Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 31 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[It is Time to Renew!]]> <![CDATA[Brazilian Registry of Cardiovascular Surgery in Adults Fully Operational]]> <![CDATA[The Role of Age in the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair]]> <![CDATA[Associated Clinical and Laboratory Markers of Donor on Allograft Function After Heart Transplant]]> Abstract Introduction: Primary graft dysfunction is a major cause of mortality after heart transplantation. Objective: To evaluate correlations between donor-related clinical/biochemical markers and the occurrence of primary graft dysfunction/clinical outcomes of recipients within 30 days of transplant. Methods: The prospective study involved 43 donor/recipient pairs. Data collected from donors included demographic and echocardiographic information, noradrenaline administration rates and concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), interleukins (IL-6 and IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, C-reactive protein and cardiac troponin I. Data collected from recipients included operating, cardiopulmonary bypass, intensive care unit and hospitalization times, inotrope administration and left/right ventricular function through echocardiography. Results: Recipients who developed moderate/severe left ventricular dysfunction had received organs from significantly older donors (P =0.020). Recipients from donors who required moderate/high doses of noradrenaline (&gt;0.23 µg/kg/min) around harvesting time exhibited lower post-transplant ventricular ejection fractions (P =0.002) and required longer CPB times (P =0.039). Significantly higher concentrations of sTNFR1 (P =0.014) and sTNFR2 (P =0.030) in donors were associated with reduced intensive care unit times (≤5 days) in recipients, while higher donor IL-6 (P =0.029) and IL-10 (P =0.037) levels were correlated with reduced hospitalization times (≤25 days) in recipients. Recipients who required moderate/high levels of noradrenaline for weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with lower donor concentrations of sTNFR2 (P =0.028) and IL-6 (P =0.001). Conclusion: High levels of sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6 and IL-10 in donors were associated with enhanced evolution in recipients. Allografts from older donors, or from those treated with noradrenaline doses &gt;0.23 µg/kg/min, were more frequently affected by primary graft dysfunction within 30 days of surgery. <![CDATA[Institutional Impact of EVAR's Incorporation in the Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: a 12 Years' Experience Analysis]]> Abstract Introduction: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was introduced as a less aggressive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) for patients ineligible for open repair (OR). Objective: To analyze EVAR's incorporation impact in the treatment of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms in our institution. Methods: A retrospective study of the patients with diagnostic of infra-renal AAA treated between December 2001 and December 2013 was performed. The choice between EVAR and OR was based on surgeon's experience, considering patient clinical risk and aneurysm's anatomical features. Patients treated by EVAR and by OR were analyzed. In each group, patient's and aneurysm's characteristics, surgical and anesthesia times, cost, transfusion rate, intraoperative complications, hospital stay, mortality and re-intervention rates and survival curves were evaluated. Results: The mean age, all forms of heart disease and chronic renal failure were more common in EVAR group. Blood transfusion, surgical and anesthesia times and mean hospital stay were higher for OR. Intraoperative complications rate was higher for endovascular aneurysm repair, overall during hospitalization complication rate was higher for open repair. The average cost in endovascular aneurysm repair was 1448.3€ higher. Re-interventions rates within 30 days and late re-intervention were 4.1% and 11.7% for endovascular aneurysm repair versus 13.7% and 10.6% for open repair. Conclusions: Two different groups were treated by two different techniques. The individualized treatment choice allows to achieve a mortality of 2.7%. Age ≥80 years influences survival curve in OR group and ASA ≥IV in EVAR group. We believe EVAR's incorporation improved the results of OR itself. Patients with more comorbidities were treated by endovascular aneurysm repair, decreasing those excluded from treatment. Late reinterventions were similar for both techniques. <![CDATA[Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate]]> Abstract Introduction: Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective: Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods: We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results: At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion: Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. <![CDATA[Dacron Graft Intussusception Technique for Treatment of Type A Aortic Dissections: Technical Notes and Preliminary Results]]> Abstract Introduction: Optimal surgical management for acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) remains unclear. The in-hospital mortality rate is still high (15%), and the intraoperative bleeding is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality. Objective: The aim of our study was describe a new method for aortic anastomosis in the repair of AAAD and report the hospital mortality and bleeding complications. Methods: Between January 2008 and November 2014, 24 patients, 16 male, median age 62 years, underwent surgical treatment of AAAD. The surgical technique consisted of intussusception of a Dacron tube in the dissected aorta, which is anastomosed with a first line of 2-0 polyester everting mattress suture and a second line of 3-0 polypropylene running suture placed at the outermost side. Open distal anastomosis was performed with bilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in 13 (54.1%) patients. