Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 32 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Doppler velocimetry in fetal rats exposed to enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) during pregnancy]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) administered in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on fetal vessels in healthy pregnant Wistar rats, according to Doppler velocimetry measurements. Methods: Fifty animals were assigned to one of five groups: controls (saline), prophylactic and therapeutic enoxaparin (1 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively), and prophylactic and therapeutic UFH (72 and 400 UI/kg/day, respectively). Uterine horns were examined by ultrasound for identification of live fetuses. A sample of these fetuses underwent Doppler velocimetry. Spectral curves, peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of the middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus, and umbilical artery were investigated. Differences were considered statistically significant when p&lt;0.05. Results: No significant differences in PSV, PI, or RI values were observed among the groups. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry measurements revealed no significant effects of enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin on fetal vessels in pregnant Wistar rats. <![CDATA[The relationship between renal warm ischemia time and glomerular loss. An experimental study in a pig model]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the glomerular number after different warm ischemia times. Methods: Thirty two pigs were assigned into four groups. Three groups (G10, G20, and G30) were treated with 10, 20, and 30 minutes of left renal warm ischemia. The sham group underwent the same surgery without renal ischemia. The animals were euthanized after 3 weeks, and the kidneys were collected. Right kidneys were used as controls. The kidney weight, volume, cortical-medullar ratio, glomerular volumetric density, volume-weighted mean glomerular volume, and the total number of glomeruli per kidney were obtained. Serum creatinine levels were assessed pre and postoperatively. Results: Serum creatinine levels did not differ among the groups. All parameters were similar for the sham, G10, and G20 groups upon comparison of the right and left organs. The G30 group pigs' left kidneys had lower weight, volume, and cortical-medullar ratio and 24.6% less glomeruli compared to the right kidney. A negative correlation was found between warm ischemia time and glomerular number. Conclusions: About one quarter of glomeruli was lost after 30 minutes of renal warm ischemia. No glomeruli loss was detected before 20 minutes of warm ischemia. However, progressive glomerular loss was associated with increasing warm ischemia time. <![CDATA[Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm2, while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. <![CDATA[Roles of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/PKB signaling pathways in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix genes in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the mechanisms by which PD98059 and LY294002 interfere with the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Methods: Rat PASMCs were cultured and separated into a control group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of collagen III and fibronectin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were performed to detect the expression of collagen III protein. Results: The expression of collagen III and fibronectin mRNA was greater in PASMCs stimulated with CTGF for 48 h, than in the control group. After 72h of stimulation, the expression of collagen III protein in the PASMCs was greater than in the control. The equivalent gene and protein expression of the CPL group were much more significant. Conclusions: CTGF can stimulate the gene expression of collagen III and fibronectin in PASMCs, which may be one of the factors that promote pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) under the conditions of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PD98059 and LY294002 can inhibit the ERK1/2 and PI3K/PKB signaling pathways, respectively, thus interfering with the biological effects of CTGF. This may be a new way to reduce PAH-PVR. <![CDATA[Expression dynamics of caveolin-1 in fibroblasts of newborn rats with chronic lung disease and its impact on lung fibroblast proliferation]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the changes of caveolin-1 in lung fibroblasts in newborn Wistar rats when exposed to hyperoxic conditions, as well as lung fibroblasts cell cycle. Methods: One hundred newborn Wistar rats were randomly divided (50 rats/group) into experimental and control groups, exposed to hyperoxic conditions or normal air, respectively. The fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) in the experimental group was 90%, whereas this value was 21% in the control group. Lung fibroblasts were collected on days 3, 7, and 14 of the experiment. Caveolin-1 expression dynamics in lung fibroblasts was assayed in each group by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess the proportions of lung fibroblasts at different stages of the cell cycle. Results: On day 3, no significant difference in caveolin-1 expression was observed between the hyperoxic and control groups; however, on days 7 and 14, caveolin-1 expression was significantly lower in the hyperoxic