Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Production]]> vol. 26 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[A three-stage stochastic optimization model for the Brazilian biodiesel supply chain]]> Abstract The Brazilian program for biodiesel use highlights the production of biodiesel from castor seeds. Biodiesel is a non-polluting energy source that has the potential to promote prosperity by creating jobs in poor regions of Brazil. However, the infrastructure, logistics, and proper facilities are lacking. A variety of approaches to optimizing the biodiesel supply chain have been proposed. The goal is to minimize the grain storage and transportation costs. This paper presents a comparison between a two-stage model and a multistage (three-stage) stochastic model to optimize the biodiesel supply chain. The comparison between these formulations shows that the flexibility gain provided by the multistage model results in a lower total logistic cost. The optimum for the three-stage model was 7,700,019 (BRL), compared to 8,628,002 (BRL) for the two-stage model, representing a savings of 927,983 (BRL). We highlight that this model offers a real solution for castor supply chain design (considering uncertainty) in the Brazilian semiarid region, which is a poorer region of the country, thus making cost reduction mandatory. <![CDATA[Corporate sustainability and asset pricing models: empirical evidence for the Brazilian stock market]]> Abstract The paper investigates the impact of corporate sustainability on asset prices. For that purpose, we develop a novel corporate sustainability factor and test the extent to which this factor is priced in an augmented four-factor version of the traditional Fama &amp; French (1993) asset pricing model. The corporate sustainability factor is based on a zero-investment portfolio which is long in stocks with high sustainability and short in stocks with low sustainability. We use data on the Brazilian stock market to estimate alternative model specifications with different combinations of four explanatory variables: the corporate sustainability premium, the market risk factor premium, the size factor premium and the book-to-market factor premium. Our results indicate that corporate sustainability is priced and helps to explain the variability in the cross-section of expected stock returns. <![CDATA[Sustainability performance measurement with Analytic Network Process and balanced scorecard: Cuban practical case]]> Abstract The recent years has arisen a global discussion in relation with how to incorporate sustainability at a business level. Corporate sustainability is a multidimensional concept, is the translation of Sustainable Development concept at a business level. Sustainability in organizations must be managed and assessed by decision makers, for that reason a multi-criteria sustainability performance measurement is necessary. The aim of this paper is combine different important tools that helps to make operative corporate sustainability and sustainability performance measurement in Cuban organizations. The combination of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard, multi-criteria decisions models like: Analytic Network Process, and Matrix of Sustainable Strategic Alignment, can help managers in sustainability performance measurement and assessment. The result of this paper focus in a Corporate Sustainability Measurement Network design as a first approach for further sustainability performance measurement systems development emphasizing in multi-criteria analysis. <![CDATA[Complementarity in the adoption of traceability of beef cattle in Brazil]]> Abstract Complementarity is an interesting approach to explain technology adoption. Taking account the other activities the farm performs in its production strategy can help understanding the decision on the adoption of new agricultural technology. This paper aims to evidence the existence of synergic effect resulting from the joint adoption of feedlot and traceability certification of beef cattle in Brazil. A sample of 84 beef cattle farms provided data to test hypotheses by using an OLS regression model. A measure of performance – revenue – is regressed on variables representing both isolated and joint adoption of capital-intensive production system and traceability. The results suggest the existence of synergic effect when joint adoption takes place. Joint adoption is influenced by a set of management practices, such as forward contracts, training of employees and zootechnical performance control, which are shared by both capital-intensive production systems and traceability. <![CDATA[Estimating the efficiency from Brazilian banks: a bootstrapped Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)]]> Abstract The Brazilian banking sector went through several changes in its structure over the past few years. Such changes are related to fusions and acquisitions, as well as the largest market opening to foreign banks. The objective of this paper is to analyze, by applying the