Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-797220160001&lang=en vol. 29 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[A new era for the journal Psicologia: Reflexão e Critica]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000100201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Adaptation and validation of the psychosocial values questionnaire to the context of Brazilian and Portuguese teenagers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this work was to adapt and validate the Psychosocial Values Questionnaire (PVQ-24) for application to Portuguese and Brazilian adolescents and to test the content, structure and compatibility hypotheses of the societal approach to values. A total of 730 adolescents participated in the study, 482 Brazilian (213 boys and 269 girls) with average age of 15 years (SD= 1.1) and 238 Portuguese (117 boys and 121 girls) with average age of 15.4 years (SD= 1.8). In both samples, the PVQ-24 showed satisfactory internal consistency, and the proposed factor structure was confirmed (four systems: materialistic, religious, hedonistic, and post-materialist). The post-materialist system was organized into three subsystems: social well-being, individual well-being and occupational well-being. In both samples, confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling supported the hypotheses regarding content (four systems and three subsystems), structure (two dimensions) and compatibility (positive correlations between systems). <![CDATA[Portuguese validation of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (SCBE-30)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Aim The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (SCBE-30) is a 30-item questionnaire designed to assess preschoolers’ behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) and social competence. It is widely used in the developmental research. This study aims to contribute to the adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the teachers’ short form of the SCBE-30 (Psychol. Assess. 8:369–777, 1996). Method Participants were 361 children from 3 to 6 years old whose preschool teachers completed the SCBE-30. For external validation purposes children completed arithmetic and theory of mind tasks, and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results Confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the 10-item-subscale solution of the original SCBE-30 version. Instead, a five-item-subscale was found as a better solution. Discussion The reduced 15-item version replicates the three-factor structure, shows good psychometric properties and meets external validation criteria. Further research should focus on the invariance of the factor structure of the SCBE-30 between cultures. <![CDATA[Construct validity and reliability of Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire – Brazilian version]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) is among the few bullying assessment instruments with well-established psychometric properties in different countries. Nevertheless, the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version (Questionário de Bullying de Olweus - QBO) have not been determined. We aimed at verifying the construct validity and reliability of the bully and victim scales of the QBO. To achieve that goal, the victim and bully scales were assessed using polytomous item response theory (IRT). The best fit was obtained with a generalized partial credit model that is capable of measuring the specific discriminating power for each item in these scales. The QBO was administered to 703 public school students (mean age: 13 years; standard deviation = 1.58). Based on IRT analysis, the number of response categories in each item was reduced from four to three. Cronbach reliability scores were satisfactory: α = 0.85 (victim scale) and α = 0.87 (bully scale). In this study, hurtful comments, persecution, or threats had high power to discriminate victims and bullies. For both QBO scales, higher severity parameters were observed for direct bullying items. The results also show that the construct of both QBO scales measures the same construct proposed for the overall instrument. Thus, the QBO can be administered to different Brazilian populations to assess the main characteristics of bullying: repetition of behavior over time and intentionally acting to humiliate, threaten, or harm somebody. <![CDATA[Evidences of validity and reliability of the Luria-Nebraska Test for Children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese). Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79). The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision. <![CDATA[Professional choice self-efficacy: predicting traits and personality profiles in high school students]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to verify the predictive capacity of the Big Five personality factors related to professional choice self-efficacy, as well as to draw a personality profile of people with diverse self-efficacy levels. There were 308 high school students participating, from three different grades (57.5 % women), from public and private schools, average 26.64 years of age. Students completed two instruments, Escala de Autoeficácia para Escolha Profissional (Professional Choice Self-efficacy Scale) and Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (Factorial Personality Battery). Results were obtained using multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance with repeated measures profile and Cohen’s d to estimate the effect size of differences. Results showed that Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were the main predictors of self-efficacy. Differences from medium to large were observed between extreme groups, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were the personality factors that better distinguish people with low and high levels of self-efficacy. Theses results partially corroborate with the hypothesis. Results were discussed based on literature and on the practical implications of the