Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0103-200320150006&lang=es vol. 53 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Da Regulamentação à Promoção - o rural nos planos nacionais de turismo (1985-2011)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Os Planos Nacionais de Turismo (PNT) constituem documentos importantes para uma melhor compreensão das representações e dos significados sociais do rural e do turismo rural em Portugal. O presente artigo, procurando debater estas questões, tem por base a análise de conteúdo detalhada dos PNT ao longo dos últimos 30 anos, designadamente, os PNT dos períodos de 1985-1988 e 1989-1992 e o Plano Estratégico Nacional do Turismo (PENT) dos períodos de 2007-2010 e 2011-2015. A análise de conteúdo efetuada teve como suporte uma grelha de análise exaustiva, contendo múltiplas categorias (e valores correspondentes) identificadas a partir da revisão da literatura nacional e internacional sobre o mundo rural, as suas representações e significados, assim como sobre o turismo rural e as políticas e estratégias implementadas no âmbito da União Europeia (UE) e aplicadas em Portugal. A escolha deste período temporal toma como referência a data do primeiro PNT (1985) e da entrada de Portugal na Comunidade Económica Europeia (CEE) (1986). Da análise de conteúdo, identificámos as principais definições, características e produtos de Turismo em Espaço Rural (TER) associadas a cada um dos PNT, permitindo agrupar um conjunto de imagens e representações do rural e do TER.<hr/>National Tourism Plans (NTP) are important documents for a better understanding of representations and social meanings of rural and rural tourism in Portugal. This paper, aiming to discuss these issues, is based on the detailed content analysis of the NTP over the last 30 years, namely, the NTP for the periods 1985-1988 and 1989-1992 and the National Strategic Plan for Tourism for the periods of 2007-2010 and 2011-2015. The content analysis performed was supported by a comprehensive analysis grid containing multiple categories (and corresponding values) identified based on the review of national and international literature on the rural world, its representations and meanings, as well as on rural tourism and policies and strategies implemented in the European Union (EU) and implemented in Portugal. The choice of this time period has referred to the date of the first NTP (1985) and Portugal's entry in the European Economic Community (EEC) (1986). Based on the content analysis, we identified the main definitions, characteristics and products of Rural Tourism (RT) associated with each of the NTP, allowing to group a set of images and representations of rural and RT. <![CDATA[The Portuguese Agrifood Traditional Products: main constraints and challenges]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Although Portugal registers a large number of protected brand names, its economic turnover is very low when compared to the other southern EU-Member States. To identify and analyze the main reasons of this weak economic significance of the Portuguese quality traditional agrifood products are the main goals of this paper. The main conclusions from the data gathered in step one of the research, which main goal was to understand the main reasons why agricultural firms do not adhere to the PDO/PGI food systems, are related with several issues, namely: the economic and transactions costs of certification, the heavy bureaucracy related to the certification process, the small difference in prices between PDO/PGI products and standard products, within the same reference market, and the preferences of Portuguese consumers. According to the respondents, Portuguese consumers do not know nor socially valorize PDO/PGI products, and privilege (i) traditional/local standard products, instead of PDO/PGI products, and (ii) proximity marketed relationships. These latter findings contribute to highlight, not only why the interviewed firms do not adhere to the PDO/PGI systems, but also why the Portuguese PDO/PGI domestic market is narrow when compared with the ones of southern EU-Member States. <![CDATA[Análise da Eficácia, Eficiência e Valor Acrescentado de Políticas Públicas <em> <strong>Place-based</strong> - uma aplicação a territórios rurais</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600033&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es O lançamento do Programa LEADER, em 1991, imprimiu uma nova dinâmica à política de desenvolvimento rural da União Europeia. Este programa, concebido para fomentar o empreendedorismo, potenciar o crescimento económico e estimular a inovação nas zonas rurais, distinguiu-se dos modelos clássicos de política pública por assentar numa abordagem territorial, multissectorial e integrada. Este artigo tem como principal objetivo a análise do valor acrescentado, da eficácia e da eficiência do Programa LEADER, na região Alentejo, ao longo das três primeiras fases da sua implementação. Para atingir este objetivo analisou-se a totalidade dos 2.706 projetos de investimento executados e financiados pelo LEADER, no período de 1991 a 2006, no Alentejo4, tendo sido consideradas no estudo as seguintes dimensões de análise: localização geográfica, tipo de promotor, atividade económica e natureza da despesa efetuada. A recolha de dados estatísticos, junto das entidades nacionais gestoras do Programa, permitiu a realização de uma análise estatística descritiva de indicadores financeiros e de impacto. