Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Pro-Posições]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0103-730720170002&lang=pt vol. 28 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Educação doméstica: convocação ao debate]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Apresentação do Dossiê: <em>Homeschooling</em> e o Direito à Educação]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Homeschooling in the United States: Examining the Rationales for Individualizing Education]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This article provides an exploratory overview of the history of homeschooling in the United States in addition to examining some of the claims made by advocacy organizations. There are two broad categories of rationales for homeschooling: (1) empirical — claims of greater efficiency, effectiveness, or pedagogical appropriateness; and (2) ideological – often informed by a religious or political disposition. A detailed discussion of both rationales is provided. First examined are claims made by homeschooling advocates related to effectiveness and efficiency, finding that this rationale does not have the same validity that ideological rationales like religion and safety may have. Finally, these rationales are cast against the backdrop of the aims of education as a mechanism for the collective good or for the individual good. <![CDATA[Provisions for Homeschooling in Canada: Parental Rights and the Role of the State]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200039&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the policy and provisions for homeschooling in Canada. Drawing upon existing research, the paper begins by situating homeschooling within the larger educational landscape of Canadian public education, and examines the evolution of homeschooling in this context. The paper highlights the shifting motivation of parents to homeschool during different periods and reviews some of the tension related to this form of schooling. The next section provides a comparative view of the regulatory framework, funding and support for homeschooling in each province, student enrolment figures, student performance outcomes and fiscal efficiencies for Canadian tax-payers. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from the Canadian experience of homeschooling that informs implications for policy makers in other contexts. <![CDATA[O <em>homeschooling</em> e a crítica à escola: hibridismos e (des)continuidades educativas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200057&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo Desde os anos 1960, o homeschooling apresenta dinâmicas de crescimento atualizadas nos diagnósticos da crise do capitalismo e dos sistemas educativos. Por ser praticado por famílias próximas do progressismo libertário, do cristianismo conservador ou de outras inspirações axiológicas, a abordagem investigativa presente neste texto pressupôs romper com uma visão unívoca e alheia à sua diversidade e aos diferentes graus de (in)formalidade dos quotidianos educativos de crianças e de jovens que caracterizam este fenómeno educativo. Procura-se captar as especificidades do ensino doméstico (ED) em Portugal e a sua crescente expressão social e educacional e reflete-se sobre os sentidos das aprendizagens que ele encerra. Conclui-se que o ED parece ser contrário aos horizontes formativos da criança segundo o interesse da sociedade, sendo omisso sobre o seu papel na emancipação dos sujeitos. Confrontam-se a escola e o seu modo de funcionamento a partir do racional do ED, à procura de novas epistemologias e de novas linhas de pesquisa.<hr/>Abstract Since the 1960s, homeschooling has shown growth dynamics updated by the diagnosis of the crisis of capitalism and of educational systems. Because it is practiced by families close to libertarian progressivism, conservative Christianity, or other axiological inspirations, this paper’s approach sought to break with a univocal conception alien to its diversity and to the different degrees of (in)formality of the children’s and young people’s educational daily lives inherent to this educational practice. Therefore, this paper seeks to understand the specificities of Portuguese homeschooling and its increasing social and educational expression, and to reflect on the meanings of the learning it entails. Being unclear about its role on the emancipation of the subjects, homeschooling seems to be contrary to the educational horizons of the child according to the interests of the whole society. This paper confronts school and its way of functioning with the homeschooling rationale in order to search for new epistemologies and new lines of research. <![CDATA[A Review of research on Homeschooling and what might educators learn?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200085&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This article reviews research on homeschool learner outcomes and then focuses on one study and one conceptual theme related to both home education and schooling in general. It synthesizes research on learner outcomes related to homeschooling in areas of students’ academic achievement, children’s social, emotional, and psychological development, and the success of adults who were home educated. The summary finds generally that positive outcomes on a variety of variables are associated with homeschooling. The first special focus is one study on African American homeschooling families that explores the parents’ reasons for homeschooling and their Black children’s academic achievement. The second particular focus is the issue of whether compulsory school attendance laws are necessary in light of the findings of research on teacher preparation and certification in state/public schools and three decades of research on modern homeschooling. <![CDATA[Homeschooling: entre dois jusnaturalismos?