Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 33 num. 12 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of methylene blue on the liver of rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion]]> Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effect of methylene blue (MB) therapy during the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) process. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used, (70%) submitted to partial ischemia (IR) or not (NIR) (30%) were obtained from the same animal. These animals were divided into six groups: 1) Sham (SH), 2) Sham with MB (SH-MB); 3) I/R, submitted to 60 minutes of partial ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion; 4) NI/R, without I/R obtained from the same animal of group I/R; 5) I/R-MB submitted to I/R and MB and 6) NI/R-MB, without I/R. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Osmotic swelling of mitochondria as well as the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated. Serum (ALT/AST) dosages were also performed. MB was used at the concentration of 15mg/kg, 15 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann Whitney test at 5%. Results: State 3 shows inhibition in all ischemic groups. State 4 was increased in all groups, except the I/R-MB and NI/R-MB groups. RCR showed a decrease in all I/R and NI/R groups. Mitochondrial osmotic swelling showed an increase in all I/R NI/R groups in the presence or absence of MB. About MDA, there was a decrease in SH values in the presence of MB and this decrease was maintained in the I/R group. AST levels were increased in all ischemic with or without MB. Conclusions: The methylene blue was not able to restore the mitochondrial parameters studied. Also, it was able to decrease lipid peroxidation, preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species. <![CDATA[Preparation of Zoledronate liposome and its impact on apoptosis of Kupffer cells in rat liver]]> Abstract Purpose: To establish a method for the preparation of zoledronate liposome and to observe its effect on inducing the apoptosis of rat liver Kupffer cells. Methods: Zoledronate was encapsulated in liposomes, and then the entrapment rate was detected on a spectrophotometer. The prepared Zoledronate liposome (0.01 mg/mL) was injected into the tail vein of SD rats. Three days later, the number of Kupffer cells (CD68 positive) in rat liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate of the isolated liver Kupffer cell cultured in vitro. Results: The entrapment rate of Zoledronate was 43.4±7.8%. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of Kupffer cells was 19.3±2.1 in PBS group and 5.5±1.7 in Zoledronate liposome group, with a significant difference (P&lt;0.05). The apoptosis rate of Kupffer cells was 4.1±0.8% in PBS group, while it was 9±2.2% and 23.3±5.9% in Zoledronate liposomes groups with different concentrations of Zoledronate liposome (P&lt;0.05). Conclusions: Zoledronate liposomes can effectively induce the apoptosis of Kupffer cells in vivo and in vitro, and the apoptosis rate is related to the concentration of Zoledronate liposome. To establish a rat liver Kupffer cell apoptosis model can provide a new means for further study on Kupffer cell function. <![CDATA[The role of atenolol in the modulation of the expression of genes encoding pro- (caspase-1) and anti- (Bcl2L1) apoptotic proteins in endothelial cells exposed to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of atenolol in the gene expression of caspase 1 (Casp1) and Bcl2L1 on vascular endothelium of rat intestine after ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Methods: Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): SG (Sham group): no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery; IRG: IR plus saline group: IRG+At: IR plus Atenolol group. Rats from IRG and IRG+At were subjected to 60 min of intestinal ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Atenolol (2mg/kg) or saline were injected in the femoral vein 5 min before ischemia, 5 min and 55 min after reperfusion. Thereafter, intestinal segments were appropriately removed and processed for Endothelial Cell Biology Rat RT2 Profiler PCR Array. Results: the anti-apoptotic Bcl2L1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated (-1.10) in the IRG and significantly up-regulated in the IRG+At (+14.15). Meanwhile, despite Casp1 gene expression was upregulated in both groups, it was significantly higher in the IRG (+35.06) than the IRG+At (+6.68). Conclusions: Atenolol presents antiapoptotic effects on rat intestine subjected to IR partly by the up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2L1 gene expression. Moreover, atenolol can mitigate the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of Casp1 gene on rat intestine after IR. <![CDATA[Alprostadil attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting antioxidant activity and eNOS activation in rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P&lt;0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P&lt;0.05), NO level (P&lt;0.01) and p-eNOS (P&lt;0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS. <![CDATA[Experimental model for transforaminal endoscopic spine]]> Abstract Purpose: To validate the porcine spine as a model for learning and practicing transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar procedures (TF-PELP). Methods: TF-PELP was performed in three porcine cadaver lumbar spine levels. Anatomical features of the current cadaver were compared to human and porcine spines. Performance and documentation