Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 32 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Union Generates Success]]> <![CDATA[Let's Talk about Moving: The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Exercise, Steps and Sitting on Cardiovascular Risk]]> <![CDATA[The Brazilian Registry of Adult Patient Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery, the BYPASS Project: Results of the First 1,722 Patients]]> Abstract Objective: To report the early results of the BYPASS project - the Brazilian registrY of adult Patient undergoing cArdiovaScular Surgery - a national, observational, prospective, and longitudinal follow-up registry, aiming to chart a profile of patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery in Brazil, assessing the data harvested from the initial 1,722 patients. Methods: Data collection involved institutions throughout the whole country, comprising 17 centers in 4 regions: Southeast (8), Northeast (5), South (3), and Center-West (1). The study population consists of patients over 18 years of age, and the types of operations recorded were: coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), mitral valve, aortic valve (either conventional or transcatheter), surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, cardiac transplantation, mechanical circulatory support and congenital heart diseases in adults. Results: 83.1% of patients came from the public health system (SUS), 9.6% from the supplemental (private insurance) healthcare systems; and 7.3% from private (out-of -pocket) clinic. Male patients comprised 66%, 30% were diabetics, 46% had dyslipidemia, 28% previously sustained a myocardial infarction, and 9.4% underwent prior cardiovascular surgery. Patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were 54.1% and 31.5% to valve surgery, either isolated or combined. The overall postoperative mortality up to the 7th postoperative day was 4%; for CABG was 2.6%, and for valve operations, 4.4%. Conclusion: This first report outlines the consecution of the Brazilian surgical cardiac database, intended to serve primarily as a tool for providing information for clinical improvement and patient safety and constitute a basis for production of research protocols. <![CDATA[Validation of German Aortic Valve Score in a Multi-Surgeon Single Center]]> Abstract OBJECTIVE: Risk assessment for operative mortality is mandatory for all cardiac operations. For some operation types such as aortic valve repair, EuroSCORE II overestimates the mortality rate and a new scoring system (German AV score) has been developed for a more accurate assessment of operative risk. In this study, we aimed to validate German Aortic Valve Score in our clinic in patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 35 patients who underwent isolated open aortic valve replacement between 2010 and 2013 were included. Patients with concomitant procedures and transcatheter aortic valve implantation were excluded. Patients' data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Patients' risk scores EuroSCORE II were calculated online according to criteria described by EuroSCORE taskforce, Aortic Valve Scores were also calculated. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 61.14±13.25 years (range 29-80 years). The number of female patients was 14 (40%) and body mass index of 25 (71.43%) patients was in range of 22-35. Mean German Aortic Valve Score was 1.05±0.96 (min: 0 max: 4.98) and mean EuroSCORE was 2.30±2.60 (min: 0.62, max: 2.30). The Aortic Valve Score scale showed better discriminative capacity (AUC 0.647, 95% CI 0.439-0.854). The goodness of fit was x2HL=16.63; P=0.436). EuroSCORE II scale had shown less discriminative capacity (AUC 0.397, 95% CI 0.200-0.597). The goodness of fit was good for both scales. The goodness of fit was x2HL=30.10; P=0.610. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, German AV score applies to our population with high predictive accuracy and goodness of fit. <![CDATA[Hemoglobin A<sub>1c</sub> Levels Predicts Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Non-Diabetic Patients]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elevated hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes mellitus have been known as a risk factor for acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels in non-diabetics and acute kidney injury is under debate. We aimed to investigate the association of preoperative hemoglobin A1c levels with acute kidney injury in non-diabetic patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: 202 non-diabetic patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine &lt;1.4 mg/dl) who underwent isolated coronary bypass were analyzed. Hemoglobin A1c level was measured at the baseline examination. Patients were separated into two groups according to preoperative Hemoglobin A1c level. Group 1 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of &lt; 5.6% and Group 2 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of ≥ 5.6%. Acute kidney injury diagnosis was made by comparing baseline and postoperative serum creatinine to determine the presence of predefined significant change based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 19 (10.5%) patients after surgery. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 3.6% in Group 1 and 16.7% in Group 2. Elevated baseline hemoglobin A1c level was found to be associated with acute kidney injury (P=0.0001). None of the patients became hemodialysis dependent. The cut off value for acute kidney injury in our group of patients was 5.75%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in non-diabetics, elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level may be associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Prospective randomized studies in larger groups are needed to confirm these results. <![CDATA[Single-Dose Lignocaine-Based Blood Cardioplegia in Single Valve Replacement Patients]]> Abstract OBJECTIVE: Myocardial protection is the most important in cardiac surgery. We compared our modified single-dose long-acting lignocaine-based blood cardioplegia with short-acting St Thomas 1 blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing single valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who underwent single (aortic or mitral) valve replacement surgery were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups based on the cardioplegia solution used. In group 1 (56 patients), long-acting lignocaine based-blood cardioplegia solution was administered as a single dose while in group 2 (54 patients), standard St Thomas IB (short-acting blood-based cardioplegia solution) was administered and repeated every 20 minutes. All the patients were compared for preoperative baseline parameters, intraoperative and all the postoperative parameters. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant difference in preoperative baseline parameters. Cardiopulmonary bypass time were 73.8±16.5 and 76.4±16.9 minutes (P=0.43) and cross clamp time were 58.9±10.3 and 66.3±11.2 minutes (P=0.23) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean of maximum inotrope score was 6.3±2.52 and 6.1±2.13 (P=0.65) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. We also did not find any statistically significant difference in creatine-phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB), Troponin-I levels, lactate level and cardiac functions postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This study proves the safety and efficacy of long-acting lignocaine-based single-dose blood cardioplegia compared to the standard short-acting multi-dose blood cardioplegia in patients requiring the single valve replacement. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish this non-inferiority in situations of complex cardiac procedures especially in compromised patients. <![CDATA[Effects of Low-Dose Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide on Anterior Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: The mortality due to cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is high even in patients with early revascularization. Infusion of low dose recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) at the time of AMI is well tolerated and could improve cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of rhBNP in AMI patients revascularized by emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who developed cardiogenic shock. METHODS: A total of 48 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock and whose hemodynamic status was improved following emergency PCI were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to rhBNP (n=25) and control (n=23) groups. In addition to standard therapy, study group individuals received rhBNP by continuous infusion at 0.005 µg kg−1 min−1 for 72 hours. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics, medications, and peak of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were similar between both groups. rhBNP treatment resulted in consistently improved pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) compared to the control group. Respectively, 7 and 9 patients died in experimental and control groups. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: When added to standard care in stable patients with cardiogenic shock complicating anterior STEMI, low dose rhBNP improves PCWP and is well tolerated. <![CDATA[Respiratory Muscle Training Improves Diaphragm Citrate Synthase Activity and Hemodynamic Function in Rats with Heart Failure]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enhanced respiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure positively alters the clinical trajectory of heart failure. In an experimental model, respiratory muscle training in rats with heart failure has been shown to improve cardiopulmonary function through mechanisms yet to be entirely elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The present report aimed to evaluate the respiratory muscle training effects in diaphragm citrate synthase activity and hemodynamic function in rats with heart failure. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary sham (Sed-Sham, n=8), trained sham (RMT-Sham, n=8), sedentary heart failure (Sed-HF, n=7) and trained heart failure (RMT-HF, n=7). The animals were submitted to a RMT protocol performed 30 minutes a day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. RESULTS: In rats with heart failure, respiratory muscle training decreased pulmonary congestion and right ventricular hypertrophy. Deleterious alterations in left ventricular pressures, as well as left ventricular contractility and relaxation, were assuaged by respiratory muscle training in heart failure rats. Citrate synthase activity, which was significantly reduced in heart failure rats, was preserved by respiratory muscle training. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and positive correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular systolic pressure. CONCLUSION: Respiratory muscle training produces beneficial adaptations in the diaphragmatic musculature, which is linked to improvements in left ventricular hemodynamics and blood pressure in heart failure rats. The RMT-induced improvements in cardiac architecture and the oxidative capacity of the diaphragm may improve the clinical trajectory of patients with heart failure. <![CDATA[Cervical Cannulation for Surgical Repair of Congenital Cardiac Defects in Infants and Small Children]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: The biggest challenge faced in minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery is cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. Our technique and experience of cervical cannulation in infants and small children for repair of congenital cardiac defects is reported in this study. METHODS: From January 2013 to June 2015, 37 children (22 males) with mean age of 17.97±8.63 months and weight of 8.06±1.59 kg were operated on for congenital cardiac defects through right