Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 33 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of proteins CASPASE 3 and XIAP in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia and chronic alcoholism]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histopathological and ultrastructural changes and expression of proteins related to apoptosis CASPASE 3 and XIAP after experimental induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia (90 minutes) due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery in alcoholism model. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into 5 experimental groups: control group (C); Sham group (S); Ischemic group (I); Alcoholic group (A); and Ischemic and Alcoholized group (I+A): animals submitted to the same treatment of group A and after four weeks were submitted to focal cerebral ischemia during 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion of 48 hours. Were processed for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (for the protein expression of CASPASE -3 and XIAP). Results: Greater histopathological changes were observed in the animals of groups I and I+A in the three areas analyzed. The neuronal loss was higher in the medial striatum region of the animals of groups I and I + A. The protein expression of CASPASE -3 was higher than that of XIAP in the groups I and I + A for both proteins. Conclusion: The expression of XIAP was slightly higher where the histopathological changes and expression of CASPASE -3 was less evident. <![CDATA[Correlations of inhaled NO with the cTnI levels and the plasma clotting factor in rabbits with acute massive pulmonary embolism]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the correlation of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on plasma levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, granule membrane protein 140 (GMP-140) in rabbits with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Thirty apanese white rabbits were divided into 3 groups, thrombus were injected in model group (n = 10), NO were inhalated for 24 h after massive PE in NO group (n = 10), saline were injected in control group (n = 10). The concentrations of vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, GMP-140 and cTnI were tested at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h, Correlation analyses were conducted between cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 by Pearson’s correlation. Results: The concentration of cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 was increased in the model group, compared to control group. In the inhaled group, the concentrations of cTnI, vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140 were reduced compared to model group. There was a positive correlation between cTnI and vWF, GP IIb/IIIa, and GMP-140. Conclusion: Inhaled nitric oxide can lead to a decrease in levels of cardiac troponin I, von Willebrand factor, glycoprotein, and granule membrane protein 140, after an established myocardial damage, provoked by acute massive pulmonary embolism. <![CDATA[Bacterial cellulose to reinforce urethrovesical anastomosis. A translational study]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the cellulosic exopolysaccharide membrane (CEM) as a urethral reinforcement for urethrovesical anastomosis. Methods: Twenty eight rabbits were submitted to urethrovesical anastomosis with or without CEM reinforcement. The animals were divided into 4 groups: C7, CEM7, C14 and CEM14: (C= only anastomosis or CEM = anastomosis + CEM), evaluated after 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. The biointegration and biocompatibility of CEM were evaluated according to stenosis, fistula, urethral wall thickness, urethral epithelium, rate of inflammation and vascularization. Results: Between the two experimental groups, the difference in the number of stenosis or urinary fistula was not statistically significant. The morphometric analysis revealed preservation of urethral lumen, well adhered CEM without extrusion, a controlled inflammatory process and implant vascularization. The urothelium height remained constant over time after CEM reinforcement and the membrane wall was thicker, statistically, after 14 weeks. Conclusion: The absence of extrusion, stenosis or urinary fistula after 14 weeks of urethrovesical anastomosis demonstrates cellulosic exopolysaccharide membrane biocompatibility and biointegration with tendency to a thicker wall. <![CDATA[Prospective clinical assessment of tibial tuberosity advancement for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate clinically dogs that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) six months previously. Methods: Dogs of various breeds, gender, weight, and age that had CCL rupture and underwent TTA for treatment were included in this study. Parapatellar arthrotomy was performed in all patients to assess the joint for a ruptured ligament and meniscal injury before the TTA. The appropriate cage for the TTA was chosen with planning surgery. The surgical procedure was performed according to the literature, using a modified Maquet technique. Six months after surgery, lameness during walking; muscular atrophy; crepitation, cranial drawer and tibial compression tests and quality of life based on owner’s evaluation were assessed. Results: Postoperative complications were observed in only one knee (4.76%), with a surgical site seroma. The mean lameness score at walking was 0.29 (± 0.64). The mean score regarding muscular atrophy was 0.95 (± 1.56). The mean score of the cranial drawer test, in a range from 0 to 5, was 1.52 (± 1.54). The owners rated the dog’s quality of life as excellent