results. New studies are proposed. <![CDATA[Review of the self-sacrifice dimension of the dimensional clinical personality inventory]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103106&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present study aimed to review the Self-sacrifice scale from the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP), and investigate its psychometric properties. To this end, the study comprised 199 participants, aging between 18 and 54 years (M= 26.37; SD= 8.13), and 142 were women (71.4 %). All subjects answered the IDCP and the Brazilian versions of the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Based on the exploratory factor analysis with confirmatory indices (E-SEM), four interpretable factors were found, besides the total score for the scale reviewed. The factors showed adequate internal consistency coefficient ranging between .78 and .87. Furthermore, the correlations between the factors and the total score and the dimensions of the other instruments used were consistent, especially regarding to the PID-5. Accordingly, we conclude that the revised version size is more suitable adequate from the psychometric perspective compared to the original version, besides being more related to the pathological personality functioning. <![CDATA[Social Conduct Scale (SCS): a psychometric investigation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103107&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The social conduct of an individual comprises all the interpersonal behaviors that he or she exhibits in the social contexts he or she is exposed to. The Social Conduct Scale (SCS) is a self-report instrument developed to provide researchers and clinicians with information on prosocial, antisocial and oppositional-defiant tendencies of Portuguese-speaking children and adolescents. In the present study, we conducted an analysis of the criterion validity of the SCS by comparing the scores obtained from a large population-based sample (N= 1,172) against an offender (N= 129), a scholar (N= 31), and a clinic-referred (N= 24) sample of adolescents with marked previous conduct problems. As expected, antisocial youths had significantly higher means on antisocial behaviors and lower means on prosocial tendencies when compared to the population-based sample. Overall, findings supported the hypothesized criterion validity of the SCS. The instrument might play a role as a helpful resource for researchers, clinicians and practitioners interested in assessing the social conduct of Brazilian children and adolescents. <![CDATA[Development and refinement of the Peer Aggressive Behavior Scale–PAB-S]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Child aggressive behavior is a growing research topic in several fields of knowledge. Nonetheless, there are few instruments in Brazil designed to assess such a construct. The aim of this study was to present a new instrument to assess aggressive behavior among children: The Peer Aggressive Behavior Scale (PAB-S). Two studies are presented. The first describes the items development procedures, as well as evidence of content validity. It also presents the procedures used to refine the instrument and initial evidence of validity based on the internal structure of the refined version of the PAB-S. The second study evaluates, in an independent sample, the goodness-of-fit of the refined version and compares them with those presented by the initial version. A sample of 974 children (52,3 % girls) aged between 7 and 13 years old, attending public and private schools from Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, participated in the study. The results indicate that the PAB-S fits a one-dimensional instrument in both the initial (39 items) and the refined version (25 items). The results suggest evidence of content validity and validity based on the internal structure of the scale. Further studies are needed to gather evidence of validity based on external variables. <![CDATA[Conception and validation of the Behavioral Intentions Scale of Organizational Citizenship (BISOC)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103109&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to construct and validate the Behavioral Intentions of Organizational Citizenship Scale (BISOC). Organizational citizenship consists of measures of voluntary behaviors, which are beneficial to organizations and are not explicit in employment contracts. To investigate the psychometric properties of BISOC, we selected 767 employees in different cities from the states of Bahia and Pernambuco (Brazil). The validation procedures adopted, which used techniques from both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory, showed that the BISOC has a unidimensional structure. From the initial set of 42 items, 35 items met the validation criteria. By presenting suitable psychometric parameters, BISOC is the first measure of organizational citizenship behaviors developed and validated to assess behavioral intentions. <![CDATA[Relationship between coping and subjective well-being of elderly from the interior of the Brazilian Northeast]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103110&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this study was to verify how the coping strategies, applied to health problems of the elderly, are related to the levels of Subjective Well-Being (SWB) in a cluster sample of 381 elderly people with an average age of 71.50 years (SD = 8.0), mostly female (73.4 %). The following instruments were used: Mini-Mental State Examination, Problem Coping Mode Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and demographic issues. The results indicated that, among all the coping strategies, the most used were the Religious Practices. The Focus on Problem explained positively and the Focus on Emotion explained negatively the SWB. Therefore, focus on the problem contributes positively to the psychosocial adaptation of the elderly to health problems. <![CDATA[Deviant behavior variety scale: development and validation