Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 29 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[XIV International SOBRADPEC Congress and Translational Research Forum. A current approach]]> <![CDATA[TGF-β1 on induced osteogenic differentiation of human dermal fibroblast]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) on the induced osteogenic differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts. METHODS: We performed four groups with cultured dermal fibroblasts according to the culture medium: CONTROL (DMEM culture medium); TGF-β1 (DMEM culture medium with 10 ng/ml of TGF-β1); OSTEOG (DMEM culture medium with 0.5 µg/ml of ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l of β-glycerophosphate and 10 nmol/L of dexamethasone); and OSTEOG/TGF-β1 (osteogenic medium with 10 ng/ml of TGF-β1). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the amount of osteocalcin (OC) in the supernatant, as well as the capability to form calcium phosphate deposits, were analysed for 28 days RESULTS: There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) between CONTROL and TGF-β1 groups in comparison with OSTEOG and OSTEOG/TGF-β1 groups in the ALP activity and OC amount. Although, both osteogenic groups had the same behavior with regard the expression curve during the experimental time, the OSTEOG/TGF-β1 group achieved significantly higher ALP and OC levels and showed no significant difference in the levels of mineralized deposits and in comparison with the levels found in the OSTEOG group. CONCLUSION: The addition of transforming growth factor beta 1 to the osteogenic culture medium increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the amount of osteocalcin, but TGF-β1 did not alter the presence of mineralized calcium phosphate deposits. <![CDATA[Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery]]> PURPOSE: To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. METHODS: Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. RESULTS: The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. CONCLUSION: Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses. <![CDATA[Tissue response evaluation of the mucosa of the tympanic cavity of guinea pigs, when receiving biodegradable implant]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the tissue response of the mucosa of the tympanic cavity of guinea pigs, when receiving biodegradable implant. METHODS: A total of 20 male guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups. After paracentesis in both ears, a biodegradable polymer of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid was implanted in only one middle ear. Histological analysis using neutrophil exudate and vascular neoformation (acute inflammation) and fibroblast proliferation and mononuclear inflammatory cells (chronic inflammation) as parameters was performed after 10 and 30 days of survival (groups 1 and 2, respectively). RESULTS: Four ears in group 1 and 7 in group 2 had an increase of neutrophil exudate. Vascular neoformation occurred in ears with or without the implant, in both groups. Fibroblast proliferation and mononuclear inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) increased in ears with implant in group 2. CONCLUSION: The tissue response by histological analysis of the mucosa of the tympanic cavity of guinea pigs, when receiving biodegradable implant, showed no statistically significant difference between ears with or without the implant. <![CDATA[Hyperoxic preconditioning in partial liver ischemia]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment as a pre-conditioning for I/R effects in the liver ischemia. METHODS: Fifty-seven male Wistar rats (260-300g) were submitted to the following procedures: SHAM; I/R, rats submitted to I/R, consisting of partial ischemia of 70% of the liver for 90 minutes followed by 15 minutes of reperfusion; HBO I/R 1 ATA, 30 minutes of HBO treatment at the pressure of 1 absolute atmosphere (ATA) during the ischemia time. HBO I/R 2 ATA, 30 minutes of HBO (2 ATA) during the ischemia time. Pre HBO I/R 30', rats submitted to 30 minutes of HBO (2 ATA) immediately before the I/R time. Pre HBO I/R 90', rats submitted to 90 minutes of HBO (2 ATA) immediately before the I/R time. RESULTS: There was a significant worsening of all the parameters of mitochondrial energy production (state 3, 4, RCR and Swelling) in the I/R group, when compared to the Sham group (I/R &lt;Sham, p&lt;0.05). There was also a significant worsening in state 4, RCR and mitochondrial edema in the Pre HBO I/R 90' group compared to the I/R group. Hepatic enzyme concentrations were significantly higher in the I/R group. CONCLUSION: The use of hyperbaric oxygen before and during I/R did not improve the production of hepatocellular energy reduced by I/R, nor did it prevent the installation of mitochondrial edema induced by Iischemia/reperfusion. <![CDATA[Effect of hyperbaric hepatic hyperoxia on the liver of rats submitted to intermittent ischemia/reperfusion injury]]> PURPOSE: To determine the effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia as hepatic preconditioning on hepatocellular integrity in rats submitted to intermittent hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (SHAM, I/R, HBO-I/R and CONTROL). The surgical technique consisted of total clamping of the hepatic pedicle for 15 min, followed by reperfusion for 5 min, performed twice. The application of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was carried out in a collective chamber (simultaneous exposure of 4 rats) pressurized directly with oxygen at 2 ATA for 60 min. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined and blood samples were collected for the determination of serum AST and ALT levels. Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test, with the level of significance set at p &lt; 0.05. