Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 33 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Cancer Dissemination: A Logical But Unlikely Association]]> <![CDATA[ORBITA Trial: Redefining the Role of Intervention in the Treatment of Stable Coronary Disease?]]> <![CDATA[Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: The Experience of One Brazilian Health Care Center]]> Abstract Objective: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been an alternative to invasive treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in high risk patients. The primary endpoint was 30-day and 1-year mortality from any cause. Secondary endpoints were to compare the clinical and echocardiographic variation pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and the occurrence of complications throughout a 4-year follow-up period. Methods: This prospective cohort, nestled to a multicenter study (Registro Brasileiro de Implante de Bioprótese por Cateter), describes the experience of a public tertiary center in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. All patients who underwent this procedure between October 2011 and February 2016 were included. Results: Fifty-eight patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% (n=3) and after 1 year was 17.2% (n=10). A significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional classification was observed when comparing pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement (III or IV 84.4% versus 5.8%; P&lt;0.001). A decline in peak was observed (P&lt;0.001) and mean (P&lt;0.001) systolic transaortic gradient. The results of peak and mean post-implant transaortic gradient were sustained after one year (P=0.29 and P=0.36, respectively). Left ventricular ejection fraction did not change significantly during follow-up (P=0.41). The most frequent complications were bleeding (28.9%), the need for permanent pacemaker (27.6%) and acute renal injury (20.6%). Conclusion: Mortality and complications in this study were consistent with worldwide experience. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement had positive clinical and hemodynamic results, when comparing pre-and post-procedure, and the hemodynamic profile of the prosthesis was sustained throughout follow-up. <![CDATA[Early Clinical Results of Perceval Sutureless Aortic Valve in 139 Patients: Freeman Experience]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the safety and performance of the Perceval sutureless valve in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. We report the 30-day clinical outcomes of 139 patients. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2016, 139 patients underwent sutureless aortic valve replacement. Their operation notes, National Adult Cardiac Surgery Database and perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography findings were studied retrospectively. Results: Ninety-two patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement (group A) with Perceval valve and 47 patients had combined procedures of aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting (group B). The patients received a size S (n=23), M (n=39), L (n=42) or XL (n=35) prosthesis. Perceval valve was successfully implanted in 135 (97.1%) patients. Mean cross-clamping time and bypass time were 40 and 63 minutes for isolated cases, while 68 and 107 minutes for combined cases. Three (2.1%) patients died within 30 days. Four patients suffered stroke and 5 patients went into acute renal failure. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay was 2 and 8.5, respectively. Four valves were explanted due to significant paravalvular leak after surgery. Five patients had permanent pacemaker as a result of complete heart block and mean postoperative drainage was 295 mL for isolated case and 457 mL for combined cases. The mean gradient across Perceval valve was 12.5 mmHg while its effective orifice area was 1.5 cm2. Conclusion: Early postoperative results showed that Perceval valve is safe. Further follow up is needed to evaluate the long-term outcome with this bioprosthesis. <![CDATA[OPCABG for Moderate CIMR in Elderly Patients: a Superior Option?]]> Abstract Objective: To compare the early and late outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair in elderly patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation. Methods: One hundred and fifty elderly (age &gt; 70 years) patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (n=95) or coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair (n=55) between January 2007 and December 2014 were studied. They were subdivided according to presence or absence of high operative risk. Peri-operative variables and early operative outcomes were retrospectively studied. Survival, mitral regurgitation grade, and functional outcomes were prospectively analysed. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of age (P=0.23), sex (P=0.74), left ventricle ejection fraction (P=0.6) and preoperative functional class (P=0.52). The mean number of grafts for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group was 3.14 and coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair was 3.21. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group had statistically significant better early operative outcomes i.e perioperative blood transfusions, intraaortic balloon pump usage, arrhythmias, renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, sepsis, mean hours of ventilation, intensive care unit stay and operative mortality. On a prospective follow up of 5±2.33 years (1-9 years), coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair in low operative risk subgroup had better improvements in mitral regurgitation grade than off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Both groups had similar improvements in functional class and cumulative survival was also comparable (63.2% vs. 54.5%). Conclusion: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a safer alternative to coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair with better early operative outcomes and comparable late survival and functional outcomes in elderly patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation, especially those with higher operative risk. <![CDATA[Long-Term Results of Mitral Valve Repair]]> Abstract Introduction: Current guidelines state that patients with severe mitral regurgitation should be treated in reference