with a sample of Portuguese adolescents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103111&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study presents the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS). Participants were 861 Portuguese adolescents (54 % female), aged between 12 and 19 years old. Two alternative models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Although both models showed good fit indexes, the two-factor model didn’t presented discriminant validity. Further results provided evidence for the factorial and the convergent validity of the single-factor structure of the DVBS, which has also shown good internal consistency. Criterion validity was evaluated through the association with related variables, such as age and school failure, as well as the scale’s ability to capture group differences, namely between genders and school retentions, and finally by comparing a sub-group of convicted adolescents with a group of non-convicted ones regarding their engagement in delinquent activities. Overall, the scale presented good psychometric properties, with results supporting that the DBVS is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to evaluate adolescents’ involvement in deviance. <![CDATA[Adaptation and preliminary validation evidences of the School Climate Questionnaire – Revised, Elementary and Middle School Version (SCS-MS)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103112&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study presents the procedures for adapting the School Climate Survey – Revised, Elementary and Middle School Version (SCS-MS) to the Brazilian context and demonstrates the first evidence of the validity of its use among elementary school students. Participants were 511 children (52,1 % girls) from Porto Alegre, between 3rd and 5th grade. Analysis of internal validity was performed by evaluating the factor structure of the instrument, and analysis of convergent validity by testing the correlation between the SCS-MS, social skills and childhood peer aggression. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analysis were conducted. The results indicated that the structure provided in the ESEM analysis were more adequate than the original structure for this sample. ESEM provided satisfactory indices of fit for the model of six factors, including modifications in four factors. The overall score of the SCS-MS showed positive and moderate correlations with social skills and negative and moderate correlations with peer aggression. The results suggest that the SCS-MS is a measure that can be used to assess the students’ perception of school climate in Brazilian schools, contributing to overcome the shortage of instruments in this context. <![CDATA[Are happier people less vulnerable to rumination, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress? Evidence from a large scale disaster]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present longitudinal study tested hypotheses about the relationship of subjective well-being and neuroticism with rumination, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in university students after a large scale disaster. Measures of subjective well-being and personality were obtained two months before the 2013 Santa Maria’s fire. Measures of rumination, PTSD and anxiety were collected five months after the disaster with the same students. The results provide evidence that life satisfaction correlated negatively with rumination, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Positive affect presented similar but slightly smaller negative correlations with these variables, while negative affect presented higher correlations with rumination, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. These findings provide evidence that subjective well-being components may constitute important predictors of psychopathological symptomatology after a disaster and may be helpful to plan clinical interventions. <![CDATA[An application of item response theory to psychological test development]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103114&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Item response theory (IRT) has become a popular methodological framework for modeling response data from assessments in education and health; however, its use is not widespread among psychologists. This paper aims to provide a didactic application of IRT and to highlight some of these advantages for psychological test development. IRT was applied to two scales (a positive and a negative affect scale) of a self-report test. Respondents were 853 university students (57 % women) between the ages of 17 and 35 and who answered the scales. IRT analyses revealed that the positive affect scale has items with moderate discrimination and are measuring respondents below the average score more effectively. The negative affect scale also presented items with moderate discrimination and are evaluating respondents across the trait continuum; however, with much less precision. Some features of IRT are used to show how such results can improve the measurement of the scales. The authors illustrate and emphasize how knowledge of the features of IRT may allow test makers to refine and increase the validity and reliability of other psychological measures. <![CDATA[University student’s engagement: development of the University Student Engagement Inventory (USEI)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Student engagement is a key factor in academic achievement and degree completion, though there is much debate about the operationalization and dimensionality of this construct. The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an psycho-educational oriented measure – the University Student Engagement Inventory (USEI). This measure draws on the conceptualization of engagement as a multidimensional construct, including cognitive, behavioural and emotional engagement. Participants were 609 Portuguese University students (67 % female) majoring in Social Sciences, Biological Sciences or Engineering and