Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Production]]> vol. 25 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Introduction to the special section on Activity Theory for Work Analysis and Design]]> <![CDATA[Work activities within sustainable development]]> This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management. <![CDATA[Understanding the motivational perspectives of sustainability: A case of biogas production]]> Despite the importance of the expectations and visions of the actors involved in sustainable innovations, only the societal, motivational perspective is usually considered. The fact that local actors may have different multi-motivations is typically overlooked. The aim of this study is to examine and understand the multi-motivational perspectives in a sustainable production project. First, we introduce the concept of the object and analyze the case of a biogas production project as a mediating activity for making swine production more sustainable. We argue that the object of the activity, as manifested in motivational perspectives, shapes the way in which biogas production (BP) systems are implemented. The article concludes by discussing how the concept of object can be used to explore the actual and future possibilities of using artifacts for increasing the sustainability of production. <![CDATA[Logics of fluency in the transformation of the Finnish rail traffic control network]]> Due to the international demands of competition and organizational changes, the tasks of rail traffic control in Southern Finland have been divided into those run by public agencies and those run by private companies (train operators). The working routines and collaboration have changed during this period of transition. To better understand the reasons for diversity in the actions and solutions of everyday work, this paper examines how fluency, a common objective of networks, is maintained or pursued in network collaboration. The analysis shows how the logics of fluency differ between operative and situational disturbance-handling design levels. We elaborate and discuss the developmental possibilities embedded in the analysis of logics. <![CDATA[Challenges of the expansive use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in construction projects]]> Building information modeling (BIM) is an emerging modeling technology which challenges existing work procedures and practices in the construction industry. In this article we study the challenges, problems and potential expansions of BIM as a tool in the design, construction and operation of buildings. For this purpose the interfaces between different parties are examined in Finnish construction projects. The methodological approach of the study is cultural-historical activity theory, according to which a new artifact becomes a mediating instrument when the participatory subjects reconfigure the entire activity. The implementation of BIM is now spreading from the design activity to other phases of the construction projects, but its use is still limited in the projects' other three interfaces. BIM is an evolving set of software developed for various purposes which is locally 'combined' to fit the circumstances and capabilities of the stakeholders of the construction process. <![CDATA[From the ergonomic guidelines to the configuration of use in the offshore platforms design context]]> The possibility of using pre-defined ergonomic recommendations for projects offshore is related to several factors that encompass the hiring of a specialized ergonomic team to the design phase in which this team is involved in the context of the project. The main objective of this article is to test the usage and discuss the applicability of the Ergonomic Technical Recommendations (TRs), developed using the Ergonomic Work Analysis methodology. Although the TR files were considered overly long to read/become familiarised, the contextualization of the TRs through the configurations of use and the ergonomic study, or the "specialists", were fundamental in leading the ergonomic directives to being considered and implemented. <![CDATA[Users contributions to an architectural project at the start up]]> Changes to architectural projects can be seen as an ongoing process from design concept to use. This paper analyses a particular phase of an architectural project, the start-up, which is characterized by the initial occupation of a workplace by users and the start-up of services. This paper aims to show that the experiences in this phase are unique and may make specific contributions to the design process. Analysis during the start-up phase may reveal experiences and users'needs that have not been met by designers, as well as inadequacies in the newly built space. This paper presents the results of a case study carried out in a sector of a hospital dedicated to patients with HIV. The analysis of the start-up of this newly constructed centre was performed using two methodologies: Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Ergonomic Work Analysis. The results suggest that ergonomic interventions in projects should encompass the start-up phase. <![CDATA[The work of bus drivers and their contribution to excellence in public transportation]]> The article is the result of a survey aimed at analyzing the work of bus drivers for a collective urban transportation company that is considered a benchmark. The research sought to understand how the company could maintain a policy capable of reconciling the quality of public transportation with working conditions that are compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of the workers. The ergonomic work analysis methodology was adopted as a guide. The results show that one of the pillars of excellence achieved by this company is the quality