Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica]]> vol. 30 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Predictors of happiness among retired from urban and rural areas in Brazil]]> Abstract This study compared differences in degree of happiness, social support, activities performed, and health and economic situation among retirees from urban and rural areas in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. The influences of these predictors over individuals’ level of happiness were also analyzed. We included 279 retired individuals living in Abre Campo (a municipality with a population fewer than 20,000 inhabitants, which is considered a rural area) and in Belo Horizonte (a municipality with a population of almost 2.5 million inhabitants, which is considered an urban area). Participants responded to a questionnaire that included scales of happiness, social support, diversity of activities, and issues about satisfaction with health and economic situation. Retirees from the urban area had a higher happiness level than retirees from the rural area (β= 0.16). The most important predictors of happiness were health (β= 0.42), social support (β= 0.26), and economic situation (β= 0.15), but no moderation effects of urban and rural areas were found. Our findings support the implementation of actions to offer financial planning before retirement and to stimulate social support and health promotion for retirees, particularly given the importance of these factors in perception of happiness. <![CDATA[Homework self-regulation strategies: a gender and educational-level invariance analysis]]> Abstract This study investigates the measurement invariance as a function of gender and educational level of the Homework Behavior Questionnaire (Ktpc), an instrument developed to assess students’ homework self-regulation strategies. A sample of 1400 elementary and middle school students was used. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the theoretical model composed of three dimensions: planning, execution and evaluation of the homework completion. The results also provided evidence for the existence of metric invariance and partial scalar measurement invariance across boys and girls and across the elementary school and the middle school students. The reliability of the scores in the three dimensions was high. Girls obtained higher scores than boys in planning, execution and evaluation. Middle school students had lower scores in planning compared to the elementary school students. These findings are discussed, and their implications for practice are highlighted. <![CDATA[Brazilian study of adaptation and psychometric properties of the Coping Health Inventory for Parents]]> Abstract The Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) evaluates coping patterns of parents of chronically ill children and assesses different coping strategies using three subscales. This study aimed to translate and transculturally adapt the CHIP for a Brazilian sample and investigate the preliminary psychometrics of the scale. Rating scale Rasch analysis was performed on CHIP responses, and the psychometric performance of each of the three subscales was tested. Two hundred twenty parents of individuals with health problems participated in the study, answering a sociodemographic questionnaire—the Brazilian version of the CHIP—and Folkman and Lazarus’s coping questionnaire. All items exhibited good fit to the measurement model, although response categories were not used as intended and little variability on person parameter estimates was obtained. These preliminary results suggested that each construct being measured by the three subscales should be treated separately, corroborating the theoretical model of the original instrument. Suggestions to address the psychometric limitations of the instrument were made in order to improve measurement precision. <![CDATA[Group cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD]]> Abstract The present study analyzed the use of group CBT protocol to treat ADHD by comparing two types of treatment, unimodal (medication only) and multimodal (medication combined with CBT), in terms of their effects on cognitive and behavioral domains, social skills, and type of treatment effect by ADHD subtype. Participants were 60 children with ADHD, subtypes inattentive and combined, aged 7 to 14, 48 boys. Combined treatment included 20 CBT sessions while all children were given Ritalin LA® 20 mg. Cognitive and behavioral outcome measures showed no differences between treatment groups. On social skills, multimodal showed more improvement in frequency indicators on empathy, assertiveness, and self-control subscales and in the difficulty on assertiveness and self-control subscales. Using a group CBT protocol for multimodal ADHD treatment may improve patient adherence and ADHD peripheral symptoms. <![CDATA[Translation and validation of the Mind-Wandering Test for Spanish adolescents]]> Abstract Background Working memory capacity and fluent intelligence influence cognitive capacity as a predictive value of success. In line with this, one matter appears, that of mind wandering, which partly explains the variability in the results obtained from the subjects who do these tests. A recently developed measure to evaluate this phenomenon is the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ). Objective The objective of this work was to translate into Spanish the MWQ for its use with adolescents and to validate it and to analyze its relation