Exact Sciences. The content, construct and predictive validity, and reliability of the USEI were tested. The validated USEI was composed of 15 items, and supported the tri-factorial structure of student engagement. We documented evidence of adequate reliability, factorial, convergent and discriminant validities. USEI’s concurrent validity, with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Survey, and the predictive validity for self-reported academic achievement and intention to dropout from school were also observed. <![CDATA[Projective aspects on cognitive performance: distortions in emotional perception correlate with personality]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103116&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Several approaches in psychology converge with the concept that individual characteristics may interfere with the perception and interpretation of the world. We hypothesized that such phenomenon could be identified in instruments that were not only projective techniques. The research’s goal was to study perceptive distortions in a cognitive test and their relations with personality instruments. Responses from 222 participants in the Computerized Test of Primary Emotions Perception (PEP) were rated in distortion scores, which related to perceiving emotions that were not present. We used Spearman correlations between these scores and the Rorschach Inkblot test, Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory, and tasks of Verbal and Abstract Reasoning. Results showed that the distortions were not related to intellectual abilities. Distortions of joy were associated with greater interest in interpersonal contact; love with positive view of the interactions and need for attention; fear with concerns about aggressiveness and autonomy; sadness with lower perception of damaged objects; disgust with feelings of loneliness; and anger with criticism avoidance, distrust, feelings of loneliness, and aggressive behaviour. The results support the proposal that altered perception of reality is related to affective or personality characteristics. <![CDATA[A short version of the questionnaire of metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) in Portuguese]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103117&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a short version of the Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire (MIA) in Brazilian Portuguese. The original MIA is an instrument in english composed by 108 items, divided into seven dimensions of metamemory (Strategy, Task, Capacity, Change, Anxiety, Achievement and Locus). Despite of being widely used, the extension of the instrument makes its application impractical in many contexts, reinforcing the need for a short version. A total of 472 participants answered the original full version of the MIA. First, Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses revealed that nine items of the instrument could be excluded due to poor infit and outfit values. After exploratory factor analyses, the 99 items left were judged by five experts that chose the most appropriate items following previously established criteria (factor loading, repetitiveness, bad writing, and temporal/cultural inadequacy). A 39-items version (MIAr) was obtained, with the same factorial structure of the original MIA. The MIAr demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency indexes, as well as evidences of convergent validity and validity based on the response process. The results revealed that the MIAr achieved good psychometric properties, serving as a more parsimonious and practical option for metamemory assessment. <![CDATA[An application of the Rasch model to reading comprehension measurement]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103118&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract An effective reading comprehension measurement demands robust psychometric tools that allow teachers and researchers to evaluate the educational practices and track changes in students’ performance. In this study, we illustrate how Rasch model can be used to attend such demands and improve reading comprehension measurement. We discuss the construction of two reading comprehension tests: TRC-n, with narrative texts, and TRC-e, with expository texts. Three vertically scaled forms were generated for each test (TRC-n-2, TRC-n-3, TRC-n-4; TRC-e-2, TRC-e-3 and TRC-e-4), each meant to assess Portuguese students in second, third and fourth grade of elementary school. The tests were constructed according to a nonequivalent groups with anchor test design and data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The results provided evidence for good psychometric qualities for each test form, including unidimensionality and local independence and adequate reliability. A critical view of this study and future researches are discussed. <![CDATA[Development of the Arithmetic Subtest of the School Achievement Test-Second Edition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The School Achievement Test (Teste de Desempenho Escolar, TDE) has been widely used in clinical and educational contexts for the past 22 years. Arithmetic disorders are frequent among children and teenagers, requiring new and updated tasks to assess as accurately as possible school achievement. The last decade has witnessed a growing recognition of the need for significant changes in educational assessment practices. Evidence provided by item response theory (IRT) enabled the link of more detailed information improving assessment quality. The aim of this study was to develop a revised and completely updated version of the Arithmetic Subtest for the School Achievement Test-Second Edition (Teste de Desempenho Escolar-Segunda Edição, TDE-II). To this end, two studies were conducted. The first study focused on item and test construction, while the second study assessed the preliminary version of the instrument. The sample consisted of 302 students in grades 1 through 9 recruited from public and private schools. Factor analysis