of the work performed by their drivers, which is guided by the organizational values that permeate the organization. The driver plays a role in regulating the system by serving the population and providing mobility. Their activity is controlled by a series of interdependent variables, such as the demands for conducting the vehicle and the relationship with others. <![CDATA[The process of developing new competences: a case study at a family agricultural production unit]]> This article addresses the difficulties faced by farmers who implement new production methods on their land. We discuss the nature of the new competences that farmers must develop, highlighting the complexities of the means they use, the difficulties they confront in this process, and the strategies farmers develop in consonance with the practical knowledge of their profession. The method used includes elements of Ergonomic Work Analysis combined with a case study. Le Boterf's model of the process of constructing competences is used to support the data analysis. The discussion is organized based on an analysis of the evolution of consolidated competences that are re-elaborated for a new agricultural production. The analysis of the strategies and operational modes is introduced, and their contribution to the development of new competences is noted, thus enriching the model proposed by Le Boterf. It is essential to understand the cognitive processes, strategies, and operating modes involved in the development of competences. This procedure provides mechanisms that preserve the opportunity for observation of significant variables in managing variability to be included in the transformation or evolution of work situations and to define the activities that workers will perform. <![CDATA[Changes in working conditions for home healthcare workers and impacts on their work activity and on their emotions]]> Home healthcare is steadily growing in many countries. Nevertheless, it is known that home healthcare workers are frequently exposed to a variety of potentially serious occupational hazards. Working conditions have changed to become more emotionally and physically demanding on workers. Emotional labor is increasingly high in this profession. Time pressure is increasingly common. This paper describes an ergonomic study analyzing the working conditions of nursing assistants and nurses, as well as the impacts of their work in terms of job satisfaction, emotions at work, relationships with the others, and occupational stress. The study shows that changing working conditions are making it increasingly difficult for home healthcare workers to do their work properly. We can confirm that such workers use strategies to try to cope. They use individual strategies to preserve the relational dimension of their work activity. These strategies are specifically centered around preserving the relationships with patients, and coping with the demands of the job. The study also shows that workers use strategies to express emotions and to conceal them from others. Finally, the paper presents the recommendations that were discussed with the manager and workers for improving working conditions and that led to practical proposals: e.g. implementing certain items of equipment better suited to difficult care, encouraging assistance between workers when operations so require through appropriate organizational measures, extending emotion-focused work discussion groups with management involvement. <![CDATA[Subjectivity in ergonomics, a new start to the dialogue regarding the psychodynamics of work]]> The emergence of subjectivity as a central issue of work pinpoints a dimension that is quite underexplored in ergonomics, even through the "activity ergonomic approach". Drawing on concepts related to an ergonomic approach concerned with subjectivity, not many answers exist. Part of this lack of answers can be solved through a dialogue with contiguous approaches proposed by other work sciences, such as ergology, the clinic of activity, or the clinic of work developed by the psychodynamics of work (PDW). The results of different studies provide evidence of the importance of subjectivity in work, especially if we take into account the emergence of mental health problems in different organizations. In this paper, we focus on the dialogue between ergonomics and PDW. <![CDATA[Editorial<sup>1</sup>]]> The emergence of subjectivity as a central issue of work pinpoints a dimension that is quite underexplored in ergonomics, even through the "activity ergonomic approach". Drawing on concepts related to an ergonomic approach concerned with subjectivity, not many answers exist. Part of this lack of answers can be solved through a dialogue with contiguous approaches proposed by other work sciences, such as ergology, the clinic of activity, or the clinic of work developed by the psychodynamics of work (PDW). The results of different studies provide evidence of the importance of subjectivity in work, especially if we take into account the emergence of mental health problems in different organizations. In this paper, we focus on the dialogue between ergonomics and PDW. <![CDATA[Esverdeando a manufatura: dos fundamentos conceituais ao estudo de múltiplos casos]]> O propósito deste artigo é analisar a inserção das questões ambientais no contexto da função produção/manufatura (ou operações), a qual é referenciada como a área organizacional que deve liderar a gestão ambiental empresarial. Para tanto, sistematizou-se o referencial teórico sobre o esverdeamento da área de produção, com implicações para o desenvolvimento de produto, processo, gestão da qualidade e logística. Tendo em vista que esse campo de pesquisa carece, ainda, de evidências empíricas, optou-se pela realização de quatro estudos de caso em empresas localizadas no Brasil. Constatou-se que o nível de maturidade da gestão ambiental dessas empresas tende a acompanhar o grau com que a questão ambiental é inserida nas subáreas de produção, principalmente no processo de desenvolvimento de produto. Não obstante, verificou-se, na maior parte dos casos, dificuldade dessas organizações em estruturar a inserção da dimensão ambiental nas atividades logísticas, desafio que pode ser superado com a adoção, por parte das empresas, dos modernos conceitos de green supply chain management. Os apontamentos finais ressaltam o distanciamento observado entre o que a literatura internacional apregoa e a realidade de empresas localizadas no Brasil no desafio de esverdear definitivamente as empresas manufatureiras.