bootstrap DEA, the efficiency of banks in Brazil in 2010-2013. The methodology was applied to 30 largest banking organizations in a financial intermediation approach. In that model, the resources entering a bank in the form of deposits and total assets are classified as inputs and besides these manual labor is also considered as a resource capable of generating results. For the output variable, credit operations represent the most appropriate alternative, considering the role of the bank as a financial intermediary. In this work, the matter of the best classification among retail banks and banks specialized in credit has little relevance. The low relevance in this type of comparison is a result of analysis by segments (segments were analyzed separately). The results presented here point to an average level of efficiency for the large Brazilian banks in the period. This scenario requires efforts to reduce expenses but also to increase revenues. <![CDATA[Um estudo sobre localização de terminais intermodais na rede de escoamento da soja brasileira]]> Resumo A soja é um dos principais produtos agrícolas brasileiros. Do total colhido, aproximadamente 40% é destinado à exportação. Como as lavouras estão concentradas principalmente na região central no país, essa soja percorre, em geral, grandes distâncias até os portos marítimos. Nesse caso, o transporte intermodal pode tornar mais eficiente e econômica a movimentação de grandes volumes por longas distâncias. Analisa-se, neste estudo, a aplicação de um modelo de programação matemática para apoiar decisões de fluxo de soja e localização de terminais intermodais. Com base em dados secundários, foram propostas três redes alternativas de escoamento, com diferentes áreas de abrangência e possibilidade de utilização de ferrovias ainda em construção ou projeto. Foram considerados os principais estados produtores e movimentadores da soja. Experimentos computacionais resultaram em fluxos de escoamento e localização de terminais condizentes com a realidade. Cenários alternativos da rede também foram analisados, evidenciando o potencial de análise dessa ferramenta de otimização.<hr/>Abstract Soybean is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural products. Of the entire volume of soybean produced in Brazil, approximately 40% is for export. As soybean crops are mainly concentrated in the center of the country, the soybeans generally must travel large distances to reach the seaports. In this case, intermodal transport can enable the movement of large volumes over long distances in a more efficient and economic manner. In this study, we analyze the application of a mathematical programming model to support decisions on the soybean flows and the locations of intermodal terminals. Based on secondary data, three alternative networks are proposed, with different coverage areas and the possibility of using railroads in construction or the design phase. The primary soybean producing states and traders were considered. Experiments with the model resulted in identification of the transport flows and the location of terminals consistent with reality. Alternative scenarios for the network were also analyzed, showing the potential of this analysis optimization tool. <![CDATA[Construção de uma escala para medir o nível dos colaboradores para a prática da Melhoria Contínua em uma organização por meio do modelo de resposta nominal da TRI]]> Resumo Esta pesquisa oferece uma discussão sobre a construção de uma escala para medir o nível dos colaboradores para a prática da Melhoria Contínua dentro de uma organização. O desenvolvimento desta foi possível por meio da utilização de um instrumento de medida constituído de 34 itens embasados no conceito de Melhoria Contínua e aplicados em uma amostra de 519 colaboradores pertencentes a uma organização industrial. A seguir os dados foram avaliados estatisticamente pela Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI), mais precisamente por meio do modelo de resposta nominal. Como resultado, conseguiu-se a equalização entre os itens aplicados e os scores dos colaboradores pesquisados, permitindo o desenvolvimento de uma métrica com distintos níveis para a prática da Melhoria Contínua. As decorrências estratégicas derivadas deste resultado são muito importantes, pois na medida do traço latente a aplicação da TRI permitiu fazer uma avaliação do fenômeno em estudo com mais precisão e consistência, fornecendo assim, informações relevantes para a tomada de decisões dentro da organização pesquisa.