revealed two factors which explained 74 % of the variance in the data. Both dimensions were closely related to item complexity and difficulty. The subtest was therefore divided into two versions: one for students in grades 1 through 5 and the other for those in grades 6 through 9. Both versions were analyzed based on IRT models, which suggested that the items provided a comprehensive measure of the latent trait. The results provided satisfactory evidence of internal structure and reliability. Results indicated that the Arithmetic Subtest of the TDE-II has adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of arithmetic skills in primary education. Interpretation based on IRT analyses can be helpful for future studies about math education, discriminating even better between learning difficulty and typical groups, with the data to be the basis of math cognition stimulation programs. <![CDATA[Authentic Leadership Questionnaire: invariance between samples of Brazilian and Portuguese employees]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000103120&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) is used to assess authentic leadership (AL). Although ALQ is often used in empirical research, cross-cultural studies with this measure are scarce. Aiming to contribute to filling this gap, this study assesses the invariance of the ALQ measure between samples of Brazilian (N= 1019) and Portuguese (N= 842) employees. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and the results showed the invariance of the first- and second-order factor models between the Brazilian and Portuguese samples. The results are discussed considering their cultural setting, with the study’s limitations and future research directions being pointed out. <![CDATA[Contextual factors related to chronic condition in portuguese adolescents: highlights from the HBSC/WHO study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000104101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Adolescence’s changes may become more pronounced when living with a chronic condition (CC). This study aims to examined the differences in satisfaction with family life, perception of school competence and “pressure with homework” of Portuguese adolescents’ 1) living with CC; 2) how living with CC affects school participation; taking into account age, gender and family socioeconomic status (SES). Five thousand fifty Portuguese adolescents (mean age 14 ± 1.85) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC/WHO) were included. Results showed increased vulnerability in adolescents living with CC, presenting a lower satisfaction with family life and poor school outcomes. Younger boys, having a higher SES and not having CC are significantly associated with satisfaction with family life. Older girls, having a lower SES and living with CC were associated with more stress related to school work. Future interventions should include these features combined with ‘listening’ to adolescents and their needs, allowing their participation in the promotion of personal health. <![CDATA[Associations between clinical and sociodemographic data and patterns of communication in pediatric oncology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000104102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Pediatric communication directly contributes to treatment adherence, fewer symptoms, better clinical responses, healthier treatment adaptation and management of psychosocial issues. This study aimed to evaluate associations between the clinical and sociodemographic data of caregivers and children and the communicative patterns of pediatricians. Three oncohematology physicians and 44 child-caregiver dyads took part, with audio recording of 146 medical consultations. The physicians interacted more often with older children, offering more guidance, clarifying doubts, and asking for information. The number of questions from children and caregivers was positively correlated with the physician’s communicative behaviors. However, there was no association between the age of the children and the number of doubts of the patients. The diagnosis, treatment time, family income, marital status and caregiver’s level of education were associated with the amount of interaction provided by physicians to the children and caregivers. This study offers subsides relevant to psychosocial interventions that may improve communication in pediatric oncohematology settings. <![CDATA[Frailty and depressive symptoms in older adults: data from the FIBRA study - UNICAMP]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000104103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The relationship between the presence of depression, as measured by total score on the GDS-15 scale, and both pre-frailty and frailty status in community-dwelling elderly was determined. Two thousand four hundred and two elderly residents from seven Brazilian cities (M = 72.3 years, SD = 5.5; 66 % female) were evaluated according to the five criteria comprising the frailty phenotype. Participants answered a self-report inventory of diseases, of performance on advanced and instrumental activities of daily living, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The number and types of depressive symptoms were found to be higher among frail and pre-frail elderly. Thus, besides variability in depression prevalence among the frailty profiles there were also characteristic depressive symptoms for each profile of the syndrome. <![CDATA[Well-being and health in adolescents with disabilities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000104104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Several studies have indicated that adolescents with disabilities are more dissatisfied with their quality-of-life and have more complaints regarding their health in comparison to their nondisabled peers. Objective In this study the authors investigated the self-ratings of health and its relationship to life satisfaction in students with disabilities. In addition, similarities and differences between students with