<hr/>The purpose of this paper is to analyze the integration of environmental issues in the context of manufacturing function/production (or operations), which is considered the organizational area that should lead corporate environmental management. We present a background on the greening of the manufacturing area, especially in terms of product development, process, quality management and logistics. Four case studies of Brazilian companies are presented as part of the study, and it is found that the maturity level of these companies' environmental management tends to follow the degree to which the environment has been inserted into subareas of production, especially in the process of product development. However, difficulties encountered in greening a company's logistics activities are also recognized in most cases. It is concluded that companies can overcome this challenge by adopting new concepts of green supply chain management. The notes highlight the observed distance between arguments in the international literature and the reality of Brazilian companies on the greening of manufacturing aspects. <![CDATA[Perfil e tendências da liderança em uma empresa brasileira líder mundial de mercado]]> O objetivo deste trabalho é o entendimento de como a liderança ocorre em uma empresa brasileira líder mundial em seu mercado de atuação, em tempos marcados por grandes incertezas, particularmente nos dias atuais. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, orientada pelo paradigma interpretativo, que busca, a partir dos dados colhidos em entrevistas com informantes, descrições detalhadas e interpretações para o fenômeno da liderança na organização em estudo. O ambiente onde a pesquisa foi desenvolvida é uma área de pesquisa e desenvolvimento de uma empresa brasileira líder mundial no seu mercado de atuação. Os tipos de liderança considerados foram a transacional e a transformacional. No presente trabalho também são discutidos aspectos relacionados com a tendência de evolução e posicionamento dessa liderança em termos de um cenário globalizado.<hr/>The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of how leadership currently occurs in a Brazilian company, in a scenario marked by vast uncertainties. The study includes qualitative research oriented by the interpretative paradigm. It describes and interprets the leadership phenomena with data collected from participant interviews. The survey was conducted in a research and development area of a leading Brazilian company. Transaction and transformational leadership styles were considered in the characterization. Aspects related to the evolutional trend of this leadership and its situation in a global scenario are also addressed. <![CDATA[Pesquisa levantamento para análise do modelo de compras conjuntas adotado em arranjos produtivos locais de Minas Gerais]]> Considerando que em muitas empresas o valor da compra de suprimentos é bastante significativo, o bom gerenciamento da função compras e do relacionamento com fornecedores pode assegurar maior competitividade aos seus produtos e serviços, trazendo melhores resultados aos acionistas. Todavia, esse tema ainda parece ser um privilégio das grandes organizações. Por limitações internas e externas, as pequenas e médias empresas estão à margem da gestão de relacionamento com fornecedores e da correta gestão de compras. Muitas pequenas e médias empresas, com intuito de superar as várias limitações gerenciais ou tecnológicas, dentre elas as limitações relacionadas ao gerenciamento da cadeia de suprimentos, puderam se organizar em Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs), fundamentalmente atuantes no setor industrial. Esse tipo de arranjo é formado por empresas pertencentes a um setor específico, onde há concorrência, mas também há práticas de cooperação. Dentre essas práticas destaca-se o compartilhamento e união dos lotes de compras, através do processo de compras conjuntas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho é analisar os modelos de compras conjuntas adotados pelos Arranjos Produtivos Locais industriais concentradas no estado de Minas Gerais. Para tanto foi estruturada e aplicada uma pesquisa levantamento junto às empresas pertencentes aos APLs industriais mineiros. Com os resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que, de modo geral, as compras conjuntas em Arranjos Produtivos Locais Mineiros são incipientes e não sistemáticas.