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping time ranged from 75 to 135 min (mean=85 min) and 60 to 100 min (mean=67 min), respectively. The systemic circulatory arrest ranged from 29 to 60 min (mean=44.5 min). One (4.1%) patient required reoperation for bleeding, due to the use of preoperative clopidogrel. The postoperative bleeding was 382-1270 ml (mean=654 ml). We used an average of 4.2 units of red blood cells/patient. There were two (8.3%) hospital deaths, one due to intraoperative bleeding and another due to mesenteric ischemia. The average length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital was 44 hours and 6.7 days, respectively. Conclusion: This new method for surgical correction of AAAD was reproducible and resulted in satisfactory clinical outcomes. <![CDATA[Effect of LIMA Harvesting Technique on Postoperative Drainage in Off-Pump CABG]]> Abstract Objective: We investigated the effects of pedicled and semiskeletonized left internal mammary artery (LIMA) harvesting techniques on postoperative drainage in patients subjected to off-pump CABG, ignoring other advantages or disadvantages of those techniques. Methods: The present study comprises a total of 160 subjects that underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in our clinic. Data were collected consecutively and retrospectively. An attempt was made to have similar groups in terms of demographic characteristics. Patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery by two surgical teams which differed only in LIMA harvesting technique were dichotomized and compared according to these techniques. The first group (Group 1) consisted of patients in whom LIMA was harvested with surrounding tissues using the pedicled technique. The second group (Group 2) consisted of patients in whom LIMA was harvested using the semiskeletonized technique, with the veins separated from surrounding connective tissues. Results: The mean amount of drainage in the first 24 hours was 706.1±234.2 ml vs. 591±258.8 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P=0.005), the mean amount of drainage in the second 24 hours was 270±133.6 ml vs. 189.4±140.4 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P&lt;0.001), and the mean amount of total drainage was determined to be 976.1±306.9 ml vs. 781.2±335.5 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P&lt;0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that semiskeletonized LIMA presents reduced amount of postoperative drainage in the first and second 24-hour periods and total amount of drainage than pedicled LIMA, independent of pleural integrity. <![CDATA[Endovascular Treatment of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms: Single Center Experience]]> Abstract Objective: Internal iliac artery aneurysms (IIAA) are rare, representing only 0.3% of aortoiliac aneurysms. Its treatment with open surgery is complex and associated with high morbidity and mortality, which led to increasing application of endovascular solutions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of IIAA in one institution. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of IIAA treated with endovascular techniques between 2003 and 2014. Endpoints were morbidity, mortality, freedom from pelvic ischemic symptoms (buttock claudication, ischemic colitis, and spinal cord injury), and need for reintervention. Results: There were 16 patients, 13 males and 3 females, with mean age of 75.1±7 years. A total of 20 IIAA (4 cases were bilateral), with mean diameter of 37.9 mm, were treated. EVAR was performed in 13 (81.3%) patients, with associated internal iliac artery's outflow occlusion in 2. Iliac branch device was used in one patient. Two patients underwent endovascular IIAA embolization alone. One patient underwent percutaneous, transgluteal, IIAA embolization. IIAA flow preservation in at least one internal iliac artery was possible in 9 (56.3%) patients. Early mortality was 7% (1 case). Early morbidity was 18.8%. Pelvic ischemic complications occurred in 1 (7%) patient with buttock claudication. Late reintervention was needed in 3 patients, none of them for IIAA related complications. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of IIAA is technically feasible and durable. Although overall morbidity is relatively high, major complications are infrequent and perioperative mortality is low. internal iliac artery flow preservation is technically challenging and, in a significant number of cases, not possible at all. <![CDATA[Is Age a Determinant Factor in EVAR as a Predictor of Outcomes or in the Selection Procedure? Our Experience]]> Abstract Introduction: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the therapy of choice in high risk patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. The good results described are leading to the broadening of clinical indications to younger patients. However, reintervention rates seem higher and even with successful treatment sometimes there is growth of the aneurysm sac and rupture, meaning a failure of the therapeutic goal. This study proposes to analyse the impact of age in patients' selection and post-EVAR results. Methods: The clinical records of consecutive patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair, between 2001 and 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided according to age groups (&lt;70, 70-80 and &gt;80 years). Gender, body mass index, aneurysm anatomic features, neck characteristics, iliac morphology, surgical indication, endograft type, anesthesic risk classification, length of stay, reinterventions and mortality were analysed and compared. Results: The study included 171 patients, 161 (94.1%) men, and mean age 74.1±8.9 years. The age group under 70 had 32% of the patients. Only three characteristics were found different among age groups: 1) body mass index was higher in younger patients, with a considerable trend toward significance (P=0.06); 2) surgical indication, in the younger group, surgeon's and the