and without disabilities regarding their self-ratings of health, life satisfaction, and psychological and physical symptoms were analyzed. Method The sample included 213 students with disabilities (M = 14.12 years old; SD= 1.97; N= 213) and a control group of 242 students without disabilities (M = 14.15 years old; SD= 1.97; N= 242). Participants completed a questionnaire from the HBSC study which was administered in the classroom. Results The results showed that sudents with disabilities who report a better health self-rating were happier and more satisfied with their lives. Comparison between groups showed that students with disabilities presented more symptoms and lower health perception than their nondisabled peers. Conclusions The findings from this study reinforce the need for interventions empowering adolescents with disabilities to better manage their health. More research is needed to replicate these results between different types of disabilities. <![CDATA[Causal attribution among women with breast cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000104105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis. <![CDATA[The digital memory game: an assistive technology resource evaluated by children with cerebral palsy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The activities of daily living are routine self-maintenance tasks. Children with cerebral palsy can have difficulties, which can vary according to their level of motor impairment, in the performance of functional activities such as feeding and dressing themselves. The use of digital memory gaming can be a play activity and a technological resource that stimulates cognitive skills and contributes to the development of persons with disabilities. The objective of this article is to analyze the usability and effectiveness of a digital memory game for activities of daily living with children with cerebral palsy. Two children with cerebral palsy, one aged 5 and the other aged 7, participated in the investigation. The results obtained in the usability analysis are satisfactory because there were no major problems with the interface and the time available for the game and the rules presented were observed. The results also reveal the effectiveness of digital memory gaming for the recognition of objects and the activities of daily life. The importance of digital memory gaming for children with cerebral palsy is discussed. <![CDATA[Patterns of eye movement in matching-to-sample tasks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present study evaluated whether during a matching-to-sample procedure (MTS), the time spent observing stimuli is related to the establishment of selection or rejection controlling relationships in human participants. It also evaluated whether different response topographies (i.e., participants using the keyboard or mouse) would influence the duration of eye fixations. Ten college students participated. The procedure established conditional relationships among six sets of abstract stimuli. Five participants selected the comparison stimuli using a computer mouse and five used a keyboard. An eye-scan device recorded eye movements throughout the training procedure. After participants completed training, probes verified whether the conditional relationships learned were controlled by selection (e.g., if A1, select B1), by rejection (e.g., if A1, reject B2), or both. All participants displayed a similar pattern of stimuli observation. Time spent observing the sample stimulus (e.g., A1) was longer than observing the comparison stimuli (e.g., B1 and B2). Time spent observing S+ (positive stimuli; e.g., B1) was longer than observing S- (negative stimuli; e.g., B2). Duration of eye fixation was not related to selection or rejection controlling relationships, but different response topographies appeared to modulate the amount of time spent observing stimuli. <![CDATA[The incidental binding of color and shape is insensitive to the perceptual load]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The binding of information in visual short-term memory may occur incidentally when irrelevant information for the task at hand is stored together with relevant information. We investigated the process of the incidental conjunction of color and shape (Exp1) and its potential association with the selection of relevant information to the memory task (Exp2). The results in Exp1 show that color and shape are incidentally and asymmetrically conjugated: color interferes with the recognition of shape; however, shape does not interfere with the recognition of color. In Exp2, we investigated whether an increase in perceptual load would eliminate the processing of irrelevant information. The results of this experiment show that even with a high perceptual load, the incidental conjunction is not affected, and color remains to interfere with shape recognition, suggesting that the incidental conjunction is an automatic process. <![CDATA[Event centrality in trauma and PTSD: relations between event relevance and posttraumatic symptoms]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Recent investigations propose that cognitive characteristics of autobiographical memory significantly interact with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). A traumatic event becoming more or less central in a person’s identity and life story might influence development of the disorder. Studies show high correlations between event centrality (EC) and PTSD. Participated in this study 68 treatment-seeking individuals referred to a specialized service for suspected trauma-related disorder: 39 matched criteria for PTSD and 29 were exposed to trauma without PTSD. Our aims were to explore how the groups differ regarding EC, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD symptom severity, and peritraumatic dissociative experience; and how distinctively EC interacts with the measures in each group. The PTSD group had higher scores in all variables but dissociation. EC correlated with overall PTSD symptoms only in the PTSD group and with