<hr/>Although purchasing supplies represents a significant cost for many companies, the proper management of procurement function and relationships with suppliers can ensure greater competitiveness for their products and services, thus bringing better results to shareholders. However, this advantage still seems to be a privilege of large organizations. For internal and external constraints, small and medium companies are outside both the supplier relationship management and the correct management of purchases. Small and medium companies, when they aim to overcome the various managerial or technological limitations (among them the limitations related to supply chain management), can organize clusters that primarily work in the industrial sector. Companies that exist within a specific sector where there is both competition and practical cooperation create these organized clusters. Among these practices, the share and union of purchasing through the practice of cooperative purchasing can be called the main practice. From this context, the objective is to analyze the models for cooperative purchasing that have been adopted by manufacturing clusters and retailers buying offices, focused on the state of Minas Gerais. Thus, a research survey was created and distributed among companies belonging to industrial clusters in the state of Minas Gerais. The results conclude that, in general, joint procurement in Local Productive Arrangements Miners is very weak and unsystematic. <![CDATA[Como dar suporte às estratégias de empresas hoteleiras? Uma análise segundo a visão baseada em recursos]]> A visão baseada em recursos destaca o papel dos recursos empresariais para a eficácia das estratégias e para a construção de uma vantagem competitiva sustentável. Com base nesses conceitos, este artigo tem por objetivo verificar se os recursos estratégicos de duas empresas do setor hoteleiro de um município do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul estão contribuindo para as estratégias realizadas por essas organizações e, consequentemente, para sua vantagem competitiva. Para alcançar esse objetivo, foi adotado o método do estudo de caso, utilizando como técnica principal de coleta de dados a entrevista semiestruturada com perguntas abertas e fechadas dirigidas aos gerentes das empresas. Os resultados demonstraram um padrão comum entre as empresas pesquisadas, que apresentaram estratégias e recursos semelhantes. A avaliação dos recursos estratégicos permitiu entender a sua contribuição e a relação deles com as estratégias identificadas para os dois hotéis.<hr/>A resource-based view highlights the role of resources in implementing effective business strategies and building sustainable competitive advantage. Based on these concepts, this paper aims to determine whether the strategic resources of two companies in the hospitality industry of a city in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul are contributing to the strategies realized by these organizations in ways that give them competitive advantage. To achieve this goal, we adopted the case study method. We used semi-structured interviews with open and closed questions directed to managers. The results showed a common pattern among the companies studied, which had similar strategies and resources. The evaluation of strategic resources allowed us to understand their contributions and their relationships with the identified strategies for the two hotels. <![CDATA[Modelo de alinhamento estratégico de produção – MAP: contribuição teórica para a área de estratégia de produção]]> O fio condutor de investigação desse trabalho parte dos estudos sobre as abordagens de conteúdo e de processo de formulação de estratégias de produção e da constatação de que a avaliação do desempenho competitivo de produção de uma determinada unidade produtiva, bem como a força estratégica de sua função de produção vai além do entendimento sobre a ligação entre prioridades competitivas e áreas de decisão de produção. Dessa forma, foi proposto o modelo de alinhamento estratégico de produção – MAP, que explora essa avaliação de desempenho em quatro níveis de análise inter-relacionados: nível 1 – posições competitivas da empresa e da manufatura; nível 2 – posição competitiva de manufatura e paradigma estratégico de gestão de manufatura; nível 3 – paradigma estratégico de gestão de manufatura e estratégia de produção; nível 4 – prioridades competitivas e rede de valor de operações. A partir de uma discussão teórica envolvida em cada nível de análise do modelo, é possível afirmar que o modelo proposto se constitui em um arcabouço teórico importante de orientação, avaliação e análise da importância estratégica da função de produção nas empresas.<hr/>The motivating factor behind the current work comes from previous studies on approaches to strategic production and from the development process of strategic production. The study was also driven by assessments of the competitive development of strategic production in a specific productive unit, such as the strategic power of its function of production, which goes beyond understanding the link between the competitive priorities and the decision production area. Thus, the strategic alignment of production (SAP) model was proposed, which explores this assessment of development using four levels of inter-related analysis: level 1 – the competitive positions in the company and manufacturing; level 2 – the competitive position and the strategic paradigm of manufacturing management; level 3 – the strategic paradigm of both the manufacture gesture and the production strategy; and level 4 – competitive priorities and the value network operation. The proposed model is an important theoretical tool for the orientation, assessment and analysis of the importance of strategic production within companies. <![CDATA[Uma abordagem cognitiva sobre o processo de institucionalização de sistemas locais de produção e inovação]]> A evolução de um Sistema Local de Produção e Inovação (SLPI) é acompanhada pela formação de arranjos institucionais responsáveis pela coordenação das ações entre empresários e demais agentes locais. O período embrionário desse processo é marcado por dificuldades em alinhar as instituições e as regras sociais às regras individuais determinadas pela lógica empresarial. O artigo analisa como o nível de habilidade cognitiva empresarial influencia a capacidade de interpretação das instituições presentes em um SLPI. A pesquisa, desenvolvida com 20 empresários em uma aglomeração do setor de vestuário na cidade de Indaiatuba, propõe uma metodologia para mensurar a correlação entre a variação nos níveis de habilidade cognitiva dos empresários e a capacidade de interpretação das instituições. A pesquisa evidencia que existem diferentes níveis de estruturas cognitivas dentro do SLPI e que a variação nos níveis de cognição empresarial está associada à capacidade de interpretação das instituições.