Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Cirurgica Brasileira]]> vol. 29 num. 7 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility of female Wistar rats]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. METHODS: Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences between groups when comparing the average weight of the foetuses and placentas, rate of female VS males, rates of pre-implantation loss (RPL), rates of efficiency implantation (REI), rates of post-implantation loss (RPIL) and rates of foetal viability (RFV). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant effect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats. <![CDATA[Experimental model of Achilles tendon injury in rats]]> PURPOSE: To describe an effective experimental model to study the Achilles tendon healing. METHODS: Forty male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage adult male weighing 250 to 300g were used for this experiment and thirty were surgically submitted to bilateral partial transverse section of the Achilles tendon. The right tendon was treated with radio waves (RF) whereas the left tendon served as control. On the third postoperative day, the rats were divided into four experimental groups consisting of ten rats each which were treated with monopolar RF adjusted to 650 kHz and 2w, for two minutes twice a week and a group of normal animals without any intervention, until they were sacrificed on the 7th, 14th and 28th days, respectively. Tendons were weighed and collagen quantification was evaluated by hydroxyprolin content. RESULTS: Significant reduction in collagen content on day 7, 14 and 28 was related to control experiment to normal tendon (7 days, p&lt;0.01; 14 e 28 days, p&lt;0.05). CONCLUSION: The experimental model has been effective and available to be used to study Achilles tendon healing. <![CDATA[Potential chemoprotective effects of green propolis, <em>L</em>-lysine and celecoxib on bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes of Wistar rats subjected to bladder chemical carcinogenesis]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the genotoxicity of propolis and L-lysine, as well as their effects on the possible cellular damage in erythroblasts (bone marrow) and leukocytes (peripheral blood) caused by the carcinogen BBN (n - butyl - n {4 - hydroxybutyl} nitrosamine) in rats subjected to bladder carcinogenesis and treated with green propolis and L-lysine. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five rats were distributed into the following groups: I, IIA, IIB, III, K, L M N, X, XI, XII and XIII. Groups I to X received BBN in drinking water for 14 weeks (wks). Group I was treated with intragastric (ig) propolis at 150 mg/kg body weight, for 44 wks, beginning 30 days before start of BBN. Groups IIA and III were treated with propolis (150 mg/kg), for 40 wks, subcutaneous (sc) and ig, respectively, beginning simultaneously with BBN. On the 32nd wk, the animals of groups L, M and N were treated ig with L-lysine (300 mg/kg), celecoxib (30 mg/kg) and propolis (300 mg/kg), respectively, up to the 40th wk. The groups that received only BBN (IIB and K) were treated with water, sc and orally, respectively, for 40 wks. Groups XI, XII and XIII received respectively propolis (150 mg/kg), L-lysine (150 mg/kg) and water ig for 40 wks. After 40 wks, the surviving animals were anesthetized and subjected to femoral bone marrow aspiration and blood collection from the aorta, for CA and MNT, respectively, for investigation of genotoxicity. RESULTS: Groups IIB and K, which received only BBN and water, showed the greatest DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes (CA) and largest number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes (MNT) in relation to all other groups that received BBN and lysine and/or propolis (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both propolis and L-lysine are effective in protecting against genotoxicity, as well not being genotoxic themselves toward the cells evaluated, at the doses and times administered and according to the two tests utilized. <![CDATA[Applicability of crystalline cellulose membrane in the treatment of skin wounds induced in Wistar rats]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing of skin wounds induced experimentally in rats using a crystalline cellulose membrane (Veloderm(r)). METHODS: Thirty-two rats were divided into two groups: control group (CG) wounds treated with a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride and Veloderm(r) group (VG) wounds treated with a crystalline cellulose membrane. The rats were evaluated at different times over twenty-six days. RESULTS: Weight loss was observed in the animals from both groups in the early stages, with greater weight in the VG animals at the end. Times of predominant hypothermia, pink color of the wound in both groups over all time points, increased granulation tissue in the CG animals, the presence of slight oozing from the wound and feature in the VG animals, more serous exudation of the bloody feature, greater wound contraction and pain in the CG animals and an absence of pain and earlier complete wound healing in the VG rats were also observed. CONCLUSION: The crystalline cellulose membrane is effective in the treatment of wounds in rats, easy to use, protects and maintains the humidity of the wound, decreases pain, eases the visualization and control of the evolution of the lesion. <![CDATA[Effects of maternal ischemic preconditioning in the colon of newborn rats submitted to hypoxia-reoxygenation insult]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of maternal remote ischemic preconditioning (IPCr) in the colonic mucosa of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. METHODS: Newborn Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Control Group (CG), Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Group (HRG) and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Group (IPCrG). Hypoxia and reoxygenation was performed 2x per day, with an interval of 6 hours, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of life, with 10 minutes of CO2 at 100%, followed by 10 minutes O2 at 100%(HRG/IPCrG). The maternal IPCr was performed 24 hours before delivery by applying a rubber band tourniquet to the left hind limb (IPCrG). Segments of the colon underwent histological (HE) and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 and COX - 2. RESULTS: The histological findings showed no intestinal mucosal damage in the CG group and severe lesions in HRG that was attenuated in the IPCrG (p&lt;0.05). The expression of the apoptotic cells was lower in the HRG group than in the CG and IPCrG. The COX-2 expression was intense in HRG and attenuated in the IPCrG (p&lt;0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal IPCr protected the colonic mucosa of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, reducing the morphological alterations and inflammatory response. It ameliorates the occurrence of apoptosis, keeping the physiological process of renewal and regeneration in the epithelial lining of the colonic mucosa. <![CDATA[Heparin modulates the expression of genes