Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 30 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Effect of total splenectomy in the lipid profile in mice]]> PURPOSE: To analyze total splenectomy effect on the lipid profile - total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and triglycerides levels, in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Thirty Balb/c male mice, one (1) month old and average weight 26.2g ± 4.0 were used in the experiment. They were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each: a control group (non-operated), a simulation group (spleen manipulation) and the splenectomy group. The animals were subjected to blood sampling to measure plasma lipid levels, at three different times: before surgery, days 30 and 75 of the experiment. RESULTS: Increased total cholesterol and LDL were observed in the control group from the start to end of the experiment. The simulation group showed increased rates of VLDL and triglycerides at the 30th and 75th days. Splenectomized animals showed no significant change. CONCLUSION: Total splenectomy did not induce increased plasma lipids levels of in Balb/c mice. <![CDATA[Study of renal and hepatic toxicity in rats supplemented with creatine]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal and hepatic function, through biochemical analysis after 14 days of creatine supplementation in physically inactive rats. METHODS: Twenty four male, adult, Wistar rats were used which were kept in individual metabolic cages and were distributed into four groups, and received the following treatments by gavage:1) Control: distilled water; 2)Creatine 0.5g/Kg/day; 3) Creatine 1g/Kg/day; 4) Creatine 2g/Kg/day. Their urinary outputs as well as food and water intake were daily measured. At the end of the experiment, the animals were euthanized and serum samples were stored for biochemical analysis. RESULTS: Creatine supplementation at the doses given produced no significant changes in plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine, urea, and creatinine clearance, compared to control group (p&gt; 0.05) Similarly, water and food intake, as well as urinary output, did not show significant changes among the four groups studied. CONCLUSION: At the doses used, oral creatine supplementation did not result in renal and/or hepatic toxicity. <![CDATA[The effect of simvastatin on relapse of tooth movement and bone mineral density in rats measured by a new method using microtomography]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of simvastatin on relapse of tooth movement in rats using microtomography (micro CT), as well as the correlation of bone density with the orthodontic relapse. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, had stainless steel springs installed on left maxillary first molar. The molars were moved for 18 days, and after removing the springs, were applied by oral gavage, 5mg/kg of simvastatin in the experimental group for 20 days. Tooth relapse was assessed with a micro CT scanner, and the images chosen through the Data Viewer software had their measurement guides made and checked by the software Image ProR plus 5.1, and compared by Mann-Whitney test. After rats were sacrificed, bone mineral density was evaluated by micro CT through the software CT Analyzer 1.13 and compared by independent T-test, as well as by Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: Relapse and bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the experimental group than in the control group, however without a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin did not inhibit the relapse of tooth movement in rats, and there was no correlation between bone density and orthodontic relapse. <![CDATA[Tissue content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in the colonic mucosa, without fecal stream, undergoing daily intervention with sucralfate]]> PURPOSE: To measure the content of acidic mucin, sialomucin, and sulfomucins in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with sucralfate (SCF). METHODS: Thirty-six rats were submitted to a right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, SCF at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis. Acid mucins were determined with the Alcian-Blue and sulfomucin and sialomucin by high iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB) techniques. The mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5% for both (p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: SCF enemas decreased the inflammation score and was related to the concentration used and time of the intervention. SCF at both concentrations increased the content of acid mucin, which was related to the concentration used and to the improvement in the inflammatory score. There was an increase in the content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in SCF groups. SCF increased sulfomucins from 2 weeks of intervention, which was not related to the dose or time of application. The increase in sialomucin content was related to the time and dose used in the intervention. CONCLUSION: Sucralfate increased the content of acidic mucins, primarily at the expense of sialomucin, which was affected by the dose and time of intervention. <![CDATA[Effects of vardenafil on the kidney of Wistar rats submitted to acute ischemia and reperfusion]]> PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of vardenafil in kidney of rats submitted to acute ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-eight rats were randomly distributed into two groups. Right nephrectomy was performed and the vardenafil group received vardenafil solution (at a concentration of 1 mg/ml in 10 mg/kg) while the control group received 0.9% saline solution (SS) one hour prior to the ligature of the left renal pedicle. After one hour of ischemia, animals were submitted to twenty-four hours of reperfusion, followed by left nephrectomy. The kidney's histological parameters evaluated on the study included vacuolar degeneration and tubular necrosis. Apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3 using the point-counting and digital methods (Cytophotometry). Also, a biochemical analysis for creatinine was conducted. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between groups only with regards to the vacuolar degeneration parameter and to the cleaved caspase-3 digital method. CONCLUSION: Vardenafil showed a protective effect on the kidney of rats subjected to acute ischemia and reperfusion in this model <![CDATA[Effects of L-arginine and L-NAME on ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver]]> PURPOSE: To evaluated the effects of L-arginine (a NO donor) and L-NAME (Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester - a NOS inhibitor) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat livers. METHODS: One hundred fifty two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (simulated surgery); hepatic IR; pretreatment with L-arginine plus hepatic IR; and L-NAME plus hepatic IR. The hepatocellular damage was evaluated at the first, third and seventh days after the procedures through the alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate-aminotransaminase (AST) levels, as well as histopathological features: vascular congestion (VC); steatosis (STE); necrosis (NEC); and inflammatory infiltration (INF). The mortality rate was also evaluated. RESULTS: The pretreatment with L-NAME significantly worsened the AST levels after hepatic IR (p&lt;0.05) at first day and L-arginine demonstrated an attenuating effect on ALT levels at seventh day (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, the administration of L-arginine was able to reduce the VC and STE in the seventh day after hepatic IR (p&lt;0.05). The analysis of the mortality rates did not demonstrate any difference between the groups. Nevertheless, there was not effect of L-arginine and L-NAME on the mortality of the animals. CONCLUSION: L-arginine/NO pathway has a role in the hepatic IR because the pretreatment with L-arginine partially had attenuated the hepatocellular damage induced by hepatic IR in rats. <![CDATA[Fibrogenesis and epithelial coating of skin wounds in rats treated with angico extract (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil)]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of angico bark extract (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil) in the healing process of the skin of rats. METHODS: Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups of five animals each, according to the respective postoperative days, as follow: G4, G7, G14 and G21. Each group received two incisions on skin and subcutaneous tissue in the right and left antimere of the thoracic region, separated by a distance of 2 cm. The right lesion was treated daily with saline and the left with the angico alcoholic extract (5%). At the end of each experimental period, the animals were euthanized and fragments of the wound area with the edges were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and processed for paraffin embedding. Histological sections (5 μm of thickness) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Gomori trichromic and picrosisirus red for morphological and morphometric analyses. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: Morphological analysis showed larger fibroblasts and a higher concentration of collagen fibers in skyn wounds treated with the angico extract. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts at 7th and collagen in 7th and 14th days (p&lt;0.01) in wounds treated with the angico extract. CONCLUSION: The angico alcoholic extract (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil) induces the acceleration of wound healing in skin wounds of rats. <![CDATA[Alternative solution for ex vivo lung perfusion, experimental study on donated human lungs non-accepted for transplantation]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate a new perfusate solution to be used for ex vivo lung perfusion. METHODS: Randomized experimental study using lungs from rejected brain-dead donors harvested and submitted to 1 hour of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) using mainstream solution or the alternative. RESULTS: From 16 lungs blocs tested, we found no difference on weight after EVLP: Steen group (SG) = 1,097±526g; Alternative Perfusion Solution (APS) = 743±248g, p=0.163. Edema formation, assessed by Wet/dry weigh ratio, was statistically higher on the Alternative Perfusion Solution group (APS = 3.63 ± 1.26; SG = 2.06 ± 0.28; p = 0.009). No difference on PaO2 after EVLP (SG = 498±37.53mmHg; APS = 521±55.43mmHg, p=0.348, nor on histological analyses: pulmonary injury score: SG = 4.38±1.51; APS = 4.50±1.77, p=0.881; apoptotic cells count after perfusion: SG = 2.4 ± 2.0 cells/mm2; APS = 4.8 ± 6.9 cells/mm2; p = 0.361). CONCLUSION: The ex vivo lung perfusion using the alternative perfusion solution showed no functional or histological differences, except for a higher edema formation, from the EVLP using Steen Solution(r) on lungs from rejected brain-dead donors. <![CDATA[Fructo-oligosaccharide effects on serum cholesterol levels. An overview]]> PURPOSE: To address the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake on serum cholesterol levels. METHODS: We performed a search for scientific articles in MEDLINE database from 1987 to 2014, using the following English keywords: fructooligosaccharides; fructooligosaccharides and cholesterol. A total of 493 articles were found. After careful selection and exclusion of duplicate articles 34 references were selected. Revised texts were divided into two topics: "FOS Metabolism" and "FOS effects on plasma cholesterol." RESULTS: The use of a FOS diet prevented some lipid disorders and lowered fatty acid synthase activity in the liver in insulin-resistant rats. There was also reduction in weight and total cholesterol in beagle dogs on a calorie-restricted diet enriched with short-chain FOS. Another study found that 2g FOS daily consumption increased significantly serum HDL cholesterol levels but did not ensure a significant reduction in levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides.. Patients with mild hypercholesterolemia receiving short-chain FOS 10.6g daily presented no statistically significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels. However, when FOS was offered to patients that changed their lifestyle, the reduction of LDL cholesterol and steatosis was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Fructooligosaccharides intake may have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and regulation of serum cholesterol levels in individuals that change their lifestyle. FOS supplementation use in diets may therefore be a strategy for lowering cholesterol. <![CDATA[Experience report on teaching surgical technique without animal use]]> PURPOSE: To report the experience of the school in implementing the 3 Rs replace, reduce and refine; showing time and assembling cost of the experimental models used in the teaching of Surgical Technique and Experimental Surgery. METHODS: Assembly time and costs of models: grafts and flaps performed in pork belly, model of intestinal anastomosis and jejunostomy done in Bahiana box and black box model for training videosurgery. RESULTS: Average time and cost estimate: ten minutes-pork belly, cost $ 6.00 per kilogram; two minutes-Bahiana box, cost $ 27.2; Black box-3.6 hours for manufacturing, cost $ 100.00. The repetition of each practice the cost is $ 3.20 for Bahiana box and at no cost to the black box. CONCLUSION: The experimental models presented are easily reproducible and of low cost.