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in MDA (p&lt; 0.05) was observed between control and HBO-I/R, but not between control and I/R. Regarding AST, there was a difference between control and I/R and HBO-I/R. Analysis of ALT revealed a significant difference between control and I/R (p&lt;0.05) and between I/R and HBO-I/R, with no difference between control and HBO-IR. CONCLUSION: Hyperoxic preconditioning proved to be favorable regarding alanine transaminase, but not aspartate aminotranserase or malondialdehyde levels. <![CDATA[Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the liver after injury caused by the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion process]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on rats submitted to hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-three Wistar rats were divided at random into 3 groups: SHAM, rats submitted to surgical and anesthetic stress without induction of hepatic ischemia/reperfurion; I/R, rats submitted to total ischemia of the hepatic pedicle for 25 min followed by 5 min of reperfusion; HBOI/R, rats submitted to 60 min of hyperbaric oxygen therapy at a pressure of 2 absolute atmospheres immediately after the experimental protocol of ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatic function was evaluated by quantitation of serum alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and by mitochondrial function through the determination of states 3 and 4 of mitochondrial respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and mitochondrial swelling. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, with the level of significance set at p &lt;0.05. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in state 3 values for the SHAM group vs I/R and I/R vs IRHBO, in state 4 values for the SHAM group vs I/R; and in mitochondrial swelling for the SHAM groups vs I/RHBO, SHAM vs I/R, and IR vs I/RHBO. CONCLUSION: The use of hyperbaric oxygen after I/R improved in a relative manner both the production of energy and the effects on the mitochondrial wall. <![CDATA[Age-dependent expression of Pten and Smad4 genes in the urogenital system of Wistar rats]]> PURPOSE: To analyze Pten and Smad4 gene expression in the urogenital system of Wistar rats in differents ages. METHODS: Pten and Smad4 mRNA expression was assessed in the bladder, ventral prostate, testis, ovaries, and uterus by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis using the ANOVA (p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: Pten levels showed a progressive age-dependent increase in the bladder (male and female) and prostate and were elevated in the ovaries of the middle-aged. In the uterus, no statistically significant differences were observed; in the testis, increased and decreased levels were seen in young adult and middle-aged rats, respectively. Smad4 expression was downregulated in the ovaries of the pubertal group but increased in the middle age group. In the uterus, Smad4 expression in the oldest group was higher than the others groups. In the testis, Smad4 expression steadily declined with age; in the prostate, it was higher in middle-aged rats than in younger rats. A similar trend was observed in the bladder of male and female middle-aged rats, compared with the pubertal group. CONCLUSION: The changes in phosphatase tensin homologue and Smad4 mRNA expression in Wistar rats appear to be associated with hormonal modifications in puberty and may be related to early follicular and testicular development. <![CDATA[Lard and/or canola oil-rich diets induce penile morphological alterations in a rat model]]> PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of dietary lipid quantity and/or quality on penis morphology in adult rats. METHODS: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: normal lipid diet (NL), high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HF-S), high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-P), and high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (HF-SP). Blood samples were collected and the penises were removed for histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: All high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p&lt;0.0001). The HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030), and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0020). Concerning the penis, the high-fat diets led to an increase in the collagen fibers (p&lt;0.0001) and smooth muscle cell density area (p=0.0027), and a decline in the sinusoidal space density area (p&lt;0.0001) and corpus cavernosum cell proliferation (p=0.0003). CONCLUSION: Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids promoted overweight and induced penile changes in rodent models, which may lead to the development of erectile dysfunction. <![CDATA[Inflammatory reaction and tensile strength of the abdominal wall after an implant of polypropylene mesh and polypropylene/poliglecaprone mesh for abdominal wall defect treatment in rats]]> PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory reaction and the growing resistance of the abdominal wall with the use of poliglecaprone meshes and polypropylene meshes associated with poliglecaprone in the correction of abdominal defects. METHODS: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were divided into three groups: CG (non-operated animals: EG (polypropylene mesh) and UG (polypropylene and poliglecaprone mesh). A muscular and aponeurotic defect was formed and treated according to the group. Evaluations were made after 4, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. The resistance and inflammatory pattern were studied. RESULTS: There was a gradual and significant gain in resistance, regularly in the EG and irregularly in the UG, which was lower on the 14th day (p=0.008). The inflammatory reaction was acute and more intense in the UG on the fourth day. At all other times, the inflammatory pattern was acute to chronic, similar