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200104&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo Este artigo pretende tomar como alvo a tensão existente entre o direito à educação e o dever da família de colocar as crianças na escola. Essa tensão, no caso do movimento intitulado homeschooling, toma partido do direito e, neste sentido, questiona a obrigatoriedade. Dado o caráter genérico de determinadas Declarações Internacionais das quais o Brasil é signatário, há famílias pleiteando a possibilidade de educação escolar doméstica. Para tanto, podem-se buscar dois fundamentos do movimento. Uma vertente do movimento se apoia tanto na liberdade de ensino, quanto no direito da família pelo qual cabe a ela escolher que tipo de escola quer para seus filhos e que tipo de educação quer para eles. Procura cumprir, suo modo, a obrigatoriedade escolar em casa, já que se trata de um mandamento legal. Outra se apoia na liberdade de ensino, contestando a obrigatoriedade nos termos legais estabelecidos pelo Estado. Ao colocar o direito da família ou a liberdade como prévios a qualquer obrigação advinda do Estado, este movimento parece retomar, como fundamento de sua argumentação, ao menos de modo amplo, a tese ou as teses do jusnaturalismo, seja ele pela vertente medieval, ou pela moderna. Justificar as razões dessa obrigatoriedade e insistir na importância do ensino obrigatório na faixa etária prevista em lei, com a devida presença dos alunos em instituições próprias de ensino presencial, é próprio do dever do Estado. É dessa tensão que este artigo se ocupa.<hr/>Abstract This essay aims to fix two fundamentals of the mouvement named as homeschooling. This mouvement, in its two versions, is supported both by the family right and by freedom of teaching. By the first, the argument is that it´s up to the family to choose what kind of school and what kind of teaching is whorthwhile for their children. Family tries to fulfill at home, suo modo, the legal requirement, since education is a state legal commandment. On the other hand, some of the families desiring homeschooling contest the legal obligation as it is stablished by the State. By placing the family right or the freedom of teaching as prior to any obligation coming from the State, this mouvement seems to widely resume the arguments of jusnaturalism in its medieval, and even modern features. Also due to the generic character of some international declarations of which Brazil is subscriber, there are families arguing in favor of homeschooling. This essay stresses the importance of teaching obligation as an inalienable task of the State of Right to face the request of homeschooling. <![CDATA[Educação na casa: perspectivas de desescolarização ou liberdade de escolha?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200122&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo O estudo objetiva analisar como a educação doméstica na atualidade tem sido tratada por autores que examinam o tema, sinalizando perspectivas de desescolarização relacionadas ao projeto neoliberal de sociedade, em oposição à alegada liberdade de escolha das famílias. Em um plano mais específico, é abordada a discussão norte-americana sobre o assunto, partindo da premissa que, no Brasil, a opção pelo homeschooling está ligada à forte influência dessa prática existente nos Estados Unidos da América. Os procedimentos teórico-metodológicos são aqueles relativos à pesquisa qualitativa, essencialmente bibliográfica, que tem como referência os escritos de Paraskeva (2010) e Torres Santomé (2003). Conclui-se com a exposição de parte das questões suscitadas no debate relativo ao fato de casa e escola coexistirem na sociedade como espaços legitimados para ensinar, indicando a tensão entre a tendência de desescolarização e o declarado direito dos pais de decidir sobre a educação dos filhos.<hr/>Abstract The study focuses on domestic education today, in order to analyze how it has been dealt with by authors who examine the issue, signaling prospects of unschooling related not to the alleged freedom of choice of families, but to the neoliberal project of society. Specifically, the paper addresses the American discussion on the subject, assuming that in Brazil, the option for homeschooling is strongly influenced by this existing practice in the United States. The theoretical and methodological procedure is an essentially bibliographic qualitative research, which references the writings of Paraskeva (2010) and Torres Santomé (2003). It concludes with a partial exposition of the issues raised in the debate on the fact that home and school coexist in society as legitimate spaces for teaching, indicating the tension between the trend of unschooling and the professed right of parents to decide on their children's education. <![CDATA[O novo cenário jurisprudencial do direito à educação no Brasil: o ensino domiciliar e outros casos no Supremo Tribunal Federal]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200141&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo A apreciação da constitucionalidade do ensino domiciliar e do ensino religioso confessional em escolas públicas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal poderá assinalar um ponto de inflexão na jurisprudência educacional, elevando-a a níveis mais complexos de proteção do direito à educação. Se até 2015 as decisões da Corte solucionaram questões relacionadas ao acesso à educação básica, a partir desses casos o STF foi chamado a manifestar-se acerca de direitos instrumentais, relacionados às liberdades na educação e, complementarmente, acerca dos limites da autonomia privada e da intervenção do Estado na educação compulsória. O objetivo deste artigo é apontar a evolução da jurisprudência do STF, no período de 2000 a 2015, suas consequências e implicações.