Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 33 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The "Rebirth" of the Right Anterolateral Thoracotomy Approach in Cardiac Surgery]]> <![CDATA[Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning and Atorvastatin in the Prevention of Remote Lung Reperfusion Injury]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of ischemic postconditioning, atorvastatin and both associated to prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in the lung of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aortic clamping. Methods: We used 41 Wistar norvegic rats, which were distributed into 5 groups: ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), ischemic postcondictioning (IPC), postconditioning + atorvastatin (IPC+A), atorvastatin (A) and SHAM. It was performed a medium laparotomy, dissection and isolation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta; except for the SHAM group, all the others were submitted to the aortic clamping for 70 minutes (ischemia) and posterior clamp removal (reperfusion, 70 minutes). In the IPC and IPC+A groups, postconditioning was performed between the ischemia and reperfusion phases by four cycles of reperfusion and ischemia lasting 30 seconds each. In the IPC+A and A groups, preceding the surgical procedure, administration of 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was performed for seven days by gavage. After the surgical procedure, the right caudal lobe was removed from the lung for histological study, using tissue injury score ranging from grade 1 (normal tissue) to grade 4 (intense lesion). Results: The mean lung injury was 3.6 in the I/R group, 1.6 in the IPC group, 1.2 in the IPC+A group, 1.2 in the A group, and 1 in the SHAM group (P&lt;0.01). Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were able to minimize lung reperfusion injury, alone or in combination. <![CDATA[Aortic Valve Replacement with a Conventional Stented Bioprosthesis <em>versus</em> Sutureless Bioprosthesis: a Study of 763 Patients]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare early postoperative outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with sutureless bioprostheses and conventional stented bioprostheses implanted through median sternotomy. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, 763 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with bioprostheses; of these, 139 received a Perceval S sutureless valve (Group A) and 624 received a Perimount Magna Ease valve (Group B). These groups were further divided into A1 (isolated Perceval AVR), A2 (Perceval AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]), B1 (isolated conventional stented bioprosthesis), and B2 (conventional stented bioprosthesis + CABG). Results: Patients in Group A were older (mean 74 years vs. 71 years; P&lt;0.0001), predominantly women (53% vs. 32%; P&lt;0.0001), had a higher logistic EuroSCORE (3.26 vs. 2.43; P&lt;0.001), more preoperative atrial fibrillation (20% vs. 13%; P=0.03), and had a lower reopening rate for bleeding (2.1% vs. 6.7%; P=0.04). Compared to Group B1, Group A1 had shorter cross-clamp (mean 40 min vs. 57 min; P≤0.0001) and bypass times (mean 63 min vs. mean 80 min; P=0.02), and they bled less postoperatively (mean 295 ml vs. mean 393 ml; P=0.002). The mean gradient across Perceval valve was 12.5 mmHg while its effective orifice area was 1.5 cm2. Conclusion: In our retrospective study of 763 patients, sutureless valve group patients are older, mostly women, more symptomatic preoperatively, and have higher logistic EuroSCORE. They have shorter cross-clamp and bypass times, less postoperative bleeding, and reduced incidence of reopening. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefits in short, mid, and long-terms. <![CDATA[Selenium, Vitamin C and N-Acetylcysteine do not Reduce the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury after Off-Pump CABG: a Randomized Clinical Trial]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, selenium and vitamin C on the incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery. Methods: 291 patients requiring elective off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery were randomized to receive either N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium 600 mg, 1500 mg, 0.5 mg, and nothing orally twice a day, respectively, from the day before to 2 days after surgery. They were assessed for the development of acute kidney injury using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, time of onset, its severity and duration, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: 272 patients completed the study. The total incidence of acute kidney injury was 22.1% (n=60) with 14 (20.9%), 15 (22.1%), 21 (31.8%), and 10 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin C, NAC, selenium, and control groups, respectively (P=0.096). We did not register significant differences in the incidence, the time of occurrence, the severity and the duration of acute kidney injury, as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and the in-hospital mortality among the four groups. Conclusion: We found that perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium were not effective in preventing acute kidney injury and associated morbidity and mortality after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery. <![CDATA[Application of Circular Patch Plasty (Dor Procedure) or Linear Repair Techniques in the Treatment of Left Ventricular Aneurysms]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate early clinical outcomes and echocardiographic measurements of the left ventricle in patients who underwent left ventricular aneurysm repair using two different techniques associated to myocardial revascularization. Methods: Eighty-nine patients (74 males, 15 females; mean age 58±8.4 years; range: 41 to 80 years) underwent post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm repair and myocardial revascularization performed between 1996 