in both groups, with minimum intensity on the 56th day. CONCLUSION: The greater resistance offered by the polypropylene mesh was regular and ascending, stabilizing on the 28th day, while that of the polypropylene/poliglecaprone was not even. In the end, the resistances were similar. The inflammatory response was greater in the UG on the fourth day and similar at all other times. <![CDATA[Alcohol extract of Schinu sterebinthifolius raddi (anacardiaceae) as a local antimicrobial agent in severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in rats]]> PURPOSE: To develop an alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi and to test its impact on autogenously fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats. METHODS: The inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was kept for seven days in 70% ethanol alcohol. The total elimination of the solvent was performed in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 55-60°C. Four milliliter of this extract was injected, after 24 h, into the abdominal cavity of six out of eight survival rats that underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis with five milliliter of 10% filtered fecal suspension. They were clinically followed up for 45 days when they were euthanized. The necropsy findings (inventory) of the abdominal and thorax cavities were inspected and the main findings were recorded and photographed. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee. RESULTS: Two out of six survival rats that were critically ill after 24 h died within the 12 h after the extract injection into the abdominal cavity. Four rats that were also critically ill recovered and gradually became healthy, eating well, regaining weight and moving normally in the cage. At 45 days post severe peritonitis the necropsy findings revealed few signs of residual infection on the abdominal and thorax cavities. There were no bowel adhesions. CONCLUSION: The impact of alcoholic extract of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi was considered very positive and promising as natural local antiseptic against very severe peritonitis in Wistar rats. <![CDATA[Sentinel lymph node biopsy in rats. Comparison between paraffin and frozen section analysis]]> PURPOSE: To simulate a lymph node metastasis in an animal model using activated carbon, assess their identification in frozen section analysis and compare with histopathological examination in paraffin. METHODS: Thirty two adult female rats were used. They received the carbon injection on its hind legs. Half of the rats was sacrificed on day one, and the other half after 21 days. Thus, 64 lymph nodes were dissected and split longitudinally. One half of the lymph node was sent immediately to frozen section analysis. The other half was fixed in 10% formaldehyde to be cut in paraffin. Slides were divided into quadrants and classified by the presence of carbon in these four quadrants_ They were also classified by the carbon staining intensity. RESULTS: Comparing the slides obtained in the first day and 21 days, there was a tendency of carbon to spread over time, but without statistical significance. The intensity did not alter over time. CONCLUSION: There was no concordance between the two methods of pathological analysis, however the actived carbon was seen in all lymph nodes. <![CDATA[Keratinocyte growth factor, interleukins (1 beta, 6, 8, 10, 12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha in culture medium of dermal fibroblast of burned patients]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the level of cytokines and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 (FGF-7) in the culture medium of cultured human dermal fibroblasts from patients with large burn in comparison to small burn. METHODS: Fibroblasts of 10 patients (four large burns, four small burns and two controls) were initiated by the enzymatic method using collagenase. Cytokines and KGF in the supernatant of the culture medium was measured by, respectively, flow cytometry using Cytometric Bead Array Human Inflammation kit (CBA, BD Biosciences, USA) and the enzyme immunoassay method using the Quantikine (r) Human KGF. The experiments were performed in triplicate. RESULTS: The expression of IL-12 protein in patients with large burns showed a tendency to increase. IL- 6, IL- 10, and IL- 1beta were observed no difference. For IL - 8, TNF - alpha and KGF was observed a significant difference between the expression in large and small burned patient. CONCLUSION: That IL-8, TNF-alpha and KGF showed higher expression in cultured fibroblasts of large burned patients. <![CDATA[Anatomical study of the pigs temporal bone by microdissection]]> PURPOSE: Initial study of the pig`s temporal bone anatomy in order to enable a new experimental model in ear surgery. METHODS: Dissection of five temporal bones of Sus scrofa pigs obtained from UNIFESP - Surgical Skills Laboratory, removed with hole saw to avoid any injury and stored in formaldehyde 10% for better conservation. The microdissection in all five temporal bone had the following steps: inspection of the outer part, external canal and tympanic membrane microscopy, mastoidectomy, removal of external ear canal and tympanic membrane, inspection of ossicular chain and middle ear. RESULTS: Anatomically it is located at the same position than in humans. Some landmarks usually found in humans are missing. The tympanic membrane of the pig showed to be very similar to the human, separating the external and the middle ear. The middle ear`s appearance is very similar than in humans. The ossicular chain is almost exactly the same, as well as the facial nerve, showing the same relationship with the lateral semicircular canal. CONCLUSION: The temporal bone of the pigs can be used as an alternative for training in ear surgery, especially due the facility to find it and its similarity with temporal bone of the humans.