with these values: self-esteem, dispositional mindfulness, satisfaction with life, happiness, and positive and negative affects. Methods A sample of 543 secondary students: 270 males (49.72%) and 273 females (50.28%) were used, who completed the questionnaire, and also did tests of self-esteem, dispositional mindfulness, satisfaction with life, happiness, and positive and negative effects. The transcultural adaptation process followed these steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of translations by a panel of judges, and testing the final version. Results Validity analyses were done of the construct (% explained variance = 52.1), and internal consistency was high (α = .766). The coefficients of correlation with the self-esteem, MASS, satisfaction with life, happiness, and affects scales confirmed the questionnaire’s validity, and a multiple regression analysis (R 2= 34.1; model F= 24.19. p&lt; 0.001) was run. Conclusions The Spanish version of the questionnaire obtained good reliability coefficients and its factorial structure reliably replicated that obtained by the original measure. The results indicate that the Spanish version of the MWQ is a suitably valid measure to evaluate the mind-wandering phenomenon. <![CDATA[A validation study of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children]]> Abstract Introduction Recent studies on the life satisfaction in children and young people have investigated its association with vulnerability, discrimination, the individual’s school environment and network of relationships, and mental health. The growing interest in the area demands instruments with good psychometric properties. Aim The aim of this study is to study the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children (MLSS-C). Method The participants were 379 elementary schoolchildren aged 9 to 14 (M= 10.5 years), enrolled in public schools in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The instruments used were the MLSS-C, the Self-Description Assessment Questionnaire 1 (SDQ1), the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), and the Childhood Stress Scale (CSS). Two data collections were made, one in the fifth year of elementary school and one in the sixth. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to assess the structural model’s goodness of fit. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability), test-retest reliability and the discriminant, convergent, and divergent validity were also assessed. Results Regarding CFA, after removing items with saturation values below .50, six dimensions proposed by the authors remained, five of them with alpha values above .70. The construct validity was confirmed by finding moderate and positive correlations between life satisfaction and self-concept and social skills (convergent validity) and lower and negative correlation with childhood stress (divergent validity). Conclusion Together, the reported results provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale. It is suggested, therefore, that this scale is suitable for both research and practice with Brazilian schoolchildren. <![CDATA[The Persian adaptation of Baddeley’s 3-min grammatical reasoning test]]> Abstract Baddeley’s grammatical reasoning test is a quick and efficient measure of fluid reasoning which is commonly used in research on cognitive abilities and the impact of stresses and environmental factors on cognitive performance. The test, however, is verbal and can only be used with native speakers of English. In this study, we adapted the test for application in the Persian language using a different pair of verbs and geometrical shapes instead of English letters. The adapted test had high internal consistency and retest reliability estimates. It also had an excellent fit to a one-factor confirmatory factor model and correlated acceptably with other measures of fluid intelligence and participants’ grade point average (GPA). <![CDATA[Harmony in Life Scale - Turkish version: Studies of validity and reliability]]> Abstract This article presents the adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Turkish version of Harmony in Life Scale (Turkish-HiL). The present paper investigates (study 1; N 1 = 253) confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance; (study 2; N 2 = 231) concurrent validity; (study 3; N 3 = 260) convergent and known-group validities; (study 4; N t − t = 50) test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and composite reliabilities of the Turkish-HiL. In study 1, based on a confirmatory factor analysis, results confirmed that unidimensional-factor structure. The results suggested that the model demonstrated a configural and metric invariance across the gender groups. In study 2, Turkish-HiL significantly correlated with measures of satisfaction with life, subjective happiness, positive affect, and negative affect. In study 3, Turkish-HiL was predicted positively by flourishing, conversely, negatively predicted by depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, in study 4, alpha, composite and test-retest reliabilities are acceptable. Overall, the scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily assessing, in Turkish, the harmony in life of the university students. <![CDATA[Psychometric properties of the Brazilian-adapted version of Sport Imagery Questionnaire]]> Abstract Imagery can be defined as the ability to represent and rehearse in the mind behaviors related to a given situation. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire was developed to measure the frequency of imagery use among athletes. The present study aimed to adapt and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of this instrument. Study 1 appraised content validity using five sport scientists as judges to quantify the quality of the adaptation for each item; then the Content Validity Coefficient was calculated. Study 2 had 260 athletes from six types of sport answer the Brazilian questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test factorial validity, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess reliability, and comparisons between groups were used as criterion validity. Study 1 results showed good quality of the adaptation according to the judges. Study 2 showed a 5-factor latent structure which corroborates with the literature. Reliability of the scale was high (α= .91), whereas separately subscales ranged between Motivational General: Arousal (α= .87) and Motivational Specific (α= .94). Regarding group differences, sex showed no significant difference between men and women (p= .55; d= .09) and neither did levels of practice between amateur, semi-professionals and professional athletes (p= .71; f= .07). Types of sports revealed moderate effect size and significantly less imagery practice among synchronized swimming, football and beach volleyball athletes, whereas mixed martial artists showed higher frequency of imagery (p&lt; .05; f= .23). Factor structure, reliability and validity of mixed groups are evidence of a successful cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire to Brazil. <![CDATA[Retirement preparation program: evaluation of results]]> Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the results obtained in the retirement preparation program (RPP) regarding changes in retirement planning behaviors, the meaning of work, and improvement in quality of life. It is a quasi-experimental research, using a pre- and post-test evaluation with a non-equivalent control group, including 82 participants, who were public workers near retirement. Among these, 50 participated in the RPP (experimental group (EG)) and 32 belonged to the control group (CG). All responded to the scale of changes in retirement planning behaviors, the Meaningful Work Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-Brief), as well as a Sociodemographic and Occupational Data Questionnaire. The results showed that in the EG, there was an increase in the socio-occupational investment and in the coherence and expressiveness at work throughout the three periods considered, as well as in the quality of life related to the environment in the assessment conducted after the program. Regarding the comparison between the EG and the CG, differences were verified in the socio-occupational investment and in the social utility of work, and such characteristic was higher in the EG during the follow-up. The relevance of the present study lies in the improvement of intervention alternatives to support health policies, seeking to meet the demands of the aging population. <![CDATA[Scale development: ten main limitations and recommendations to improve future research practices]]> Abstract The scale development process is critical to building knowledge in human and social sciences. The present paper aimed (a) to provide a systematic review of the published literature regarding current practices of the scale development process, (b) to assess the main limitations reported by the authors in these processes, and (c) to provide a set of recommendations for best practices in future scale development research. Papers were selected in September 2015, with the search terms “scale development” and “limitations” from three databases: Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, with no time restriction. We evaluated 105 studies published between 1976 and 2015. The analysis considered the three basic steps in scale development: item generation, theoretical analysis, and psychometric analysis. The study identified ten main types of limitation in these practices reported in the literature: sample characteristic limitations, methodological limitations, psychometric limitations, qualitative research limitations, missing data, social desirability bias, item limitations, brevity of the scale, difficulty controlling all variables, and lack of manual instructions. Considering these results, various studies analyzed in this review clearly identified methodological weaknesses in the scale development process (e.g., smaller sample sizes in psychometric analysis), but only a few researchers recognized and recorded these limitations. We hope that a systematic knowledge of the difficulties usually reported in scale development will help future researchers to recognize their own limitations and especially to make the most appropriate choices among different conceptions and methodological strategies. <![CDATA[Drug use prevention projects in schools in Vitória, Brazil: quality analysis and improvement proposals]]> Abstract Adolescents living in vulnerable regions are more exposed to risk factors for drug use. The prevention of such use in school is a public policy that needs evaluation. Based on technical criteria and derived from a mixed research, this article analyses the quality of school-based prevention of drug use in Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and proposes improvements. A checklist of quality elements was completed with data from 16 projects proposed by 99 teachers from