and 2016. Ventricular reconstruction was performed using endoventricular circular patch plasty (Dor procedure) (n=48; group A) or linear repair technique (n=41; group B). Results: Multi-vessel disease in 55 (61.7%) and isolated left anterior descending (LAD) disease in 34 (38.2%) patients were identified. Five (5.6%) patients underwent aneurysmectomy alone, while the remaining 84 (94.3%) patients had aneurysmectomy with bypass. The mean number of grafts per patient was 2.1±1.2 with the Dor procedure and 2.9±1.3 with the linear repair technique. In-hospital mortality occurred in 4.1% and 7.3% in group A and group B, respectively (P&gt;0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate that post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm repair can be performed with both techniques with acceptable surgical risk and with satisfactory hemodynamic improvement. <![CDATA[Predictors of Outcomes after Correction of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection under Moderate Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest and Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion]]> Abstract Introduction: Hypothermic circulatory arrest is widely used for correction of acute type A aortic dissection pathology. We present our experience of 45 consecutive patients operated in our unit with bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion and moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest. Methods: Between January 2011 and April 2015, 45 consecutive patients were admitted for acute type A aortic dissection and operated emergently under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion. Results: Mean age was 58±11.4 years old. Median circulatory arrest time was 41.5 (30-54) minutes while the 30-day mortality and postoperative permanent neurological deficits rates were 6.7% and 13.3%, respectively. Unadjusted analysis revealed that the factors associated with 30-day mortality were: preoperative hemodynamic instability (OR: 14.8, 95% CI: 2.41, 90.6, P=0.004); and postoperative requirement for open sternum management (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.041, 24.02, P=0.044) while preoperative hemodynamic instability (OR: 8.8, 95% CI: 1.41, 54.9, P=0.02) and postoperative sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction (OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 89.9, P=0.007) were correlated with neurological dysfunction. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, postoperative sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction independently predicted (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 1.05, 96.4, P=0.045) the incidence of severe postoperative neurological complication. During median follow-up of 6 (2-12) months, the survival rate was 86.7%. Conclusion: Bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion and direct carotid perfusion for cardiopulmonary bypass, in the surgical treatment for correction of acute aortic dissection type A, is a valuable technique with low 30-day mortality rate. However, postoperative severe neurological dysfunctions remain an issue that warrants further research. <![CDATA[Oral Health Status, Health Behaviour and Treatment Needs of Patients Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of cardiovascular surgery patients. Second, the awareness of cardiovascular surgery patients regarding the association between oral health and heart disease was considered. Methods: Assessment of oral health status, oral hygiene practices and treatment needs of 106 hospitalized patients in preparation for cardiovascular surgery. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed for this study and oral examination was carried out by a dentist. Results: The oral hygiene practices of the study cohort were not up to the standard. Patients' awareness of infective endocarditis was poor. Approximately 68% patients experienced dental caries as decayed teeth or missing teeth due to caries and filled teeth. The mean plaque index in the study group was 1.25. In this study cohort, the mean probing depth of periodontal pockets was 5.7±1.3, whereas the mean number of teeth with periodontal pockets &gt; 6 mm was 0.5±0.9. A total of 84 (74.2%) of the patients required dental treatment. Conclusion: The principal finding in this study was that patients with heart disease had poor oral health. This study also highlights the importance of better interaction among all healthcare professionals to integrate oral health as part of comprehensive inpatient healthcare. <![CDATA[Outcomes Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Patients with Mild Preoperative Renal Insufficiency]]> Abstract Introduction: Preoperative renal insufficiency is an independent predictor of mortality after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, there are few reports aimed to evaluate the impact of mild preoperative renal insufficiency on long-term follow-up outcomes after isolated CABG surgery. This study investigates the effect of mild preoperative renal insufficiency on long-term follow-up outcomes of patients after CABG. Methods: Five hundred eighty-four patients' data that underwent CABG between 1 January 2009 and 1 December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into two groups: normal group [Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, n=304] and mild group (eGFR ranges from 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m2, n=280). Clinical material and long follow-up outcomes were compared inthe two groups. Results: Two groups had similar baseline and intraoperative data except eGFR. Six (0.01%) patients died in hospital, 15 in normal group and 28 in mild group during the long-term follow-up, which had statistical significance (P&lt;0.05). Univariate factor analysis displayed that the two groups had similar in-hospital outcomes. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a better long-term survival in patients with normal preoperative renal function compared to mild preoperative renal insufficiency (x 2=4.255, P=0.039). Cox proportional model presented the hazard ratio of long-term mortality in patients with mild preoperative renal insufficiency compared to normal preoperative renal function was 1.79 (95% CI 1.17-2.88, P=0.027). Conclusions: Patients with mild preoperative renal insufficiency had a higher mortality rate than normal patients in long-term survival, whereas no evidence of worse in-hospital mortality rate was found. Patients with mild preoperative renal insufficiency showed a higher mortality rate than other studies. <![CDATA[Outcomes After Surgical Resection of Primary Non-Myxoma Cardiac Tumors]]> Abstract Objective: Primary cardiac tumors are rare lesions with different histological type. We reviewed our 17 years of experience in the surgical treatment and clinical results of primary non-myxoma cardiac tumors. Methods: Between July 2000 and February 2017, 21 patients with primary cardiac tumor were surgically treated in our institution. The tumors were categorized as benign non-myxomas and malignants. Data including the demographic characteristics, details of the tumor histology and grading, cardiac medical and surgical history, surgical procedure of the patients were obtained from the hospital database. Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed with benign non-myxoma tumor (male/female:7/4), ranging in age from 10 days to 74 years (mean age 30.9±26.5 years). Papillary fibroelastoma was the most frequent type (63.6%). There were two early deaths in benign group (all were rhabdomyoma), and mortality rate was 18%. The mean follow-up period was 69.3±58.7 months (range, 3 to 178 months). All survivals in benign group were free of tumor-related symptoms and tumor relapses. Ten patients were diagnosed with malignant tumor (sarcoma/lymphoma:8/2, male/female:3/7), ranging in age from 14 years to 73 years (mean age 44.7±18.9 years). Total resection could be done in only three (30%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 18.7±24.8 months (range, 0-78 months). Six patients died in the first 10 months. Conclusion: Complete resection of the cardiac tumors, whenever possible, is the main goal of surgery. Surgical resection of benign cardiac tumors is safe, usually curative and provides excellent long-term prognosis. On the contrary, malignant cardiac tumors still remain highly lethal. <![CDATA[Thrombocytopenia After Aortic Valve Replacement: Comparison Between Sutureless Perceval S Valve and Perimount Magna Ease Bioprosthesis]]> Abstract Introduction: The incidence of postoperative thrombocytopenia after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the Perceval S Sutureless bioprosthesis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report thrombocytopenia associated with the use of sutureless AVR. Methods: The data was collected retrospectively for patients who had isolated AVR with sutureless Perceval S valve (Group A: 72 patients) and was compared with patients who underwent isolated sutured AVR with Perimount Magna Ease Bioprosthesis (Group B: 101 patients) in our institution between June 2014 and January 2017. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time were significantly shorter in group A. Maximum drop in platelet count was 58% mean (day 2.3) in group A versus 44% mean (day 1.7) in group B (P=0.0001). Absolute platelet count on postoperative day 1-6 in group A was significantly less than in group B (P≤0.05). Platelet count recovered to preoperative value in 44% patients in group B versus only in 26% patients in group A at discharge (P=0.018). Moderate thrombocytopenia occurs more often in group A (41% vs. 26%) (P=0.008) while severe thrombocytopenia (&lt;50 x 109) was observed in 6% in group A but never in group B. Platelets (P=0.007) and packed red blood cells (P=0.009) transfusion was significantly higher in the group A. Conclusion: The implantation of sutureless Perceval aortic valves was associated with a significant drop in platelet count postoperatively with slow recovery and higher platelets and packed red blood cells transfusion requirements. A prospective randomised trial is needed to confirm our findings. <![CDATA[Association of Oscillatory Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Test to Clinical and Functional Variables of Chronic Heart Failure Patients]]> Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and to relate it with other cardiopulmonary exercise test (CET) responses and clinical variables. Methods: Forty-six male patients (age: 53.1±13.6 years old; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 30±8%) with heart failure were recruited to perform a maximal CET and to correlate the CET responses with clinical variables. The EOV was obtained according to Leite et al. criteria and VE/VCO2 &gt; 34 and peak VO2 &lt; 14 ml/kg/min were used to assess patients' severity. Results: The EOV was observed in 16 of 24 patients who performed the CET, as well as VE/VCO2 &gt; 34 and peak VO2 &lt; 14 ml/kg/min in 14 and 10 patients, respectively. There was no difference in clinical and CET variables of the patients who presented EOV in CET when compared to non-EOV patients. Also, there was no difference in CET and clinical variables when comparing patients who presented EOV and had a VE/VCO2 slope &gt; 34 to patients who just had one of these responses either. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was an incidence of patients with EOV and lower peak VO2 and higher VE/VCO2 slope values, but they showed no difference on other prognostic variables. As well, there was no influence of the presence of EOV on other parameters of CET in this population, suggesting that this variable may be an independent marker of worst prognosis in HF patients. <![CDATA[On-Pump Beating/Non-Beating CABG in Stable Angina Have Similar Outcomes]]> Abstract Objective: On pump beating/non-beating coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) has been compared in patients with unstable angina and/or severe left ventricular dysfunction. There is scarce evidence regarding the beneficial use of on-pump beating CABG in patients with stable angina and normal left ventricular function. Our aim was to study the postoperative results using both techniques in this group of patients. Methods: One thousand one hundred and forty-five patients with stable angina underwent on-pump isolated CABG in Uruguay from 2011 to 2015. Patients were grouped into beating/non-beating CABG. Operative mortality and long-term survival were evaluated as primary outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to define the predictive role of aortic cross clamp (AXC) on prolonged inotropic support, ventilator support and intraoperative glycemia. Results: Among the included patients, 988 underwent aortic cross clamp. No differences were found in operative mortality, stroke and long-term survival among both groups. Patients without AXC showed higher intraoperative values of glycemia and higher incidence of postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilator support (7.6% vs. 2.4%; P=0.001). The need for prolonged inotropic support was lower in this group of patients (27.4% vs. 49.5%; P&lt;0.001). Conclusion: On-pump beating CABG has similar operative mortality and long-term survival compared with conventional AXC. Higher intraoperative glycemia and higher incidence for prolonged mechanical ventilator is associated with on-pump beating CABG. On the contrary, higher incidence for prolonged inotropic support is associated with AXC. Taking these factors into consideration, both techniques are safe and allow the surgeon to choose the most comfortable option. <![CDATA[Use of Doppler Ultrasound for Saphenous Vein Mapping to Obtain Grafts for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting]]> Abstract Introduction: The great saphenous vein is widely used as a graft in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Complications due to saphenous vein harvesting can be minimized when using ultrasonography mapping and marking. Objective: To analyze by clinical trial the use of vascular ultrasonography to map the saphenous vein in coronary artery bypass grafting to determine viability and dissection site. Methods: A total of 151 consecutive patients submitted to coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of the great saphenous vein as a graft were selected for this prospective study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 84 patients were submitted to ultrasonographic mapping and marking of the saphenous vein; Group 2 - 67 patients had saphenous vein harvested without any previous study. Both groups were coupled with follow-up on the 1st, 5th and 30th postoperative days. Primary endpoints were need for incision of the contralateral leg and wound complications within 30 days. Results: Both legs had to be incised in 6 (8.95%) patients from Group 2 (P=0.0067). Wound complications occurred in 33 (23.4%) patients within 30 days, 21 (35%) from Group 2 e 12 (14.8%) from Group 1 (OR 3.095, 1.375-6.944, CI 95%, P=0.008). Within 30 days there were 4 (2.8%) deaths, all in Group 2 (P=0.036). Conclusion: The use of vascular ultrasonography for mapping of the great saphenous vein in coronary artery bypass surgery has properly identified and evaluated the saphenous vein, significantly reducing wound complications and unnecessary incisions. It would be advisable to use this noninvasive and easy to use method routinely in coronary artery bypass surgery. <![CDATA[Percutaneous Lead Extraction in Infection of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: a Systematic Review]]> Abstract Introduction: In the last two decades, the increased number of implants of cardiac implantable electronic devices has been accompanied by an increase in complications, especially infection. Current recommendations for the appropriate treatment of cardiac implantable electronic devices-related infections consist of prolonged antibiotic therapy associated with complete device extraction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of percutaneous extraction in the treatment of these devices infections. Methods: A systematic review search was performed in the PubMed, BVS, Cochrane CENTRAL, CAPES, SciELO and ScienceDirect databases. A total of 1,717 studies were identified and subsequently selected according to the eligibility criteria defined by relevance tests by two authors working independently. Results: Sixteen studies, describing a total of 3,354 patients, were selected. Percutaneous extraction was performed in 3,081 patients. The average success rate for the complete percutaneous removal of infected devices was 92.4%. Regarding the procedure, the incidence of major complications was 2.9%, and the incidence of minor complications was 8.4%. The average in-hospital mortality of the patients was 5.4%, and the mortality related to the procedure ranged from 0.4 to 3.6%. The mean mortality was 20% after 6 months and 14% after a one-year follow-up. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction is the main technique for the removal of infected cardiac implantable electronic devices, and it presents low rates of complications and mortality related to the procedure. <![CDATA[Aortic Valve Replacement Combined with Ascending Aortic Aneurysmectomy in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease: a Case Report]]> Abstract Sickle cell anemia is a haematological disorder characterized by multiple vaso-occlusive complications, resulting in a reduced life expectancy. These patients are exposed to several triggering factors for sickle cell crises when they are submitted to cardiovascular surgeries with extracorporeal circulation. Therefore, meticulous care and perioperative management are required. This paper reports a successful case of combined cardiovascular surgery - aortic valve replacement and ascending aortic aneurysmectomy - with no serious post-operative complications. In this report, we emphasize the peculiarities of perioperative care in patients with sickle cell anemia.