dissociation only in the no-PTSD group. Findings support a model emphasizing the role of memory processes in PTSD. People exposed to trauma who developed PTSD had the memory of the traumatic experience more intensively governing their sense of self and thus eliciting more negative cognitive reactions. As EC facilitates recollection of the traumatic event, it could also mediate a semantization process that reinforces and increases posttraumatic symptoms. <![CDATA[Right frontal stroke: extra-frontal lesions, executive functioning and impulsive behaviour]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate executive functioning (EF) and impulsiveness in three groups of people aged 30 to 79 years: post-frontal stroke (n= 13) and post-extra-frontal chronic stroke of the right hemisphere (n= 31) and control (n= 38). The years of education varied between the groups was as follows, frontal lesion group:M= 12 (SD= 6.11); extra-frontal lesion group: M = 9.06 (SD = 4.94); and control: M= 9.61 (SD= 4.24) years. The following instruments were used: Behavioural Assessment Dysexecutive Syndrome, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT), Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Impulsivity Evaluation Scale, Delay Descounting Task and Go/No-Go Task. We found differences in EF between the extra-frontal lesion group and the control group with respect to cognitive flexibility (p= .018); number of WCST trials (p= .018); WCST perseverative errors (p= .014) and omission by impulsivity errors on the go/no-go task for 250 ms (p= .008) and 1750 ms trials (p= .006). The frontal lesion group made more errors of omission than the control group in the 1750 ms go/no-go trials (p= .006). These results suggest that extra-frontal lesions impair EF by influencing attentional impulsivity. <![CDATA[Effects of chronic alcoholism in the sensitivity to luminance contrast in vertical sinusoidal gratings]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105106&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to measure visual contrast sensitivity (CS) of luminance using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree of visual angle in chronic alcoholics in abstinence period. The participants were 20 volunteers (26–59 years of age) divided into two groups: the study group (SG) consisted of 10 volunteers with a clinical history of chronic alcoholism abstinence and the control group (CG) consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. Each group had five female and five male participants. All participants had normal or corrected visual acuity and were free of identifiable diseases. The psychophysical method of forced choice between two temporal alternatives (2AFC) was used to measure visual CS of luminance of 41.2 cd/m2. The results showed significant differences between groups for all spatial frequencies tested (p&lt; 0.001). These results suggest alterations in the visual perception related to chronic alcohol consumption even after years of abstinence. <![CDATA[Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105107&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI) and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”), the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 %) demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension. <![CDATA[Inhibitory and attentional control: the interaction between “professional activity” and bilingualism]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study investigates the consequences of bilingualism on inhibitory and attentional control. Findings garnered from studies about the so-called bilingual advantage in such executive functions are still controversial. This investigation tested 40 (20 monolinguals and 20 bilinguals) highly-educated middle-aged (ranging from 36–58 years old) businesspeople in two nonverbal cognitive tasks, the Simon task and the Attentional Network Task (ANT). No significant statistical differences were found in the interference effect between the groups, nor was there a bilingual advantage in any of the three attentional networks. The results suggest that variables such as level of education and professional activity might compete with the bilingual advantage, acting as possible research confounds. <![CDATA[Games as a measure of reading and writing generalization after computerized teaching of reading skills]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000105109&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Behavior Analysis is usually accused of not being able to account for the generalization of verbal behavior that is present in linguistically competent individuals. However, several behavior analytic studies investigate this theme, and gamification has been seen as a useful way to study generalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reading and writing generalization in games, after these behaviors were taught through the program Learning to Read in Small Steps. Participants were four children between 7 and 12 years old who had reading and writing deficits. The experimental design was a pre-posttest design that encompassed five phases. Performance in probes suggests generalization of reading and writing skills to new activities (games) and responses. This study represents a small step in a systematic understanding of how games can be used to assess behavior change. <![CDATA[Influence of family socioeconomic status on IQ, language, memory and executive functions of Brazilian children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000106101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES) and parental education on non-verbal IQ and on the processing of oral and written language, working memory, verbal memory and executive functions in children from different age ranges. A total of 419 Brazilian children aged 6–12 years old, attending public and private schools from Porto Alegre, RS participated in the study. Structural equation analyzes revealed that in the general model (for all ages), the SES contributed to cognitive performance – IQ, verbal memory, working memory, oral