public schools. In 10 projects (62.5%), the approximate quality index was above 0.50. The majority of projects fulfilled the requirement of theoretical foundation (81.25%) and some of the methodological (93.75%), design (75%) and implementation (62%) requirements. Other requirements were absent: the majority were not designed by the whole school community (87.5%), and the participation of the family (62.5%) or the students as mediators (62.5%) was not considered. In general, contents of life skills (87.5%), positive relationships and alternative activities to drug use (56.25%) were not included. Activities for reinforcing the content were not described in any of the projects, and evaluation activities were described in only a few (31.25%). Many projects did not describe the inclusion of the project in the school curriculum (62.5%). Although, considering all items of effectiveness, regardless of their weight, more than half of the projects had an above average quality. The present items provide quality to the projects, whereas absent items indicate shortcomings to be improved using some of the measures described in this study. <![CDATA[Mothers’ perceptions of their own diets and the diets of their children at 2–3 years of age]]> Abstract This is a cross-sectional analysis of a follow-up study to examine the perceptions of mothers treated at public health centers, regarding their own diets and the diets of their children aged 2–3. Among the 464 participants, 57% (n= 267) reported perceiving their own diets as unhealthy while 72% (n= 334) perceiving their children’s diets as healthy. The mothers’ perceptions of their own diets as healthy were associated with less maternal schooling and having received health care from professionals who had received special training (p&lt; 0.05). The mothers’ perceptions of their children’s diets as healthy were associated with more maternal schooling (p&lt; 0.05). This difference between the mothers’ perceptions of their own diets and those of their children reinforce the importance of considering maternal beliefs and attitudes in infant nutritional intervention programs. <![CDATA[Analysis of resilience and sexual behavior in persons with HIV infection]]> Abstract The main objective of this study was to evaluate ex post facto resilience in persons with HIV infection and its relationship to socio-demographic and sexual behavior variables. Participants included 159 persons with HIV infection, of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 years. Fifty-one percent of patients were infected through homosexual means. Sixty-seven percent were in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Assessment instruments used were the following: a questionnaire on socio-demographic data and sexual behavior and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The evaluation was individual, voluntary, and anonymous. The results showed that 49.05% of patients had average resilience, 27.68% had high resilience, and 23.37% had low resilience. They found that heterosexual patients infected with HIV, diagnosed between 1985 and 1990 (23 and 28 years of diagnosis) and those who had disclosed their HIV status to more than 30 people, had greater resilience than homosexual patients, diagnosed between 1996 and 2000 (13 and 17 years of diagnosis) and those who had disclosed their HIV status to 1–5 people. Finally, resilience was not a predictor of sexual risk factor. It is suggested that health interventions take into account the resilience and psychological variables that may be beneficial to improve coping with the disease. <![CDATA[Achievement goals and life satisfaction: the mediating role of perception of successful agency and the moderating role of emotion reappraisal]]> Abstract Achievement goals are cognitive representations that guide behavior to a competence-related future end state. Existing theories and empirical findings suggest that achievement goals are potentially related to life satisfaction. However, the relationship between achievement goals and life satisfaction remains relatively unexplored in the psychology literature. In this study, we examined how, why, and when achievement goals affect life satisfaction using original survey data from China. The results suggest that achievement goals were positively related to life satisfaction (R2 = .20, 90% CI [.11, .26]), that the perception of successful agency fully mediated the relationship between achievement goals and life satisfaction (R2 = .22, 90% CI [.12, .27]), and that emotion reappraisal moderated the relationship between achievement goals and life satisfaction (R2 = .34, 90% CI [.23, .39]). Our study indicates that achievement goals have a positive influence on life satisfaction and help to elucidate the mechanism and boundary condition of this influence. <![CDATA[Brief intervention for stress management and change in illness perception among hypertensive and normotensive workers: pilot study and protocol]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the effects of a pilot intervention on perceived stress, knowledge about hypertension, and illness perception among hypertensive and normotensive workers. The intervention consisted of two group sessions performed in the workplace aiming to reduce stress, increase knowledge about hypertension, and explore the effect on illness perception. The sessions included clinical aspects of systemic arterial hypertension, illness perception and health behavior, and strategies for stress management. Workers from a