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o LEADER contribuiu para uma nova dinâmica socioeconómica, uma vez que contribuiu para uma especialização do investimento realizado em torno de dois setores de atividade considerados hoje estratégicos para o Alentejo: o turismo e a agroindústria. Contudo, o LEADER revelou-se pouco expressivo nas despesas com I&amp;DT, precisamente aquelas atividades cujo contributo poderia alavancar a competitividade das empresas locais.<hr/>The launch of the LEADER program, in 1991, brought a new dynamic to the rural development policy of the European Union. This instrument designed to promote entrepreneurship, enhancing economic growth and stimulating innovation in rural areas, was distinct from the classical policy models because it is based on a territorial, multi-sectoral and integrated approach. This article aims to analyze the added value, the effectiveness and efficiency of the LEADER program in the Alentejo region, over the first three phases of its implementation. To achieve this goal we analyzed all of the 2.706 investment projects implemented and funded by LEADER, from 1991 to 2006, in Alentejo, under the following analytical dimensions: geographic location, type of promoter, economic activity and nature of expenditure made. The statistical data collected from the national program management entities allowed a descriptive statistical analysis of financial and impact indicators. The results showed that the LEADER program contributed to a new socio-economic dynamics in Alentejo, since it contributed to a specialization of investment around two economic sectors, now considered strategic for this region: tourism and agribusiness. Nevertheless the LEADER impact seems to had little significance regarding R&amp;D expenditure, precisely those activities whose contribution could leverage the competitiveness of local companies. <![CDATA[Percepção dos Consumidores Relativamente à Carne de Bovino: cenários de escolha a partir de grupos de discussão]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600049&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nas economias desenvolvidas, a segurança dos alimentos, o bem­-estar animal e o ambiente têm vindo a assumir relevância nas preocupações dos consumidores. Procurámos saber, através da metodologia dos grupos de discussão (focus groups) realizados em duas cidades de Portugal, Lisboa e Porto, as preocupações e perceções dos consumidores relativamente a estes atributos, os quais são essencialmente acreditados. Este conhecimento é fundamental para a aplicação posterior de métodos de preferências declaradas. Foi ainda possível obter, com base em exercícios de seleção entre carnes diferenciadas, e através de um modelo logit, intervalos de preços passíveis de serem utilizados posteriormente na definição de cenários em experiências de escolha (método de preferências declaradas).<hr/>In developed economies, food safety, animal welfare and the environment have become relevant consumers' concerns. We conducted several focus groups in two Portuguese cities, Lisboa and Porto, in order to get participants perceptions and concerns for these attributes, which are essentially credence attributes. This knowledge is critical for the subsequent application of stated preference methods. It was also possible to estimate, based on exercises of selection among different meats, and through a logit model, price ranges that could be used in the definition of scenarios for choice experiments (stated preference method). <![CDATA[The Livestock Roles in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600063&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities. The data used in this study were collected in 2011 through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species. Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions. <![CDATA[Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600081&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal. <![CDATA[The Economic Role of the Portuguese Agricultural Cooperatives]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600091&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Since 2008 Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis. In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, the typology of Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives. <![CDATA[Habitat Features and Strategies for the Sustainable Development in the Alentejo Region]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600103&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The unfavoured Portuguese regions have a level of life and economic growth rates lower than favoured regions, and the mean of European Union and hence have less entrepreneurial activities. The