<hr/>Abstract This research provides a discussion of the construction of a scale to measure the level of employee commitment in the practice of continuous improvement within an organization. The development of this scale was enabled by the use of a measuring instrument consisting of 34 items guided by the concept of continuous improvement applied to a sample of 519 employees of the organization. The data were analyzed using statistical tools, such as the item response theory, specifically via the nominal response model. As a result, the equalization could be applied between the items, and the scores of individuals could be studied, allowing for the development of a metric with different levels for the practice of continuous improvement. The strategic outcomes are very important because the application of latent trait IRT has allowed for an assessment of the phenomenon under study with more accuracy and consistency, thus proving relevant for decision making within the research organization information. <![CDATA[Estudo comparativo das ferramentas para mapeamento das atividades executadas pelos consumidores em processos de serviço]]> Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é explorar o potencial de aplicação das ferramentas de mapeamento na construção de mapas de processo que evidenciem as atividades executadas pelos consumidores em processos de serviço. O artigo aborda as ferramentas SIPOC, Fluxograma, Blueprint, Process-Chain-Network, Mapa do Consumo, SERVPRO e Carta de Atividades, exemplificando sua aplicação na construção de mapas que oferecem diferentes visões processuais para um processo de compra via internet adotando a abordagem de decomposição hierárquica na análise do fluxo de atividades do consumidor. Estas ferramentas são analisadas quanto à capacidade de representar os diferentes aspectos do processo mapeado, considerando características como a forma de representação gráfica e o enfoque, abrangência e granularidade da visualização que oferecem. Finalmente, é apresentada uma avaliação comparativa da capacidade informativa destas ferramentas, procurando-se evidenciar o diferencial de cada uma.<hr/>Abstract The objective of this article is to explore the potential application of mapping tools to build process maps that bring into view the activities performed by consumers in service processes. The article addresses a set of tools, namely, SIPOC, Flowchart, Blueprint, Process-Chain-Network, Consumption Map, SERVPRO, and Activity Chart, exemplifying their application in the building of maps that offer different visions for an online shopping process undertaking the approach of hierarchical decomposition in the analysis of a consumer’s activities flow. These tools are analyzed with regard to their capacity to represent the different aspects of the mapped process, considering characteristics such as the graphic representation form and the focal points, scope, and granularity of the visualization they provide. Finally, a comparative evaluation of the informative capacity of these tools is presented, which highlights the distinct attributes of each one. <![CDATA[Formulações matemáticas e estratégias de resolução para o problema <em>job shop</em> clássico]]> Resumo O problema de sequenciamento de tarefas no ambiente de produção job shop se caracteriza por conter n tarefas que devem ser processados por m máquinas, em que cada tarefa a ser realizada é constituída por um roteiro específico de operações com ordem de precedência preestabelecida. O objetivo deste trabalho é realizar uma análise comparativa das formulações matemáticas para este ambiente, minimizando o tempo total de execução de todas as tarefas em todas as máquinas (makespan). Modelos conhecidos e um novo modelo são avaliados e comparados através de testes computacionais em problemas-teste da literatura. Adicionalmente, estratégias de resolução são propostas. Experimentos computacionais utilizando um software comercial conhecido indicam que as estratégias propostas são eficientes para a redução do gap de otimalidade.<hr/>Abstract The scheduling problem in a job shop production environment is characterized by containing n jobs to be processed by m machines, where each job is represented by a specific sequence of operations with an established precedence order. The aim of this work is to perform a comparative analysis of the mathematical formulations for this environment by minimizing the makespan, i.e., the total time to complete all n jobs. Popular models and a proposed model are compared and evaluated through computational tests using cases from the literature. In addition, resolution strategies are proposed. Computational experiments using a well-known commercial software package indicate that the proposal strategies can promote a reduction of the optimality gap. <![CDATA[Fatores chave para o alinhamento estratégico vertical: <em>Survey</em> com executivos brasileiros]]> Resumo O alinhamento é um conceito central nos estudos sobre estratégia, no entanto as pesquisas dão maior ênfase ao assunto no contexto da formulação do que no da implementação da estratégia. Este estudo contribui para suprir essa lacuna ao identificar e propor um framework com fatores chave para o alinhamento estratégico vertical internamente à organização. Esses fatores foram submetidos a 125 executivos brasileiros, por meio de um estudo quantitativo, para avaliar a sua implementação. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando-se estatística descritiva. Verificou-se que tem sido dada maior ênfase no planejamento de curto prazo e que existe necessidade de ampliar a participação da média gerência na formulação. Os resultados também apontam lacunas nas capacidades gerenciais para a implementação da estratégia e nos fatores que podem aumentar o envolvimento das pessoas com a estratégia.<hr/>Abstract Alignment is a central concept in the field of strategy studies. However, prior research has tended to emphasize the subject in the context of the formulation versus the implementation of strategy. This study contributes to filling this gap by identifying and proposing a framework with key factors to promote strategic vertical alignment. These factors were submitted to 125 Brazilian executives in a quantitative study to evaluate their implementation. The results were evaluated by applying descriptive statistics. The results demonstrated an emphasis on short-term planning, a need to extend the participation of middle management in the formulation process, and gaps in management's capacity to implement strategy. Factors that can enhance people's involvement with the strategy are also discussed. <![CDATA[Green manufacturing: uma análise da produção científica e de tendências para o futuro]]> O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar uma análise da produção científica internacional na área de green manufacturing. Foi utilizada a base de dados Web of Science, tendo sido mapeados 239 artigos no período de 1991 a 2013. As publicações envolveram 589 autores, de 36 países, 246 instituições e 142 diferentes periódicos/conferências. Destaca-se que 51,4% dos artigos foram publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Entre os países mais prolíficos destacaram-se os Estados Unidos e a China. O periódico mais prolífico foi o Journal of Cleaner Production, com 19 artigos no período. Sobre a análise de autoria, destacou-se a categoria one-timers, com 85,7% das publicações. A maior produção foi de 11 artigos por autor e o mais citado recebeu 368 citações. Conclui-se que a temática teve uma ascensão expressiva nos últimos anos, com foco em estudos teóricos e teórico-empíricos.<hr/>This paper presents an analysis of the international scientific publications in the green manufacturing area. We used the Web of Science database to identify 239 articles published between 1991 and 2013. The articles involved 589 authors from 36 countries, 246 institutions, and 142 journals/conferences. We found that 51.4% of the articles were published within the last five years. Among the countries involved, the most prolific were the United States and China. The most prolific journal was the Journal of Cleaner Production with 19 articles. Most of the authors, 85.7%, were one-time authors in the field. The highest yield was 11 articles by one author, and the most cited author received 368 citations. We concluded that the green manufacturing area has increased its relevance in recent years by focusing on theoretical and empirical-theoretical studies. <![CDATA[Sustentabilidade e gestão de projetos: um estudo bibliométrico]]> Resumo Os projetos conduzidos em empresas e organizações têm impactos no cenário imediato bem como em um futuro mais distante. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho é compreender a inserção de questões de sustentabilidade na literatura de gestão de projetos. A metodologia mescla técnicas de bibliometria, redes e análise de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam que as publicações estão dispersas em termos de autor e revista. As temáticas remetem a questões relacionadas aos stakeholders, inovação e desenvolvimento de produto, com destaque para publicações na área da construção civil. Observa-se uma tendência, principalmente a partir de 2005, com presença constante de artigos voltados ao pilar econômico e aumento da participação das abordagens social e ambiental. As pesquisas com o enfoque na tripla restrição - social, ambiental e econômica - tiveram nos últimos dois anos destaque no incremento. Há oportunidades de pesquisa significativas, já que as publicações estão longe de exaurir esse complexo tema.<hr/>Abstract Projects conducted in firms and organizations have immediate impacts as well as long-term consequences. The objective of this paper is to understand the treatment of sustainability issues in the literature on project management. The methodology incorporates bibliometric techniques, network analysis and content analysis. The results indicate that the publications are dispersed among many authors and journals. The themes relate to issues such as stakeholders, innovation and product development, with an emphasis on publications in the area of construction. There is a tendency, especially after 2005, toward articles focused on the economic pillar and on increasing participation in social and environmental approaches. In just the last two years, studies with a focus on the triple constraint - social, environmental and economic - have increased considerably. There are significant opportunities for research because the publications are far from exhaustive on this complex subject.