petrochemical industry (19 hypertensive and 14 normotensive) participated in the study by answering a biosociodemographic questionnaire, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a quiz with questions about hypertension. The measurements were collected at an initial meeting to gather the participants and 90 days after the intervention. There was a significant reduction in the perceived stress levels of both groups, in addition to an increase in the perception of personal control and illness coherence. Normotensive workers also increased their knowledge about hypertension, while hypertensive patients increased the perception that treatment could control the illness. In conclusion, the pilot intervention generated positive effects and can be considered a strategy of illness prevention for normotensive workers and control for hypertensive patients. <![CDATA[Planning theory- and evidence-based behavior change interventions: a conceptual review of the intervention mapping protocol]]> Abstract This paper discusses the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol for planning theory- and evidence-based behavior change interventions. IM has been developed in the field of health promotion in 1998 and has mostly been applied in that field, but applications in other fields are emerging. IM can be used for any intervention that involves changing behavior. The paper discusses the protocol and its basic issues and presents in-depth examples of its use in- and outside the health promotion field: Empowerment, return to work, safety interventions, implementation, energy conservation, and academic performance. IM is characterized by three perspectives: a social ecological approach, participation of all stakeholders, and the use of theories and evidence. Through a series of six iterative steps - from needs assessment to implementation and evaluation - which are each broken down into specific tasks, correct application of the protocol is meant to produce behavior change interventions that fit into the local context and that have the best chances of effectiveness. IM helps intervention planners develop the best possible interventions targeting health behaviors, but also targeting behaviors related to other societal issues, such as environmental concerns, safety and discrimination. <![CDATA[Morphological priming development in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children]]> Abstract Many studies have shown that, while reading, the brain works a sort of decomposing process of words, reducing them to its morphemes. Moreover, many studies have shown that morphological awareness, which is the ability to reflect upon the structure of words, may contribute to reading in Brazilian Portuguese. The present study investigated morphological priming in children and evaluated the correlation between morphological priming and morphological awareness scores. One hundred and forty-one children took part in this research: 35 second graders, 33 third graders, 33 fourth graders, and 40 fifth graders. They performed a lexical decision task (LDT) and morphological awareness task. Results indicate that as early as the second grade, children show some degree of morphological priming effects. In addition, children from the fifth grade presented morphological priming effects similar to those of a skilled reader. No correlations between morphological awareness scores and morphological priming effects were found. <![CDATA[A note on motor skill acquisition in mild and moderate Down syndrome individuals]]> Abstract This study investigated the acquisition of a serial motor skill in individuals with Down syndrome with two levels of handicap, mild group (mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 2.3, 7 individuals) and moderate group (mean age = 15.2 years, SD = 3.2, 7 individuals). The task involved single-arm sequential movements to five. The measures to access performance were overall sequence error, reaction time, and total movement time. To evaluate action program, formation variability of sequencing and relative timing variability were considered. Although there was no clear practice effect, the results showed that the level of handicap led to different strategies to plan and control the actions. The moderate group presented a less stable action program expressed in the variability in sequencing and timing. Their longer reaction times also suggest a heavy demand on central processing in accord with the one-target advantage hypothesis and also due to memory deficits to select and plan movements. <![CDATA[Relations between mental workload and decision-making in an organizational setting]]> Asbtract Background The complexity of current organizations implies a potential overload for workers. For this reason, it is of interest to study the effects that mental workload has on the performance of complex tasks in professional settings. Objective The objective of this study is to empirically analyze the relation between the quality of decision-making, on the one hand, and the expected and real mental workload, on the other. Methods The study uses an ex post facto prospective design with a sample of 176 professionals from a higher education organization. Expected mental workload (Pre-Task WL) and real mental workload (Post-Task WL) were measured with the unweighted NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire; difference between real WL and expected WL (Differential WL) was also calculated; quality of decision-making was measured by means of the