in 44%, good in 30%, and moderate in 17%. Conclusion: This clinical study supports the affirmation that patients who undergo TTA for treatment of CCL rupture have an acceptable response. <![CDATA[Comparative safety assessments of the biosimilar APZ001 and Erbitux in pre-clinical animal models]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of Erbitux as well as its biosimilar APZ001 antibody (APZ001) in pre-clinical animal models including mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Methods: We performed analysis of normal behavior activity, autonomic and non-autonomic nervous functions, nervous-muscle functions, nervous excitability and sensorimotor functions on CD-1 mice. Subsequently, we studied that effects of APZ001 and Erbitux on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and kidney in Cynomolgus monkey models and performed local tolerance experiments on New Zealand rabbits. Results: The comparisons between APZ001 and Erbitux showed no significant differences in mice autonomic nervous system, nervous muscle functions, non-autonomic nervous functions, nervous excitability and sensorimotor functions between treated and untreated group (p&gt;0.05). APZ001 and Erbitux showed negative effect on CD-1 mice in the present of pentobarbital sodium anesthesia (p&gt;0.05). Single administrations of high, medium or low doses of APZ001 did not lead to monkey urine volume alterations (p&gt;0.05). In human tissues, APZ001 and Erbitux showed positive signals in endocardium, lung type II alveolar epithelial cell and surrounding vessels, but showed negative results in kidney and liver tissues. No hemolysis phenomenon and serious side-effects in vessels and muscles were observed in rabbits when administrated with APZ001 and Erbitux respectively. Conclusion: The safety comparisons between APZ001 antibody and Erbitux showed that these two antibodies showed highly similarities in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkey animal models in consideration of pharmaceutical effects, indicating APZ001 might be a suitable substitute for Erbitux. <![CDATA[The role of vitamin C in the gene expression of oxidative stress markers in fibroblasts from burn patients]]> Abstract Purpose: To assess the action of vitamin C on the expression of 84 oxidative stress related-genes in cultured skin fibroblasts from burn patients. Methods: Skin samples were obtained from ten burn patients. Human primary fibroblasts were isolated and cultured to be distributed into 2 groups: TF (n = 10, fibroblasts treated with vitamin C) and UF (n = 10, untreated fibroblasts). Gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction array was performed for comparisons between groups. Results: The comparison revealed 10 upregulated genes as follows: arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1), glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3), peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4), phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), and ring finger protein 7 (RNF7). Conclusion: Cultured fibroblasts obtained from burn patients and treated with vitamin C resulted in 10 differentially expressed genes, all overexpressed, with DUOX1, GPX5, GPX2 and PTGS1 being of most interest. <![CDATA[Simulated training of a laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis]]> Abstract Purpose: To develop a model and curriculum for simulated training of an effective and well accepted laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA). Methods: Experimental longitudinal study of quantitative character. The sample consisted of 12 general surgery residents and 6 urology residents (R3). The training consisted of making twelve VUAs on synthetic organs. The training was divided into four sessions and accompanied by an instructor who performed positive feedback. The evaluation of the anastomoses considered the time and the analysis of the operative technique through the global evaluation scale Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Results: Residents showed a reduction in operative time and evolution in the surgical technique statistically significant (p&lt;0.01). The best-rated items were the facilitator positive feedback and the fact that the training was carried out at the teaching hospital premises. Conclusions: The proposed training model was well accepted and proved to be effective in reducing operative time and improving laparoscopic skills. The training should be fractionated (4 sessions in 3 weeks), repetitive (12 anastomoses) and have positive feedback. <![CDATA[Liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. Pathophysiology and new horizons in preconditioning and therapy]]> Abstract It is well known that during hepatic operative procedures, it is often critical that the irrigation is interrupted to avoid possible bleeding, blood transfusions, variable intensities, and their short and long-term consequences. It was believed in the past that the flow interruption should not exceed 20 minutes, which limited the use of this maneuver. However, it has been postulated that ischemia could be maintained for more than 60 minutes in healthy livers. The present paper review includes: 1) A brief introduction to justify the rationale of the review design; 2) Aspects of the pathophysiology of the three stages of the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury; 3) The innate and acquired immunity; 4) Oxidative stress; 5) Apoptosis and autophagy, Some essential biomarkers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, nitric oxide, metalloproteinases); and, finally; 6) Preventive (“cheating”) strategies, non-pharmacological and pharmacological options to treat the liver IR injury.