adoption of strategies of sustainable development driven by entrepreneurship phenomena could be a viable solution. Thus, the likely relationships between entrepreneurship and regional features were described, and sources of entrepreneurship opportunities for strategies based on the own regional resources and competitive advantages were identified. The paper concludes that, for the Alentejo region, some habitat variables should be reinforced for promoting entrepreneurship and sustainable development, and the main opportunities are related to the economic activities that belong to the regional productive profile of specialization. <![CDATA[Modernização da Agricultura em Moçambique: determinantes da renda agrícola]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600115&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar até que ponto as tecnologias oriundas da revolução verde foram efetivamente adotadas na África Subsaariana e, nos casos em que foram adotadas, se tiveram sucesso em melhorar a renda e a produtividade da agricultura. Para este fim, o trabalho faz primeiramente um breve resumo do estado das artes da revolução verde na África, mostrando quais países avançaram mais e como se correlaciona a utilização de fertilizantes químicos com os aumentos de produtividade. Faz-se também uma discussão sobre as características do processo de intensificação num caso em particular, o de Moçambique. Finalmente, com base nos microdados do Tratado de Inquérito Agrícola (TIA), se testa um modelo econométrico de MQO que visa avaliar os determinantes da renda agrícola e, em particular, do uso de fertilizantes químicos.<hr/>The aim of this study is to verify to what extent the technologies coming from the green revolution were effectively adopted in sub-Saharan Africa, and, in cases in which they were adopted, if succeeded in improving agricultural productivity and income. To this end, the work makes first a brief summary of the State of the arts of the green revolution in Africa, showing which countries have advanced more and how the use of chemical fertilizers correlates with productivity increases. The article also discusses the characteristics of the intensification process in a particular case, of Mozambique. Finally, based on micro data of the Agricultural Survey (TIA), an econometric model MQO is tested, aiming to assess the determinants of agricultural income, and, in particular, the use of chemical fertilizers. <![CDATA[A Eficiência das Explorações Leiteiras Micaelenses (Açores)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032015000600129&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A discussão no âmbito da Política Agrícola Comum marca a atualidade açoriana. Um cenário possível é o decréscimo de apoios, subsídios à quota leiteira, aos produtores açorianos. Para compensar esta quebra de rendimento urge que os produtores leiteiros melhorem a eficiências das suas empresas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo conhecer os valores de eficiência e estimar o número de explorações eficientes em S. Miguel, ilha que contribui com 75% da produção regional. A produção de leite dos Açores representa 30% da portuguesa. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 91 explorações micaelenses. Estimam-se a eficiência usando o Deap. Utilizam-se dois modelos de eficiência não paramétrica alternativos: considerando, ou não, os subsídios como output. No Modelo I verificou-se que 7 (7,69%) explorações são eficientes. O nível de ineficiência técnica é de 0,312, ou seja, pode reduzir-se até 31,2% dos gastos nos consumos sem penalizar a produção. A eficiência técnica baixa de 68,8% no Modelo I para 63,7% no Modelo II, em que apenas 5 (5,49%) explorações são eficientes. Este trabalho caracteriza a estrutura das empresas pecuárias, apresenta a metodologia DEA, os trabalhos mais relevantes nesta área, apresenta e discute os resultados. Finalmente, apresentam­-se as considerações finais e a bibliografia.<hr/>The discussion of the Common Agricultural Policy is ongoing. One possible scenario is the reduction of support of the Azorean farms. To compensate this loss of income, dairy farmers will improve the efficiency of their farms. This paper aims to estimate the efficiency values and the number of efficient farms in S. Miguel Island, which contributes with 75% of regional production. Milk production in the Azores represents 30% of the Portuguese. This research was going in 91 S. Miguel farms. The efficiency was estimated using the DEAP. Two models are available: considering whether or not subsidies as output. The Model I showed that 7 (7.69%) farms are efficient. The level of technical efficiency is 0.312, which means, it can be possible to reduce up to 31.2% of expenditures in consumption without penalizing production. The technical efficiency of 68.8% in Model I decrease to 63.7 % in Model II, in this study case, 5 (5.49%) farms are efficient. This study characterizes the structure of the farms, presents the DEA and the most relevant work in this area, and discussion of the results. Finally, there are the concluding remarks and bibliography.