lateral thoracotomy. The most common diagnosis was ventricular septal defect (18 patients). In all patients, right common carotid artery, right internal jugular vein and inferior vena cava were cannulated for institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and aorta was cross clamped through right 2nd intercostal space. RESULTS: There were no deaths or any major complications related to cervical cannulation. Common carotid artery cannulation provided adequate arterial inflow while internal jugular vein with inferior vena cava provided adequate venous return in all patients. No patient required conversion to sternotomy or developed vascular, neurological or wound related complications. Three patients had residual lesions (small leak across ventricular septal defect patch-2, Grade II left atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation-1) and one patient had mild left ventricular dysfunction. At discharge, both common carotid artery and internal jugular vein were patent on color Doppler ultrasonography in all patients. In a mean follow-up period of 11.4±2.85 months, all patients were doing well. No patient had any wound related, neurological or vascular complication. No patient had residual leak across ventricular septal defect patch. CONCLUSION: Cervical cannulation of common carotid artery and internal jugular vein is a safe, reliable, efficient and quick method for institution of cardiopulmonary bypass in minimally invasive pediatric cardiac surgery. <![CDATA[Left Atrial Ganglionated Plexi Detection is Related to Heart Rate and Early Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation after Surgical Ablation]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Left atrial ganglionated plexi ablation is an adjuvant technique used to increase the success rate of surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Ganglionated plexi ablation requires previous detection. We aimed to assess determinants of successful ganglionated plexi detection and to correlate range of ganglionated plexi ablation with risk of early atrial fibrillation recurrence. METHODS: The study involved 34 consecutive patients referred for surgical coronary revascularization with concomitant atrial fibrillation ablation. Ganglionated plexi detection was done by inducing vagal reflexes in the area of the pulmonary veins and left atrial fat pads. RESULTS: Detection of GP was successful in 85% of the patients. There was no difference in preoperative characteristics nor in atrial fibrillation type between patients in whom ganglionated plexi detection was successful and others. The number of detected ganglionated plexi correlated significantly only with preoperative resting heart rate. Significant negative correlation was found in patients with preoperative heart rate&gt;75 beat/min in terms of total number of detected ganglionated plexi (P=0.04). Average number of detected ganglionated plexi was significantly higher in patients with in-hospital atrial fibrillation recurrence requiring electrical cardioversion (3.8±3) in comparison to rest of the study population (2±1.3; P=0.02). In patients in whom 4 or more ganglionated plexi were detected, significantly increased risk of in-hospital atrial fibrillation recurrence was observed (OR 15; 95% CI 1.5-164; P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Left atrial ganglionated plexi detection was unsuccessful in a considerable percentage of patients. Preoperative heart rate significantly influenced positive ganglionated plexi detection and number of ablated ganglia. Higher number of detected ganglionated plexi was related with early recurrence of atrial fibrillation. <![CDATA[Exploring Vascular Function Biomarkers: Implications for Rehabilitation]]> Abstract The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis and regulating blood vessel function. Endothelial function is considered an independent predictor for risk of future cardiovascular events in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients, as well as a predictor for postoperative complications in cardiovascular surgery patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by high-resolution ultrasound is widely used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by nitric oxide release. Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on endothelial function and can be used in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiac and peripheral artery diseases, even in the postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. <![CDATA[Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: a Case Report]]> Abstract We present a patient with unstable angina candidate for coronary artery bypass grafting. Saphenous vein graft was used in obtuse marginal and left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery properly. After surgery, the patient experienced flaccid paralysis of lower limb and impaired sensation of touch and warmth of knee and below. A computed tomography angiogram of lower limbs and thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormality. Based on the symptom, clinical diagnosis of anterior spinal artery syndrome was considered. The artery of Adamkiewicz is an important supplier to the anterior spinal artery. Internal thoracic mammary artery, used in coronary artery bypass grafting, is suspected as a collateral supplier of the artery of Adamkiewicz and has been accused for cause of spinal infarction. <![CDATA[A Concomitant Intramyocardial and Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Case Report]]> Abstract Cardiac hydatid cyst is an uncommon but potentially fatal disease. In cystic Echinococcus humans are an accidental host. Liver and lungs are the most frequently involved organs. Herein a unique case of intramyocardial hydatid cyst of left ventricle along with pulmonary hydatid cyst in a 38-year-old lady is reported. Surgical removal of the cardiac hydatid cyst was done with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass followed by removal of pulmonary hydatid cyst.