encoding pro and anti-apoptotic proteins in endothelial cells exposed to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats]]> PURPOSE: To investigate if expression of genes encoding pro and anti-apoptotic proteins in the rat enteric endothelial cells stimulated by intestinal ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) can be modified by treatment with heparin (HP). METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were divided in three groups: sham group submitted to laparotomy only (SG), ischemia followed by reperfusion group (IRG); ischemia followed by reperfusion plus pretreatment with HP 100 (IRG+HP). Ischemia was performed by clamping of the superior mesenteric artery. After 60 min of ischemia, metal clamps were removed for reperfusion for 120 min. Gene expression of encoding pro (Casp1, Casp6, Casp3, Cflar, Fas and Pgl) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2, Bcl2l1 and Naip2) proteins in rat enteric endothelial cells was evaluated by PCR microarray method. RESULTS: Compared to rat endothelial cells of SG, the expression of pro-apoptotic genes was up-regulated in IRG while anti-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. In contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes in IRG+HP was up-regulated while pro-apoptotic genes was down-regulated compared to SG. CONCLUSION: The attenuation by heparin of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion previously demonstrated in rodents could be related with ability of this drug to stimulate and reduce gene expression of encoding anti and pro-apoptotic proteins, respectively. <![CDATA[Protective effects of abdominal electroacupuncture on oxidative stress and inflammation due to testis torsion/detorsion in rats]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture (Ac) and electroacupuncture (EAc) on oxidative stress and inflammation in testis torsion/detorsion (T/D) model in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups. G1 Group (Sham) served as control. The remaining groups were submitted to spermatic cord torsion (720°) for 3 hours, followed by detorsion and reperfusion for 4 hours. Before detorsion G3, G4 and G5 rats were treated with Ac, EAc 2Hz and EAc 10 Hz, respectively, applied to acupoint Gulai (S-29) bilaterally under anesthesia for 5 minutes. Next, the testes were detorsioned and reperfused for 4 hours. Afterwards, blood samples and the right testis were collected for biochemical assays: reduced Glutathione (GSH), Malonaldehyde (MDA), Myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: EAc stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) promoted significant increase in concentrations of GSH in plasma and testis of G4-G5 rats, compared with G1. There was significant increase of tissue MDA in groups G4-G5 and plasma MDA in all groups, compared with G1. There was a significant reduction in MPO activity in groups G4-G5 compared with G1. CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture stimulation (2 and 10 Hz) attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats subjected to testicular torsion/detorsion. <![CDATA[Urethral dysfunction due to alloxan-induced diabetes. Urodynamic and morphological evaluation]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of short and long term alloxan-induced diabetes on bladder and urethral function of female rats, and also describing its correlated morphological alterations. METHODS: Thirty five female rats were divided into three groups: G1 (n=9), control group; G2 (n=17), six weeks alloxan-induced diabetic rats; G3 (n=9), 20 weeks alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Functional evaluation was performed by cystometry and simultaneous measurements of the urethral pressure during bladder filling and voiding. Morphological evaluation was also performed with measurement of bladder and urethral fibrosis and collagen content and thickness of lamina propria and smooth muscle layers. RESULTS: The peak bladder pressures and contraction amplitudes were decreased in 100% and 47% of the G3 and G2 groups respectively, when compared to control. Bladder overactivity was observed in 53% of the G2 group. CONCLUSION: Alloxan-induced diabetes urethropathty in female rat was associated to bladder morphological alterations as higher thicknesses of it lamina propria, detrusor and adventicea. <![CDATA[Effects of continuous rate infusion of butorphanol in isoflurane-anesthetized calves]]> PURPOSE: To assess the hemodynamic changes and bispectral index (BIS) following administration of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of butorphanol in isoflurane-anesthetized calves. METHODS: Eight calves weighing 110 ± 12 kg were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced with 5% isoflurane in O2 delivered via face mask and maintained with end-tidal concentration of 1.4%. IPPV was set to a peak inspiratory airway pressure of 15 cmH2O and respiratory rate of six breaths minute-1. Forty minutes after the start of anesthetic maintenance, 0.1 mg kg-1butorphanol was administered intravenously, followed by a CRI of 20 µg kg-1 minute-1. Hemodynamic variables and BIS were recorded before butorphanol administration (T0), and at 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes following the CRI. Anesthesia was discontinued after the last recording and the calves were allowed to recover. The time to sternal recumbency (SRE) and standing (ST) were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the moments in all hemodynamic variables and BIS. The time to SRE and ST was 9 ± 5 and 14 ± 7 minutes, respectively. CONCLUSION: The continuous rate infusion did not produce clinically relevant changes in hemodynamic or bispectral index values compared to baseline in mechanically ventilated and unstimulated calves anesthetized at 1.4% isoflurane. <![CDATA[Effects caused by the spinal administration of ketamine S (+) 5% with no preservatives, using a single puncture, and located on the spinal cord and meninges in rabbits]]> PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ketamine S (+) 5% with no preservatives and administered as a subarachnoid single puncture on the spinal cord and meninges of rabbits. METHODS: Twenty young adult female rabbits, each weighing 3500-5000 g and having a spine length between 34 and 38 cm, were divided by lot into two groups (G): 0.9% saline in G1 and ketamine S (+) 5% in G2, by volume of 5 μg per cm column (0.18 mL). After intravenous anaesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the subarachnoid space was punctured at S1-S2 under ultrasound guidance, and a random solution was injected. The animals remained in captivity for 21 days under medical observation and were sacrificed by decapitation. The lumbosacral spinal cord portion was removed for immunohistochemistry to assess the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and histology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. RESULTS: No histological lesions were found in the nervous tissue (roots and cord) or meninges in either group. CONCLUSION: The ketamine S (+) 5% unpreserved triggered no neurological or histological lesions in the spinal cord or meninges of rabbits.