Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 32 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Anatomo-radiological correlation using 18-FDG-PET in abdominal sepsis model in rats. A preliminary study]]> Abstract Purpose: To examine a correlation of micro-PET images with photographic images of the digestive organs in abdominal sepsis model. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing 265±18g were used. Abdominal sepsis was induced by ligature and cecal puncture. Micro-PET Images from abdominal cavity septic foci were obtained using 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose, looking for a correlation with photographic images of abdominal cavity organs. Pearson's correlation test was used. Results: The mean standard uptake values (SUV) and lesion areas were 2.58±0.63SUVbwg/ml and 546.87±300.95mm2, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between the two variables (r=0.863, p=0.137), which resulted in a coefficient of determination r2?0.75, meaning that 75% of SUV variation is explained by the lesion areas of digestive organs. Conclusion: Micro-PET allows high throughput assessment of lesion count and volume in pre-clinical rat model of CPL abdominal sepsis. <![CDATA[Tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content in colon mucosa without intestinal transit subjected to intervention with <strong><em>Curcuma longa</em></strong> (curcumin)]]> Abstract Purpose: To measure the tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content of the colon mucosa without fecal flow, subjected to intervention with curcumin, and the influence of the concentration used and the intervention time. Methods: Thirty-six rats were subjected to proximal right colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to whether sacrifice was performed two or four weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone; curcumin at 50 mg/kg/day or curcumin at 200 mg/kg/day. Acid mucins were diagnosed using the Alcian blue technique. The mucin content was quantified by means of computer-assisted image analysis. The significance level of 5% was used throughout (p &lt; 0.05). Results: There were dose-related increases in the quantities of sulfomucins in the animals subjected to interventions with curcumin, both after two weeks (p &lt; 0.00001) and after four weeks (p &lt; 0.00001). There were increases in sialomucin quantity that were concentration-related (p &lt; 0.00001) and time-related (p &lt; 0.00001). Conclusion: Curcumin enemas increase the quantity of acid mucins in the intestinal flow in the excluded colon, with dose and time dependency. <![CDATA[Lycopene and resveratrol pretreatment did not interfere with the liver of hepatectomized rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of lycopene and resveratrol pretreatment on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: The lycopene group and the resveratrol group received 40 mg/kg/day of lycopene or resveratrol, respectively (dissolved in olive oil or in saline solution, respectively) and administered via a gastric tube for 30 days. The partially hepatectomzed (PH) control groups received saline or olive oil via a gastric tube for 30 days, respectively, and the normal control group received no treatment. Liver tissue and intracardiac blood samples were obtained 24, 36 or 48 h after PH. Results: No areas of fibrosis were detected. No significant changes in mitotic index, in the number of apoptosis events or in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were observed. Conclusions: Lycopene and resveratrol pretreatment did not interfere on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats. <![CDATA[Cyclosporine A attenuates apoptosis and necrosis after ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury in transiently hyperglycemic rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of cyclosporine A on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia in rats. Methods: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury and transiently induced hyperglycemia by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, 2.5, Wistar rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane or propofol and received intravenous cyclosporine A, 5, five minutes before reperfusion. Comparison groups were isoflurane and propofol sham groups and isoflurane and propofol ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury. Renal tubular cell viability was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry after cell culture and classified as early apoptosis, necrotic cells, and intact cells. Results: Early apoptosis was significantly higher in isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared to both cyclosporine A treated and sham groups. Necrosis percentage was significantly higher in propofol-anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The percentage of intact cells was lower in both, isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury, cyclosporine A, 5, administered five minutes before renal reperfusion in rats with acute-induced hyperglycemia under either isoflurano or propofol anesthesia, attenuated early apoptosis and preserved viability in renal tubular cells, regardless of the anesthetic used. <![CDATA[Effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. After reperfusion, blood samples were collected for BUN and creatinine serum levels analyzes. TBARS were evaluated in plasma and renal tissue to assess oxidative stress. Kidney histopathological examination were performed. Results: Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of renal dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly reduced oxidative stress and histological damage. Conclusion: Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. <![CDATA[The effects of ozone on bacterial growth and thiol-disulphide homeostasis in vascular graft infection caused by MRSA in rats]]> Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the microbiological, inflammatory and oxidant effects of adjuvant ozone administration in experimental rat vascular graft infection model which has not been previously investigated. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were divided into Sham, Control, Vancomycin, Ozone, Vancomycin+Ozone groups. Grafts were inoculated with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain and implanted subcutaneously. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with ozone and /or intramuscularly with vancomycin for 10 days. Grafts were evaluated by quantitative bacterial cultures. Blood samples were harvested for determination of thiol-disulphide and cytokine profiles. Results: There was no significant difference in bacterial counts between Control and Ozone Groups. In the Ozone Group median colony count was significantly higher than the Vancomycin and Vancomycin+Ozone Groups. Total thiol and disulphide levels increased and disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol ratios decreased in Ozone Group significantly. Albumin levels decreased significantly in Vancomycin and Vancomycin+Ozone Groups compared to the Sham Group. IL-1 and TNF-alpha levels significantly increased in infected rats. Decreased levels of VEGF due to infection reversed by ozone therapy in control and vancomycin groups. Conclusions: We didn't observe any benefit of the agent on MRSA elimination in our model. Likewise, effects of ozone on thiol-disulphide homeostasis and inflammatory cytokines were contradictory. <![CDATA[Influence of remote ischemic conditioning and tramadol hydrochloride on oxidative stress in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of tramadol hydrochloride associated to remote ischemic perconditioning on oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Tramadol group (T) treated with tramadol hydrochloride (40mg/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Tramadol group (Per+T) with both treatments. Oxidative stress was assessed after 24 hours of reperfusion. Results: Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p&lt;0.01), in addition there was difference between Tramadol with Sham, Per and Per+T groups (p&lt;0.05), both in plasma and renal tissue. Conclusion: Remote ischemic perconditioning was more effective reducing renal ischemia-reperfusion injury than administration of tramadol or association of both treatments. <![CDATA[Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model attenuated by a remote ischemic preconditioning in the pregnant]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (r-IPC) administered to pregnant rats, in the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Methods: We used three pregnant rats and their newborn rats distributed in three groups: 1) Control (C) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention; 2) Hypoxia-Reoxygenation (H/R) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention, and were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation; 3) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (r-IPC) - newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which was subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning twenty-four hours before giving birth and the newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Segments of ileum were prepared for histological analysis by HE and immunohistochemistry by the Ki67 to evaluate cell proliferation, crypt depth and villus height and evaluation of apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3. Results: The intensity of the lesions was lower in the r-IPC than in the H/R group, showing significant difference (p&lt;0.01). The r-IPC group showed a higher proliferative activity compared to the H/R group (p&lt;0.01), with deeper crypts (r-IPC &gt; H/R - p &lt; 0.05), and higher villi, showing significant difference (r-IPC &gt; H/R - (p &lt;0.01). The occurrence of apoptosis in the H/R group was lower in comparison to groups C and r-IPC, with significant difference (H/R &lt; r-IPC; p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: The remote ischemic preconditioning applied to the pregnant rat protected the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, with decreased intensity of the lesions in the ileum mucosa and preservation of proliferative activity, keeping the villus height and crypt depth similar to group C. <![CDATA[Analysis of gene expression EGFR and KRAS, microRNA-21 and microRNA-203 in patients with colon and rectal cancer and correlation with clinical outcome and prognostic factors]]> Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the expression of EGFR, KRAS genes, microRNAs-21 and 203 in colon and rectal cancer samples, correlated with their age at diagnosis, histological subtype, value of pretreatment CEA, TNM staging and clinical outcome. Methods: Expression of genes and microRNAs by real time PCR in tumor and non-tumor samples obtained from surgical treatment of 50 patients. Results: An increased expression of microRNAs-21 and 203 in tumor samples in relation to non-tumor samples was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes and microRNAs when compared to age at diagnosis and histological subtype. The EGFR gene showed higher expression in relation to the value of CEA diagnosis. The expression of microRNA-203 was progressively lower in relation to the TNM staging and was higher in the patient group in clinical remission. Conclusions: The therapy of colon and rectum tumors based on microRNAs remains under investigation reserving huge potential for future applications and clinical interventions in conjunction with existing therapies. We expect, based on the exposed data, to stimulate the development of new therapeutic possibilities, making the treatment of these tumors more effective. <![CDATA[Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing]]> Abstract Purpose: To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. Methods: We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Results: Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Conclusions: Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.