and written language and executive functions (28, 19, 36, 28 and 25 %, respectively). SES had stronger effects on younger children (up to nine years old), in most cognitive tasks examined. Probably, after this age, a combination of factors such as schooling, living in other social environments, among others, may mitigate the effects of family socioeconomic status. <![CDATA[The influence of personal characteristics and social support regarding pacifier introduction among preterm infants]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000106102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The study evaluated mothers of preterm infants who were discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with regard to their personal characteristics and those of their infants as well as the role that social support plays in deciding whether to introduce a pacifier during the first two years of the infant’s life. This longitudinal study was based on the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. The mothers were interviewed at the NICU and when their infants were 6, 12, 18, and 24 months old. The participants were grouped according to whether the infants used a pacifier (Group-A) or not (Group-B). The results showed that calm/peaceful maternal characteristics were more frequent in Group-A (75 %), and nervous/agitated/irritated in Group-B (61.5 %; p= 0.041). Calm/easy-to-care/independent infant characteristics prevailed in Group-A (55 %), whereas agitated/messy/stubborn/aggressive characteristics did so in Group-B (84.6 %; p= 0.026). These latter traits were also associated with multiple offers for a pacifier (p= 0.006). Group-A reported one or two people in their social support network (77.8 %), whereas Group-B reported three to seven people (66.7 %; p= 0.001). In conclusion, calm/peaceful and calm/easy-to-care/independent characteristics predominated in the mothers and infants of Group-A; these infant traits were associated with easier pacifier acceptance. The extent of social support was significantly smaller in Group-A. <![CDATA[Process of adoption communication openness in adoptive families: adopters’ perspective]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000106103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Communication about adoption is a family interaction process which is more than the simple exchange of information. Adoption communication can be characterized in terms of the level of openness of family conversations regarding the child’s past and the degree of the family’s adoption social disclosure. The objective of this study is to explore the process of adoption communication openness in Portuguese adoptive families by identifying the impact of variables related to the adoption process, the adoptive parenting and the adoptee. One hundred twenty five parents of children aged 3 to 15, who were adopted on average 4 years ago, participated in this study. Data was collected during home visits using the Parents Adoption Process Interview. A cluster analysis identified three different groups of families according to the level of adoption communication openness within the family and outside. The findings also showed that the process of the adoption communication openness started when parents decided to adopt, developed in parent-child interaction and was susceptible to change under professional intervention. The relevance of training given to prospective adopters and of professional practice based on scientific evidence is highlighted. <![CDATA[Locus of control in maltreated children: the impact of attachment and cumulative trauma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000106104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Up until now research studies carried out on abused children have rarely taken in consideration the impact of maltreatment on the locus of control; furthermore results concerning the distribution of attachment internal models in this population are inconclusive. In addition, no study has ever taken in consideration the differential role of attachment and time of exposure to stress in the formation of attributive styles. This research work involved 60 maltreated children and 100 controls with the purpose of evaluating the associations between their attachment and age as for their locus of control. Internal Working Models were assessed by SAT and locus of control by the Nowicki-Strickland Scale. Results highlight mainly external locus of control and disorganized and avoidant IWMs in abused children. Furthermore, age was more predictive than attachment for locus of control. By contrast, in the control group at both age taken in consideration attachment was predictive of locus of control. Results are discussed in terms of problematic symptoms associated to maltreatment. <![CDATA[What is popular? Distinguishing bullying and aggression as status correlates within specific peer normative contexts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722016000106105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study tested social status correlates of aggression and bullying and how these are influenced by peer groups’ normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior among 1165 fourth, fifth and sixth graders in Chile. Associations between aggression and popularity (positive) and social preference (negative) were confirmed, whereas bullying was negatively associated with both dimensions. Normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior were assessed at the group level, while social status was assessed at the classroom level through peer nominations. Hierarchical Linear Analyses showed that in groups with a higher value associated with aggression, classmates rated aggressive peers as less popular but also less disliked. The status correlates of bullying remained unaffected by peer normative beliefs. The discussion focuses on the social function of aggression as compared to the social sanction associated with bullying, and on the specificity of these associations at different layers of the social ecology.