<hr/>Abstract The judicial review of the constitutionality of homeschooling and religious education in public schools could be a turning point in the educational jurisprudence of the Brazilian Supreme Court (STF). In these cases, the Court is demanded to decide on rights related to freedom in education as well as on the limits of state action in compulsory education, in contrast to former decisions aimed at ensuring access to education. The decisions could elevate the jurisprudence to more complex levels of protection of the right to education. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the evolution of the jurisprudence of the STF from 2000 to 2015, its consequences and implications. <![CDATA[Educação Domiciliar: encontrando o Direito]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200172&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo O presente artigo visa a resgatar as pesquisas internacionais que versam sobre a regulamentação de homeschooling (educação domiciliar), com vistas a contribuir para a elaboração de uma legislação brasileira sobre o assunto. Entendendo que a prática da educação domiciliar deverá ser garantida como um direito compreendido na esfera das liberdades individuais fundamentais e do poder familiar, o autor propõe que o Estado brasileiro promova regulamentação minimalista que pressuponha, inicialmente, que os pais sejam capazes de implementar com sucesso um programa de ensino-aprendizagem com seus filhos, seguindo os métodos e as técnicas propostos pela educação domiciliar e, tanto quanto possível, se desenvolvam relações de cooperação com professores, escolas e outras instituições de ensino e pesquisa, todos orientados pelas finalidades, pelos ideais e pelos princípios insculpidos na legislação que versa sobre a educação nacional.<hr/>Abstract This article aims to articulate international researches dealing with the regulation of homeschooling, in order to contribute to the shaping of a Brazilian legislation on the subject. Understanding that the practice of homeschooling should be guaranteed as a right in the sphere of fundamental individual freedoms and of family power, the author proposes that the Brazilian State should promote only a minimal regulation, one that initially ensures that parents are able to successfully implement a teaching and learning program with their children, following the methods and techniques proposed by homeschooling, while, as much as possible, developing cooperative relations with teachers, schools and other educational and research institutions, all guided by the purposes, ideals and principles inscribed in the legislation that deals with national education. <![CDATA[O neoliberalismo como um dos fundamentos da educação domiciliar]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200193&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o neoliberalismo como um dos fundamentos da educação domiciliar, fenômeno de interesse crescente no Brasil, dada a tentativa de regulamentá-lo no país. Para tanto, foram tomados como referência três autorizados representantes do neoliberalismo: Friedrich Hayek; Milton Friedman e Ludwig von Mises e a reiterada preocupação destes com as liberdades, sobretudo as individuais. O artigo argumenta que o neoliberalismo se apresenta como uma das correntes teóricas que também dá suporte ao homeschooling, tendo como ponto crucial de sua fundamentação a rejeição da compulsoriedade da educação escolar, o que gera fortes implicações para o debate educacional, principalmente como desafios à escola pública compulsória.<hr/>Abstract This paper analyzes neoliberalism as one of the foundations of homeschooling, a phenomenon which has attracted a growing interest in Brazil, evidenced by the attempts to regulate it in the country. In order to conduct such analysis, three of the most recognized representatives of neoliberalism were taken as reference, namely Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman e Ludwig von Mises, especially for their renewed concerns about the liberties, particularly the individual ones. Neoliberalism is presented as one of the theories that supports homeschooling, for its rejection of compulsory education, which carries strong implications for the educational debate, mainly as challenges to the public compulsory school. <![CDATA[Homeschooling in the United States: A review of select research topics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-73072017000200213&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The U.S. homeschooling movement has grown steadily since the early 1980s. In that time, a growing body of academic literature has been published that assesses various aspects of the phenomenon. This article first explains some of the methodological issues surrounding this literature as it has developed. It then summarizes the findings of the literature with respect to the following topics: the history of homeschooling, demographics (including parental motivation), academic achievement, and transition to college/adulthood.