group than in the control (P&lt;0.05). No apparent differences were observed in caveolin-1 expression in the control group at the different time points. Using FCM analysis, we showed that the proportion of lung fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase in the hyperoxic group decreased compared to that of the control group on day 7, while the proportion of S-phase cells increased (P&lt;0.05). These differences were more significant when the groups were compared on day 14 (P&lt;0.01). Conclusion: After seven days the exposure to hyperoxic conditions, lung fibroblasts proliferated and caveolin-1 expression decreased. <![CDATA[Creation of a contusion injury method for skeletal muscle in rats with differing impacts]]> Abstract Purpose: To realize a morphological examination of the musculoskeletal tissue, assessing the effect of a contusion method for the production in rat gastrocnemius, comparing the inflammatory responses generated by different impacts. Methods: For the analysis of a contusion method, twelve female Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. The lesion was generated by 324 g of mass that was dropped from different predetermined heights for each group (30, 45, 60 and 70 cm). Results: In the analysis of musculoskeletal tissue, the response to injury varied according to the mass of the height drop onto the muscle. Only the group that was injured from 70 cm responded with uniform and severe inflammation, whereas the groups 30, 45 and 60 cm showed inflammation in some regions of the tissue with mild and moderate infiltrates. Conclusion: The method with the 324-gram mass dropped from a 70-cm height onto the gastrocnemius muscle of rats seems to be the most suitable for the production of muscle injury in these animals after 72 hours, showing an important inflammatory infiltrate. <![CDATA[Myocardial ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage by activating GSK-3β]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether modulating GSK-3β could attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and analyze the underlying mechanism. Methods: Male SD rats were subjected to MIRI with or without myocardial ischemic post-conditioning in the presence or absence of GSK-3β inhibitor. GSK-3β inhibitor was injected peritoneally 10min before MIRI. Lung W/D weight ratio, MPO, PMNs, histopathological changes, TUNEL, Bax, Bcl-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GSK-3β, and caspase-3 were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results: After MIRI, lung injury was significantly increased manifested as significant morphological changes and increased leukocytes in the interstitial capillaries, Lung W/D ratio, MPO, and PMN in BALF, which was associated with enhanced inflammation evidenced by increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8 and reduced expression of IL-10. MIRI significantly increased cell apoptosis in the lung as increased levels of apoptotosis, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and reduced expression of Bcl-2 was observed, which was concomitant with reduced p-GSK-3β. All these changes were reversed/prevented by ischemic post-conditioning, while these beneficial effects of ischemic post-conditioning were abolished by GSK-3β inhibition. Conclusion: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury induces acute lung injury by induction of inflammation and cell apoptosis. Ischemic post-conditioning protects the lung from ALI following MIRI by increasing p-GSK-3β. <![CDATA[DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Methods: Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Results: Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: The exercise intensity protocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise. <![CDATA[Propofol attenuates cytokine-mediated upregulation of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptosis during regeneration post-partial hepatectomy]]> Abstract Purpose: To determine the effects of propofol and ketamine anesthesia on liver regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy (PHT). Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned randomly to four groups of 10. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol in groups 1 and 2, and with ketamine in groups 3 and 4. PHT was undertaken in groups 1 and 3. Rats in groups 2 and 4 (control groups) underwent an identical surgical procedure, but without PHT. At postoperative day-5, rats were killed. Regenerated liver was removed, weighed, and evaluated (by immunohistochemical means) for expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), apoptosis protease-activating factor (APAF)-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Also, blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Results: Between groups 2 and 4, there were no differences in tissue levels of iNOS, eNOS, and APAF-1 or plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6. eNOS expression was similar in group 1 and group 3. Expression of iNOS and APAF-1 was mild-to-moderate in group 1, but significantly higher in group 3. Groups 1 and 3 showed an increase in PCNA expression, but expression in both groups was comparable. Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 increased to a lesser degree in group 1 than in group 3. Conclusion: Propofol, as an anesthetic agent, may attenuate cytokine-mediated upregulation of iNOS expression and apoptosis in an animal model of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.