<hr/>The evolution of local systems of production and innovation (LSPI) is followed by the institutionalization of the system to coordinate the actions of entrepreneurs and other local agents. The process of alignment between institutions (social rules) and cognitions (individual rules) is determined by impasses and contradictions, once changes in both dimensions do not occur simultaneously. This article analyzes how the level of entrepreneurial cognitive ability influences the capacity of entrepreneurs for interpreting institutions. This research, developed in a garment district of Indaiatuba with twenty entrepreneurs, proposes a methodology, within an entrepreneurial domain, to measure the level of entrepreneurial cognitive ability and the capacity of entrepreneurs to read and interpret institutions. There are two main findings. First, there is evidence that entrepreneurs within a LSPI have different levels of cognitive structures. Second, these differences are correlated with the capacity of entrepreneurs to read, interpret and adopt institutions. <![CDATA[Proposta de um método multicritério para escolha múltipla]]> Este trabalho tem como objetivo propor uma solução multicritério para a problemática de escolha múltipla dentro do mesmo problema decisório, partindo da hipótese de que as n melhores alternativas em uma ordenação não são necessariamente o melhor conjunto de n alternativas. Por meio de uma pesquisa experimental, simula-se um problema de recrutamento, onde se deseja escolher três candidatos entre dez. O MEM – Multiplex Electionis Methodus – oferece uma solução para esse problema partindo da modelagem tradicional dos problemas decisórios, com matriz de pagamentos e vetor de pesos, e agregando uma matriz de complementaridade entre critérios. Os resultados apontam que a melhor opção tripla não são as três opções melhores colocadas em uma ordenação simples e cumpre-se o objetivo do trabalho ao confirmar a hipótese declarada, contrariando a decisão intuitiva de admitir que as n primeiras alternativas são o melhor conjunto de n alternativas.<hr/>This research paper aims to propose a multicriteria solution to the multiple-choice problematic within the same decision problem, based on the hypothesis that the ‘n’ best alternatives in a ranking listing are not necessarily the best set of ‘n’ alternatives. Through experimental research, a recruiting problem where three candidates should be chosen from a set of ten is simulated. MEM - Multiplex Electionis Methodus – offers a solution to this problem starting from the traditional modeling of the decision problems, with a payment matrix and weights vector, and aggregating a matrix of complementarity among criteria. The results show that the best triple set is not the set of the three best ranked options in a simple ranking list, thus fulfilling the research paper’s objective by confirming the stated hypothesis, thereby contradicting the intuitive decision based on the assumption that the ‘n’ first alternatives compose the best set of ‘n’ alternatives. <![CDATA[Cocriação de valor no transporte rodoviário de carga fracionada: um estudo de caso]]> Este artigo investiga se a cocriação de valor pode ser aplicada pelos prestadores de serviços de transporte. O estudo focalizou os transportadores e operadores logísticos. Um estudo de caso múltiplo foi realizado. Constructos afetos ao tema cocriação de valor foram extraídos da literatura para a consolidação da fundamentação teórica da pesquisa. Os seguintes tópicos foram investigados: demandas de valor dos compradores, critérios utilizados pelos compradores para avaliar o valor oferecido pelos prestadores de serviços e a possibilidade de cocriação de valor entre os compradores e vendedores. Os achados apontam duas principais barreiras para a cocriação de valor nos serviços de transporte, a saber: um grande número de prestadores de serviços (o que força os provedores de serviço a focalizar essencialmente a dimensão custo dos serviços) e as exigências dos clientes. A combinação dos referidos elementos sugere a impossibilidade de adoção de cocriação no contexto estudado. Esses resultados também podem indicar a existência de um limite inferior para a abordagem de valor no setor de serviços (por caso, nos serviços de transporte de carga).<hr/>This paper investigates whether transport service providers can apply the co-creation of value. The presented multiple case study focused on the shippers and logistics providers. Value co-creation constructs extracted from the literature provided the theoretical background for the research. The following topics were investigated: the buyers’ value demands, the criteria used by the buyers to evaluate the value offered by the service providers and the possibility of value co-creation between buyers and sellers. The findings uncovered two main barriers to the value co-creation in the transport services, namely a large number of service providers (which restricts the competition to the cost of the services) and the customers’ demands. The combination of these elements suggests the impracticality of adopting co-creation in the context of road cargo transport. Such findings also may indicate the existence of a lower limit to the value approach in the service industry (e.g., in the transport services).