24 months and weight 5.00±0.88 kg were operated for perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect through transverse split sternotomy in 4th intercostal space under transesophageal echocardiography guidance. In case of failure or complication, surgical closure of ventricular septal defect was performed through the same incision with cervical cannulation of common carotid artery and internal jugular vein for commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass. All the patients were postoperatively followed, and then discharged from hospital due to their surgical outcome, morbidity and mortality. Results: Procedure was successful in 35 patients. Two patients developed transient heart block. Surgical closure of ventricular septal defect was required in one patient. Mean duration of ventilation was 11.83±3.63 hours. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1.88±0.74 days and 6.58±1.38 days, respectively. There was no in-hospital mortality. A patient died one day after hospital discharge due to arrhythmia. No patients developed wound related, vascular or neurological complication. In a mean follow-up period of 23.3±18.45 months, all 35 patients were doing well without residual defect with regression of pulmonary artery hypertension as seen on transthoracic echocardiography. Conclusion: Transverse split sternotomy incision is a safe and effective alternative to a median sternotomy for perventricular device closure of ventricular septal defect with combined advantage of better cosmetic outcomes and avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass. <![CDATA[Are the Early Postoperative Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Elderly Women Worse Compared to Men's?]]> Abstract Objective: To investigate the impact of gender difference in early postoperative outcomes in elderly patients (aged 70 or older) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Methods: Between October 2009 and December 2013, a total of 223 elderly patients (aged 70 or older) undergoing isolated primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were included in this retrospective observational cohort study. Patients were divided into two groups according to their gender. The patients' medical records were collected, their baseline preoperative characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were retrospectively reviewed, and the effect of gender difference in the early postoperative outcomes was analyzed. Results: Group 1 (female patients) and Group 2 (male patients) consisted of 71 and 152 patients, respectively. Mean age of patients was 74.4±3.6 years (range: 70-84 years). The level of EuroSCORE I, the incidence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were significantly higher in Group 1, while the rate of smoking was significantly higher in Group 2. Mean postoperative intubation time, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay were longer in female patients than in male patients, but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of the transfusion of blood products was observed. The rates of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications were statistically similar between the two groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the female gender was not associated with worse early postoperative outcomes in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. <![CDATA[Avoiding Liver Injury with Papaverine and Ascorbic Acid Due to Infrarenal Cross-Clamping: an Experimental Study]]> Abstract Objective: Ischemia-reperfusion injury after acute ischemia treatment is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity. Ischemia-reperfusion injury may result in organ failure particularly in kidney, lung, liver, and heart. In our study, we investigated the effects of papaverine and vitamin C on ischemia-reperfusion injury developed in the rat liver after occlusion-reperfusion of rat aorta. Methods: 32 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomized into four groups (n=8). Ischemia was induced with infrarenal aortic cross-clamping for 60 minutes; then the clamp was removed and reperfusion was allowed for 120 minutes. While the control group and the ischemia-reperfusion group did not receive any supplementary agent, two other groups received vitamin C and papaverine hydrochloride (papaverine HCL). Liver tissues were evaluated under the light microscope. Histopathological examination was assessed by Suzuki's criteria and results were compared between groups. Results: In ischemia-reperfusion group, severe congestion, severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, and parenchymal necrosis over 60% (score 4) were observed. In vitamin C group, mild congestion, mild cytoplasmic vacuolization and parenchymal necrosis below 30% (score 2) were found. In papaverine group, moderate congestion, moderate cytoplasmic vacuolization and parenchymal necrosis below 60% (score 3) were observed. Conclusion: An ischemia of 60 minutes induced on lower extremities causes damaging effects on hepatic tissue. Vitamin C and papaverine are helpful in reducing liver injury after acute ischemia reperfusion and may partially avoid related negative conditions. <![CDATA[Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Rheumatic Valve Disease]]> Abstract Objective: To assess heart rhythm and predictive factors associated with sinus rhythm after one year in patients with rheumatic valve disease undergoing concomitant surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Operative mortality, survival and occurrence of stroke after one year were also evaluated. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of 103 patients undergoing rheumatic mitral valve surgery and ablation of atrial fibrillation using uni- or bipolar radiofrequency between January 2013 and December 2014. Age, gender, functional class (NYHA), type of atrial fibrillation, EuroSCORE, duration of atrial fibrillation, stroke, left atrial size, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, myocardial ischemia time and type of radiofrequency were investigated. Results: After one year, 66.3% of patients were in sinus rhythm. Sinus rhythm at hospital discharge, lower left atrial size in the preoperative period and bipolar radiofrequency were associated with a greater chance of sinus rhythm after one year. Operative mortality was 7.7%. Survival rate after one year was 92.3% and occurrence of stroke was 1%. Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation ablation surgery with surgical approach of rheumatic mitral valve resulted in 63.1% patients in sinus rhythm after one year. Discharge from hospital in sinus rhythm was a predictor of maintenance of this rhythm. Increased left atrium and use of unipolar radiofrequency were associated with lower chance of sinus rhythm. Operative mortality rate of 7.7% and survival and stroke-free survival contribute to excellent care results for this approach. <![CDATA[Modified Hybrid Procedure in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Initial Experience of a Center in Northeastern Brazil]]> Abstract Introduction: Although it only corresponds to 2.5% of congenital heart defects, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is responsible for more than 25% of cardiac deaths in the first week of life. Palliative surgery performed after the second week of life is considered an important risk factor in the treatment of HLHS. Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the initial experience of a medical center in Northeastern Brazil with a modified off-pump hybrid approach for palliation of HLHS. Methods: From November 2012 through November 2015, the medical records of 8 patients with HLHS undergoing hybrid procedure were retrospectively evaluated in a tertiary private hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The modified off-pump hybrid palliation consisted of stenting of the ductus arteriosus guided by fluoroscopy without contrast and banding of the main pulmonary artery branches. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded for descriptive analysis. Results: Eight patients were included in this study, of whom 37.5% were female. The median age and weight at the time of the procedure was 2 days (p25% and p75% = 2 and 4.5 days, respectively) and 3150 g (p25% and p75% = 3077.5 g and 3400 g, respectively), respectively. The median length in intensive care unit stay was 6 days (p25% and p75% = 3.5% and 8 days, respectively). There were no in-hospital deaths. Four patients have undergone to the second stage of the surgical treatment of HLHS. Conclusion: In this series, the initial experience with the modified off-pump hybrid procedure showed to be safe, allowing a low early mortality rate among children presenting HLHS. <![CDATA[MicroRNAs and Current Concepts on the Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm]]> Abstract Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Currently, the only way to prevent rupture and death related to abdominal aortic aneurysms is through surgical intervention. Endovascular treatment is associated with less morbidity than conventional treatment. The formation of an aneurysm is a complex multifactorial process, involving destructive remodeling of the connective tissue around the affected segment of the aorta wall. MicroRNAs are small sequences of non-coding RNAs that control diverse cellular functions by promoting degradation or inhibition of translation of specific mRNAs. A profile aberrant expression of miRNAs has been linked to human diseases, including cardiovascular dysfunction. <![CDATA[Occult Metastatic Melanoma Presenting as an Acute Coronary Syndrome]]> Abstract Melanoma is a tumor that virtually involves any tissue and commonly metastasizes to the heart. It is usually not diagnosed because of the absent/nonspecific cardiac signs and symptoms. Herein, we present a case of a 41-year-old man without any cardiovascular risk factor, admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, diagnosed with a myocardial infarction. Due to the presence of a mass adjacent to the mitral valve on the cardiac ultrasound examination, causing mitral regurgitation, the patient was referred to surgery. Pathological analysis of the excised specimens diagnosed the melanoma. The chemotherapy was started and achieved a partial response. Cardiac metastases usually affect the myocardium, leaving the valves unaffected. In this case, the acute coronary syndrome was the first manifestation of the malignant melanoma. We highlight the high level of suspicion needed in these cases. <![CDATA[Left Atrial Myxoma Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Patient Coronary Arterial Grafts: a Rarity]]> Abstract The development of left atrial myxoma after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a rare entity. A 60-year-old man with previous off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting four years ago with patent coronary grafts was diagnosed with left atrial mass. The patient underwent successful resection of the same through minimally invasive right anterolateral thoracotomy. Histopathology of the atrial mass confirmed the diagnosis of atrial myxoma.