Decision-Making Questionnaire. Results General quality of decision-making and Pre-Task WL relation is compatible with an inverted U pattern, with slight variations depending on the specific dimension of decision-making that is considered. There were no verifiable relations between Post-Task WL and decision-making. The subjects whose expected WL matched the real WL showed worse quality in decision-making than subjects with high or low Differential WL. Conclusions The relations between mental workload and decision-making reveal a complex pattern, with evidence of nonlinear relations. <![CDATA[Learning by exclusion in individuals with autism and Down syndrome]]> Abstract This study aimed to investigate the number of exclusion trials necessary for teaching auditory-visual relationships to individuals with autism and Down syndrome. Study participants were seven individuals with autism and a history of early behavioral intervention (EI), four adults with autism without a history of early behavioral intervention (NI), and three adults with Down syndrome. A set of procedures was used for teaching the auditory-visual matching to sample, and naming responses of the new stimuli were tested. For the individuals with autism and EI and for the individuals with Down syndrome, the required number of repetitions was stable and concentrated in the minimum programmed by the procedure (two repetitions). However, the procedure was not effective for teaching new conditional relationships for the adults with autism and NI. The results indicate that the procedure can constitute an important teaching technology; however, its efficacy appears to vary depending on the educational profile of the participant. <![CDATA[How disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings]]> Abstract We used the virtual hand illusion paradigm to study how sense of agency and sense of (body) ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings. Converging evidence for at least the partial independence of agency and ownership was found. For instance, sense of agency was a better predictor of individual anxiety levels than sense of ownership and males showed stronger effects related to agency—presumably due to gender-specific attribution styles and empathy skills. Moreover, agency and ownership also interacted with emotional events and led to different anxiety levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that the disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events and influenced stress feelings more in threatening situations than awarding ones. <![CDATA[Past and future regret and missed opportunities: an experimental approach on separate evaluation and different time frames]]> Abstract Decisions often imply trade-offs that force people to accept missing an opportunity in the past or in the future. However, it is not fully clear whether a past miss or a future miss elicits more regret. In a direct comparison, previous research had found support for the greater impact of future misses. In an experimental study with 216 participants, we replicated and extended previous research by testing the strength of the future miss in a separate evaluation and with different periods. Results show that, when evaluated separately, future misses caused less regret than past misses. However, future misses made participants change their feelings of regret more intensely than past misses did. Also, regret levels did not decrease when future misses were further away. Our findings support the strength of future misses on regret but also show contrasting effects when evaluated separately. <![CDATA[Cognitive flexibility training intervention among children with autism: a longitudinal study]]> Abstract Autism is defined by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction in multiple contexts as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. There are also reported difficulties in the dynamic activation and modification of cognitive processes in response to changes in tasks’ demands. Such difficulties are believed to be due to poor flexible cognition. This research aimed to assess and intervene in cognitive flexibility in subjects with autism. Ten subjects diagnosed with autism by psychiatrists, aged 5 years to 13 years and 5 months, were assessed in non-verbal intelligence through Raven’s Progressive Matrices in pretest. They were also assessed in cognitive flexibility through Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and in patterns of social interactions, behaviors, and communication through Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). An intervention program of 14 to 21 sessions was established to enhance cognitive flexibility. In posttest, they were assessed in WCST and ADI-R. All measures of cognitive flexibility improved in posttest except for failure to maintain set. Among the measures improved in posttest, perseverative errors and responses improved in posttest with statistical significance as well as categories completed. Total scores on ADI-R were lower in posttest as well as scores on communication abilities. The qualitative improvement showed by the individuals of this research concerning cognitive flexibility and also patterns of restricted behavior, social interaction, and communication abilities suggests that individuals with autism can benefit from the development of strategies for the enhancement of cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, more research is suggested with a larger sample among subjects on the autism spectrum.