of endoscopic procedures were described. Results: This study shows that this representative animal model reflects anatomical characteristics of the human spine. Transforaminal approaches were successfully completed. Although lower disc heights make disc puncture more difficult, the outside-in technique is feasible and more useful to identify anatomical parameters and to practice different surgical steps and maneuvers. Conclusion: This is an effective and representative model for learning and practicing this procedure. Difficulties of the procedure, as well as the differences compared to the human spine, were described. <![CDATA[Influence of tramadol on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence tramadol on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Ten rats were divided into two groups (n = 5). All animals were submitted by a laminectomy and spinal cord injury at eighth thoracic vertebra. In control group, the rats didn’t receive any analgesic. In tramadol group, the rats received tramadol 4mg/Kg at 12/12h until 5 days by subcutaneous. Animals were following by fourteen days. Was evaluated the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale (locomotor evaluation) and Rat Grimace Scale (pain evaluation) at four periods. Results: There no difference between the groups in locomotor evaluation in all periods evaluated (p&gt;0.05) and in both groups there was a partial recover of function. The tramadol group show a lower pain levels at the first, third and seventh postoperatively days when comparing to the control group. Conclusion: The tramadol as an analgesic agent don’t influence on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats <![CDATA[The role of ischemic preconditioning in gene expression related to inflammation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gene expression related to inflammation on mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and treated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Methods: Thirty rats (EPM-Wistar), distributed in five groups of six animals each, were underwent anesthesia and laparotomy. The ischemia time was standardized in 60 minutes and the reperfusion time 120 minutes. IPC was standardized in 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion accomplished before I/R. The control group was submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy. The other groups were submitted to ischemia, I/R, ischemia + IPC and I/R + IPC. It was collected a small intestine sample to analyses by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in real Time (RT-qPCR) and histological analyses. It was studied 27 genes. Results: The groups that received IPC presented downregulation of genes, observed in of genes in IPC+ischemia group and IPC+I/R group. Data analysis by clusters showed upregulation in I/R group, however in IPC groups occurred downregulation of genes related to inflammation. Conclusion: The ischemia/reperfusion promoted upregulation of genes related to inflammation, while ischemic preconditioning promoted downregulation of these genes. <![CDATA[Correlation between the values of circulating blood elements with the size of spleen in the presence of schistosomal splenomegaly]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate a possible relationship between the size of the spleen and values of circulating blood elements in patients with schistosomatic splenomegaly. Methods: ixty one patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni underwent a clinical exam and peripheral venous blood was collected for a hemogram. The erythrocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte, and platelet values were determined. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound to measure the spleen. The hematological test results were compared to the size of the spleen. Results: The size of the spleen varied from 14.0 to 28.4 (19.9 ± 3.7) cm according to the ultrasound image. Thrombocytopenia was observed 58 (95%) patients, leukopenia in 55 (90%) patients, and anemia in 32 (52.4%) patients. Leukopenia was proportional to splenomegaly. Conclusion: Schistosomal splenomegaly leads to leukopenia in direct proportion to the size of the spleen. <![CDATA[Response time in the emergency services. Systematic review]]> Abstract The growth of the urban population raises concern about municipal public managers in the sense of providing emergency medical services (EMS) that are aligned with the needs of prehospital emergency medical care demanded by the population. The literature review aims at presenting the response time of emergency medical services in several parts of the world and discussing some factors that interfere in the result of this indicator such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) percentage spent on health and life expectancy of countries. The study will also show that in some of the consulted articles, authors suggest to EMS recommendations for decreasing the response time using simulations, heuristics and metaheuristics. Response time is a basic indicator of emergency medical services, in such a way that researchers use the descriptive statistics to evaluate this parameter. Europe and the USA outstand in the publication of studies that present this information. Some articles use stochastic and mathematical methods to suggest models that simulate scenarios of response time reduction and suggest such proposals to the local EMS. Countries in which the response time was identified have a high index of human development and life expectancy between 74.7 and 83.7 years.