patient's option were more proeminent (P&lt;0.05); 3) erectile dysfunction was higher in elderly group (P&lt;0.05). No other clinical and anatomical characteristics or final outcomes were found statisticaly different among age groups. Conclusion: The absence of statistically differences in mortality and reinterventions among age groups suggests that age by itself is not a relevant factor in endovascular aneurysm repair. Indeed, the three characteristics different in younger (obesity, sexual function and patient's choice) favor endovascular aneurysm repair. <![CDATA[Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery]]> Abstract Introduction: Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective: To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results: 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). Conclusion: We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. <![CDATA[Dilatation of Common Iliac Arteries after Endovascular Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Repair with Bell-Bottom Extension]]> Abstract Objective: Endovascular techniques to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms results in lower morbidity and mortality rates. However, dilation of the common iliac arteries prevents adequate distal sealing, which compromises the procedure success. The aim of this study is report the long-term outcomes of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with aneurysm of the common iliac artery following endovascular repair using a bifurcated bell-bottom stent graft. Methods: This is a retrospective study that evaluated patients treated with bifurcated bell-bottom extension stent grafts to repair an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and who had at least one common iliac artery with dilatation &gt; 1.5 cm for at least 12 months after the endovascular intervention. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a mean age of 70.4±8.2 years were included. Stent graft placement was followed by dilation of the common iliac artery aneurysms in 35.3% of cases; endoleak and reoperation rates were 17.6% and 15.7%, respectively. Younger patients showed a higher rate of artery diameter increase following the procedure. The average arterial dilation was 16% in the first year, 29% in the second year, 57% in the third year and 95% from the fourth year until the end of follow-up. Conclusion: Repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated bell-bottom type stents when there is common iliac artery dilation is a good therapeutic option to preserve hypogastric flow. The rate of endoleak was 17.6%, and 15.7% of cases required reoperation. Younger patients are more likely to experience dilation of the common iliac artery after the procedure. <![CDATA[Experimental Validation of a Cardiac Simulator for <em>in vitro</em> Evaluation of Prosthetic Heart Valves]]> Abstract Objective: This work describes the experimental validation of a cardiac simulator for three heart rates (60, 80 and 100 beats per minute), under physiological conditions, as a suitable environment for prosthetic heart valves testing in the mitral or aortic position. Methods: In the experiment, an aortic bileaflet mechanical valve and a mitral bioprosthesis were employed in the left ventricular model. A test fluid of 47.6% by volume of glycerin solution in water at 36.5ºC was used as blood analogue fluid. A supervisory control and data acquisition system implemented previously in LabVIEW was applied to induce the ventricular operation and to acquire the ventricular signals. The parameters of the left ventricular model operation were based on in vivo and in vitro data. The waves of ventricular and systemic pressures, aortic flow, stroke volume, among others, were acquired while manual adjustments in the arterial impedance model were also established. Results: The acquired waves showed good results concerning some in vivo data and requirements from the ISO 5840 standard. Conclusion: The experimental validation was performed, allowing, in future studies, characterizing the hydrodynamic performance of prosthetic heart valves. <![CDATA[Mitral Valve Prolapse in Pregnancy]]> Abstract Mitral valve prolapse is a benign condition. Mitral regurgitation is only complicated in patients with severe mitral valve prolapse. Women with mitral valve prolapse in the absence of other cardiovascular disorders tolerate pregnancy well and do not develop remarkable cardiac complications. Nevertheless, serious complications of mitral valve prolapse, including arrhythmia, infective endocarditis and cerebral ischemic events, can be present in pregnancy. Debates remain with regard to the use of prophylactic antibiotics and β-blockers in the pregnant women with mitral valve prolapse. The prognosis of the pregnant patients might be closely related to the pathological and (or) functional changes of the mitral valve. Non-myxomatous mitral valve prolapse poses no or little obstetric risks in terms of pregnancy, labor and neonatal complications; whereas myxomatous mitral valve prolapse is a major etiology of valvular heart disease in women of childbearing age. In the pregnant patients with mitral valve prolapse progressing into major complications, surgical interventions are considered. Medicinal treatment of such patients with β-blockers should be a concern for the fetal safety. <![CDATA[The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine]]> Abstract The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. <![CDATA[Duration of Systole and Diastole for Hydrodynamic Testing of Prosthetic Heart Valves: Comparison Between ISO 5840 Standards and <em>in vivo</em> Studies]]> Abstract Objective: To complement the ISO 5840 standards concerning the duration of left ventricular systole and diastole as a function of changes in heart rates according to in vivo studies from the physiologic literature review. Methods: The systolic and diastolic durations from three in vivo studies were compared with the durations of systole proposed by the ISO 5840:2010 and ISO 5840-2:2015 for hydrodynamic performance assessment of prosthetic heart valves. Results: Based on the in vivo studies analyzed, the systolic durations proposed by the ISO 5840 standard seemed consistent for 45 and 120 beats per minute (bpm), and showed diverse results for the 70 bpm condition. Conclusion: Information on the realistic validation of the operation of left ventricular models for different heart rates were obtained. <![CDATA[Major Intrahepatic Veno-Venous Fistula after Fontan Operation Treated by Transcatheter Implantation of Amplatzer Septal Occluder through Internal Jugular Vein]]> Abstract Six months after undergoing a Fontan operation, a 7-year-old boy with right atrial isomerism and a single functional ventricle was admitted to our emergency department with cyanosis. Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a large veno-venous fistula that began in a left hepatic vein, connected to the left accessory hepatic veins, and drained into the common atrium, resulting in desaturation. The fistula was occluded proximally with an Amplatzer septal occluder, with satisfying results; the patient's systemic arterial saturation decreased during his hospital stay. Three weeks after the first intervention, a second procedure was performed to retrieve the first device and to close the fistula distally. Multiple attempts with different types of gooseneck snares and a bioptome catheter failed to retrieve the first device, so a telescopic method was used to re-screw it. Using a Mullins long sheath and delivery sheath, the delivery cable was manipulated to fit into the slot of the end screw, and the cable was rotated gently in a clockwise direction to re-screw the device. Then, another Amplatzer septal occluder was placed at the distal end of the fistula. In conclusion, distal transcatheter occlusion of intrahepatic veno-venous fistulas might lead to better clinical outcomes in selected patients. Amplatzer septal occluder device can be retrieve without any complication within three weeks. <![CDATA[Bispectral Index Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery]]> Abstract Introduction: To obtain the optimal anesthesia depth is not easy in cardiovascular surgery patients where the haemodynamic reserve is limited, due to reasons such as not being able to give the desired dose of anesthetic agent, or the change in the pharmacokinetics of the agent in the heart-lung machine. This study was planned to assess the contribution of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in the depth of anesthesia. Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups, and BIS monitoring was used for each patient. Group 1 (G1 n=35): keeping the BIS monitor screen open, the anesthesia need was set. Group 2 (G2 n=35): BIS monitor was tied to the patient and the monitor screen was closed in such a way that the anaesthesist couldn't see the BIS value. When the recording time came, the data on the monitor was recorded. The need for the anesthetic agent was set according to the parameters such as haemodynamics or follow up of pupils, instead of BIS value, by titrating the anesthetic infusion doses. Results: BIS values were similar in both groups before the induction, BIS values in both groups showed a decrease, showing no significant statistical difference (P&gt;0.05). One patient in each group said that he dreamt, and one patient in G2 said that he had heard a noise and felt that he was taken from one place to another. Conclusion: The management should be done with clinical evaluation, haemodynamics and other monitorization methods and BIS monitoring findings together. <![CDATA[Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results]]> Abstract Introduction: Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods: From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results: Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95%) at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97%) and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97%) at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions: Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results. <![CDATA[Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba]]> Abstract Introduction: Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Objective: Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. Methods: It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. Results: 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. Conclusion: There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors. <![CDATA[Off-Pump Triple Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient with Situs Inversus Totalis: Case Presentation and a Brief Review of the Brazilian and the International Experiences]]> Abstract A 76-year-old man with situs inversus totalis underwent a successful off-pump three-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 8 days later. At 9-month follow-up a coronary computed tomography angiography confirmed the viability of all of the grafts, and one year after the operation the patient remained asymptomatic. It comprises the fifth Brazilian case of a coronary surgery in a patient with situs inversus totalis and the first one of the country of a coronary artery bypass surgery without the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass in this condition. <![CDATA[Dysfunctional Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Ion Channels in Cardiac Diseases]]> Abstract Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are reverse voltage-dependent, and their activation depends on the hyperpolarization of the membrane and may be directly or indirectly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or other signal-transduction cascades. The distribution, quantity and activation states of HCN channels differ in tissues throughout the body. Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. They may constitute promising drug targets in the treatment of these cardiac diseases. Pharmacological treatment targeting HCN channels is of benefit to these cardiac conditions.