centers with a high reparability rate, low mortality rate, and durable results. Objective: To analyze our global experience with the treatment of organic mitral regurgitation from various etiologies operated in a single center. Methods: We evaluated all surgically treated patients with organic mitral regurgitation from 2004-2017. Patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography every year. We determined early and late survival rates, valve related events and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation. Valve failure was defined as any mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate degree or the need for reoperation for any reason. Results: Out of 133 patients with organic mitral regurgitation, 125 (93.9%) were submitted to valve repair. Mean age was 57±15 years and 52 patients were males. The most common etiologies were degenerative disease (73 patients) and rheumatic disease (34 patients). Early mortality was 2.4% and late survival was 84.3% at 10 years, which are similar to the age- and gender-matched general population. Only two patients developed severe mitral regurgitation, and both were reoperated (95.6% at 10 years). Freedom from mitral valve failure was 84.5% at 10 years, with no difference between degenerative and rheumatic valves. Overall, late ≥ moderate tricuspid regurgitation was present in 34% of the patients, being more common in the rheumatic ones. The use of tricuspid annuloplasty abolished this complication. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that mitral regurgitation due to organic mitral valve disease from various etiologies can be surgically treated with a high repair rate, low early mortality and long-term survival that are comparable to the matched general population. Concomitant treatment of atrial fibrillation and tricuspid valve may be important adjuncts to optimize long-term results. <![CDATA[Mortality Predictors in the Surgical Treatment of Active Infective Endocarditis]]> Abstract Introduction: Active infective endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery is indicated in high-risk conditions, and the main determinants of mortality in surgical treatment should be evaluated. Objective: To identify mortality predictors in the surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis in a long-term follow-up. Methods: This prospective observational study involved 88 consecutive patients diagnosed with active infective endocarditis, who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2015. Fifty-eight (65.9%) patients were male, the mean age was 50.87±16.15 years. A total of 31 (35.2%) patients had a history of rheumatic fever; 48 (54.5%) had had heart surgery with prosthetic valve implantation; 45 (93.8%) had biological prosthetic valve endocarditis and 3 (6.3%) mechanical prosthetic valve; 40 (45.5%) patients had the disease in their native valve. The mean EuroSCORE II was 8.9±6.5%, and the main surgical indication was refractory heart failure in 38 (43.2%) patients. A total of 68 bioprosthesis (36 aortic, 32 mitral) and 29 mechanical prostheses (12 aortic, 17 mitral) were implanted and three mitral valve plasties performed. A total of 25 (28.4%) patients underwent double or triple valve procedures. Aortic annulus reconstruction by abscess was performed in 18 (20.5%) and six (6.81%) patients had combined procedure. The mean surgery time was 359±97.6 minutes. Results: The overall survival in up to a 10-year follow-up period was 79.5%. In the univariate analysis, the main mortality predictors were positive blood cultures (P=0.003), presence of typical microorganisms (P=0.008), most frequently Streptococcus viridans (12 cases; 25%); C-reactive protein (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.000 to 1.070, P=0.04); creatinine clearance (HR 0.977, 95% CI 0.962 to 0.993, P=0.005); length of surgery: every five minutes multiplies the chance of death 1.005-fold (HR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.009, P=0.0307); age (HR 1.060, 95% CI 1.026 to 1.096, P=0.001); and EuroSCORE II (HR 1.089, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.151, P=0.003). Conclusion: A positive blood culture with typical microorganism, C-reactive protein, age, EuroSCORE II, total surgical time and the presence of postoperative complications were the major predictors of mortality and significantly impacted survival in up to a 10-year follow-up period. <![CDATA[External Validation of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) for Risk Prioritization in an Iranian Population]]> Abstract Introduction: The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) is a prediction model which maps 18 predictors to a 30-day post-operative risk of death concentrating on accurate stratification of candidate patients for cardiac surgery. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the EuroSCORE II risk-analysis predictions among patients who underwent heart surgeries in one area of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect the required variables for all consecutive patients who underwent heart surgeries at Emam Reza hospital, Northeast Iran between 2014 and 2015. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify covariates which significantly contribute to higher EuroSCORE II in our population. External validation was performed by comparing the real and expected mortality using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for discrimination assessment. Also, Brier Score and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to show the overall performance and calibration level, respectively. Results: Two thousand five hundred eight one (59.6% males) were included. The observed mortality rate was 3.3%, but EuroSCORE II had a prediction of 4.7%. Although the overall performance was acceptable (Brier score=0.047), the model showed poor discriminatory power by AUC=0.667 (sensitivity=61.90, and specificity=66.24) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P&lt;0.01). Conclusion: Our study showed that the EuroSCORE II discrimination power is less than optimal for outcome prediction and less accurate for resource allocation programs. It highlights the need for recalibration of this risk stratification tool aiming to improve post cardiac surgery outcome predictions in Iran. <![CDATA[CABG and Preoperative use of Beta-Blockers in Patients with Stable Angina are Associated with Better Cardiovascular Survival]]> Abstract Objective: In contrast to unstable angina, optimal therapy in patients with stable angina is debated. Our aim was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with stable angina scheduled for isolated coronary artery bypass grafts and the effect of preoperative use of beta-blockers. Overall and cardiovascular survivals were our primary outcome. Operative mortality and postoperative complications along with subgroup analysis of diabetic patients were our secondary outcomes. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients with stable angina scheduled for isolated coronary artery bypass grafts was included. Pre- and postoperative variables were extracted from the institution database. Survival was obtained from the National Registry. Results: We included 282 patients with stable angina, with a mean age of 65.6±9.5 years. 26.6% were female and 38.7% had diabetes. Three-vessel disease was present in 76.6% of patients. Previous beta-blocker treatment was evident in 69.9% of patients. 10-year overall survival in the whole population was 60.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.3-70.7%). Operative mortality during the study period was 3.5%. Patients with preoperative use of beta-blocker therapy had better overall survival (9.0 years, 95%CI: 8.6-9.5) than those without treatment (7.9 years, 95%CI: 7.1-8.8 years; P=0.048). Predictors for overall survival were: hypertension, diabetes, and age. Predictors for cardiovascular survival in diabetic patients were: beta-blocker use, gender, and age. Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass grafts surgery in patients with stable angina carries low operative mortality, postoperative complications, and excellent long-term cardiovascular survival. The preoperative use of beta-blockers in diabetic patients is associated with better cardiovascular survival after coronary artery bypass grafts. <![CDATA[The Frequency of Infective Endocarditis in <em>Candida</em> Bloodstream Infections: a Retrospective Study in a Child Hospital]]> Abstract Introduction: Fungal endocarditis is reported less frequently than bacterial endocarditis, with an incidence of 0-12% of the total pediatric infective endocarditis. Objective: In this study, the incidence of infective endocarditis in Candida bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital during the periods of 2007 and 2016 was reviewed. Methods: Patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida spp. during the study period of January 2007 and January 2016 were analyzed in terms of Candida infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis was defined according to the modified Duke criteria. The outcome, possible associated predisposing factors for Candida endocarditis were determined. Results: 221 patients and 256 attacks with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida were included in the study. The most common Candida species was Candida parapsilosis, isolated in 157 (61.3%) attacks, followed by Candida albicans in 70 (27.3%). Neurological diseases (23%), hemato-oncological diseases (12.1%), previously known heart diseases (8.2%), inborn errors of metabolism (9%) were common comorbidities. Twelve (5.4%) patients had a previous history of cardiac surgery. Among the 221 patients, Candida endocarditis was present in only two (0.9%) of them. Conclusion: Although Candida infective endocarditis is an uncommon but frequently fatal infection in pediatrics, echocardiography should be performed routinely for patients with positive blood or catheter cultures in terms of Candida. Prompt and effective antimicrobial therapy might prevent cardiac surgery in selected cases, however this could not be a general rule for all patients. <![CDATA[Postoperative Bleeding Following Preoperative Clopidogrel Administration in Patients with Haemoglobin Level Above 110 g/L Undergoing Urgent CABG]]> Abstract Introduction: Patients with acute coronary syndrome usually receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (usually clopidogrel + aspirin) prior to coronary catheterization, and approximately 10% of these patients require coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DAPT has favorable effects on prevention of thrombus formation, but it can have deleterious effects on surgical hemostasis. Anaemia, if present, gives additional risk to such patients. The aim of this study was to examine if DAPT affects postoperative bleeding in patients with haemoglobin levels above 110 g/L, who underwent urgent or emergent CABG, less than five days after stopping DAPT therapy. Methods: Data were collected prospectively on 122 CABG patients, operated by a surgical team from March 2008 to August 2013. Patients were stratified into two groups: group 1 received DAPT within 5 days of CABG (n=65), and group 2 where DAPT was discontinued for more than 5 days prior to CABG (n=57). All patients were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome preoperatively, and all of them had haemoglobin levels above 110 g/L. Patients who needed reoperation, combined procedures, or off-pump revascularization were excluded. Results: There was no hospital mortality. Mean chest tube losses after the surgical revascularization did not differ significantly, but group 1 received a higher quantity of transfused red blood cells and platelets. Conclusion: Urgent and emergent surgical revascularization using extracorporeal circulation in patients with acute coronary syndrome whose preoperative haemoglobin levels are above 110 g/L is a safe and effective procedure. We suggest that, where indicative, one may perform CABG in less than 5 days after the clopidogrel discontinuation. <![CDATA[Hemolysis and Inflammatory Response to Extracorporeal Circulation during On-Pump CABG: Comparison between Roller and Centrifugal Pump Systems]]> Abstract Objective: To compare the perioperative incidence rates of hemolysis and inflammatory response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with the two main types of cardiopulmonary bypass, centrifugal and roller pumps, and establish correlations among hemolytic and inflammatory changes. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized trial of 60 patients assigned to either roller pump (G1, n=30) or centrifugal pump (G2, n=30) bypass. Markers of hemolysis (serum haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were measured and analyzed. Results: There was no significant between-group difference in the variables of interest. In G1, there was a positive association with IL-6 and TNF-α (P&lt;0.01 and P&lt;0.05, respectively). In G2, there was a positive association with LDH in the postoperative period (P&lt;0.5). At 24h post-cardiopulmonary bypass, there were positive associations between LDH and IL-1ß (P&lt;0.05), LDH and TNF-α (P&lt;0.01), haptoglobin and TNF-α (P&lt;0.05), and LDH and TNF-α (P&lt;0.01) in G1, and between LDH and IL-6 (P&lt;0.01), LDH and TNF-α (P&lt;0.01), and LDH and IL-6 (P&lt;0.01) in G2. Conclusion: There were no significant between-group differences in markers of hemolysis or inflammation. IL-6 and TNF-α were positively associated with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in G1, while LDH was positively associated with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in G2. The rate of significant associations between markers of hemolysis and inflammation was higher in the roller pump group (G1). Registration number: ReBEC (RBR-92b9dg). <![CDATA[Evaluation of the Effects of Atorvastatin and Ischemic Postconditioning Preventing on the Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury: Experimental Study in Rats]]> Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A), Ischemic Postconditioning (B), Statin (C), Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D) and SHAM (E). After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029). The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P&lt;0.0001). The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P&lt;0.0001). The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006). The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P&lt;0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection. <![CDATA[Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy Patients and Resynchronization Therapy: a Survival Analysis]]> Abstract Introduction: Chagas disease represents an important health problem with socioeconomic impacts in many Latin-American countries. It is estimated that 20% to 30% of the people infected by Trypanosoma cruzi will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is generally accompanied by heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may be indicated for patients with HF and electromechanical dysfunctions. Objective: The primary endpoint of this study was to analyze the response to CRT in patients with CCC, while the secondary endpoint was to estimate the survival rates of CRT responder patients. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study. The records of 50 patients with CRT pacing devices implanted between June 2009 and March 2017 were analyzed. For statistical analyses, Pearson's correlation was used along with Student's t-test, and survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. A P value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 50 patients, 56% were male, with a mean age of 63.4±13.3 years and an average CRT duration of 61.2±21.7 months. The mean QRS duration was 150.12±12.4 ms before and 116.04±2.2 ms after the therapy (P&lt;0.001). The mean left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) were 29±7% and 39.1±12.2% before and after CRT, respectively (P&lt;0.001). A total of 35 (70%) patients had a reduction of at least one New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class after six months of therapy (P=0.014). The survival rate after 72 months was 45%. Conclusion: This study showed clinical improvement and a nonsignificant survival rate in patients with CCC after the use of CRT. <![CDATA[Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale <em>versus</em> Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials with 3440 Patients]]> Abstract Objective: We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction: The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results: The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P&lt;0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure. <![CDATA[The Role of Heart Team Approach in Penetrating Cardiac Trauma: Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> Abstract Penetrating cardiac trauma has been increasing in clinical experience and is joined to important morbidity and mortality. A case of a 38-year-old female with history of postpartum depression was reported, admitted to our department for cardiac tamponade due to penetrating self-inflicted multiple stab wound of the chest complicated by rupture of anterior left ventricular wall and traumatic ventricular septal defect. Following the unstable hemodynamic instability, a combined therapeutic strategy was chosen: surgery and transcatheter implantation to correct free wall ventricle damage and traumatic ventricular septal defect, respectively. <![CDATA[A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Cardiac Angiosarcoma]]> Abstract Cardiac angiosarcomas are extremely rare in childhood, they are rapidly progressive tumours that often present themselves as diagnostic dilemmas, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Also, extracardiac manifestations, including abdominal pain, are extremely rare in patients with intracardiac tumors. We herein present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain. Echocardiography and thoracic computed tomography showed right atrial mass. The patient underwent surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Eight months after treatment, abdominal recurrence was detected. The abdominal mass was resected, and radiotherapy and new chemotherapy protocol were given. The present case illustrates a rare case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma posing a diagnostic dilemma in an adolescent girl. <![CDATA[Symptomatic Aortic Paravalvular Leak: Percutaneous Treatment with Amplatzer Vascular Plug III Device as an Alternative to Surgery]]> Abstract A significant prosthetic paravalvular leak is an uncommon and severe postsurgical complication correlated to the occurrence of congestive heart failure and hemolytic anemia. Percutaneous treatment has become an attractive and effective proposal to relieve symptoms and reduce complications in patients whose high rate of morbidity/mortality precludes a new surgery. This is the case of an 81-year-old patient with a history of biological aortic valve replacement seeking medical help due to heart failure and hemolytic anemia, with a prosthetic paravalvular regurgitation jet and high surgical mortality according to EuroSCORE II.