Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Scientia Agricola]]> vol. 72 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Salinomycin and virginiamycin for lactating cows supplemented on pasture]]> Animals on pasture generally show higher feed efficiency as a result of the use of antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of the antimicrobials salinomycin and/or virginiamycin on production and the ruminal parameters of supplemented dairy cows grazing on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Twelve Holstein/Zebu multiparous cows were used, distributed in three Latin squares, one for the evaluation of ruminal parameters, and the others for production parameters. Cows on pasture were fed 50 % of their estimated intake with corn silage and concentrate supplements containing salinomycin, virginiamycin or a combination of additives, in doses of 120 and 150 mg kg−1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production and composition, energy and nitrogen balance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior. However, salinomycin and virginiamycin each reduced pasture and total dry matter intake by about 14 % and 10 %, with a consequent improvement in feed efficiency. <![CDATA[Obtention and characterization of coconut babassu derivatives]]> Babassu (Orbignya sp.) is a palm with extraordinary socioeconomic and ecologic importance found in humid tropical areas in Brazil, especially in frequently burned and degraded landscapes. There are several uses for babassu oil; however, its potential for providing other industrial products remains unexploited, due to the lack of scale and production structure. Oil and presscake extracted from kernels are industrially produced, while the remaining parts of the babassu coconut have the potential to add value as byproducts. This study aimed to establish conditions for the preparation of the raw material fruit of babassu for oil extraction by pressing and producing biodiesel by ethanolic transesterification. Babassu coconuts were dried at 75 and 90 °C. The separation of the fractions rich in fiber, starch, kernel and mesocarp was performed in appropriate equipments. The starch content in the mesocarp fractions of babassu coconuts dried at 75 and at 90 °C were 54 and 56 %, respectively and lipids represented 65 % of the kernel. Oil and press cake were obtained through hydraulic and continuous press, biodiesel was produced and the quality of products was compared. The total of saturated fatty acid in babassu oil was between 78 and 82 %, and the total of unsaturated fatty acids that promote good oxidative stability in the oil was in the range of 17 to 20 %. Oil obtained by cold pressing extraction and its biodiesel had better results in terms of quality. The quality of oils is within the Codex standard and biodiesel from oil extracted by cold pressing had higher oxidative stability. <![CDATA[Genetic progress after cycles of upland rice recurrent selection]]> Periodic assessment of the genetic progress made in recurrent selection programs is essential for assessing the evolution of the programs and identifying the main factors that have contributed to this progress. This study aimed to estimate genetic progress in grain yield, plant height and days-to-flowering achieved in the CNA6 population of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.), after four cycles of recurrent selection; and evaluate the genetic potential of this population to generate superior inbred lines after each selection cycle. The experimental data were obtained from progeny yield trials of each recurrent selection cycle. These trials were carried out in two or three locations per cycle, and consisted of S0:2 progenies and at least three checks. Federer’s augmented block design, with one replication on location (the environment), was adopted. Results revealed genetic progress for grain yield and plant height, with total genetic gains of 375.87 kg ha−1 and -3.90 cm, respectively, during the four selection cycles. The annual relative gain observed for grain yield was 1.54 %. The genetic potential of the population was analysed by the expected proportion of superior inbred lines. The standard adopted as the limit for obtaining superior inbred lines was the average of the checks for each trait. The genetic potential for grain yield and plant height increased during the study period. For days-to-flowering, no genetic gain occurred; however, the genetic potential of the population to generate superior inbred lines for this trait was maintained after the selection cycles. <![CDATA[Performance and genetic assessment of rubber tree clones in Southern Thailand]]> Thailand is the world leader in the production of latex extracted from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). However, the most cultivated clone RRIM 600, is highly susceptible to diseases, and there is economic incentive to develop new rubber tree clones. Four rubber tree clones (T2, SK1, NK1 and SK3) that have high latex yield potential from plantations in Southern Thailand were selected for this study. Yield performance, latex biochemical parameters and anatomical characteristics of bark were monitored for two years, using RRIM 600 clones in the same fields as paired controls. The average yields of the clones SK1, NK1 and SK3 were 129.3, 74.2 and 53.9 g per tree per tapping, respectively, surpassing the paired RRIM 600 controls (94.3, 49.9 and 43.9 g per tree per tapping in matching order). There was a difference in girth increment of SK1, SK3 and T2 clones when compared with RRIM 600, whereas the clones SK1 and T2 had higher renewed bark thickness than the paired RRIM 600. The anatomical measurements showed that the diameter of the latex vessels and density of latex vessels mm−2 were the highest in clone NK1, which also had the best latex biochemical parameters. This indicates NK1 is superior, and supports its use in Hevea breeding programs to improve latex yield. Our genetic characterization and assessment of the four clones selected used Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR). Seventeen recommended rubber clones were included as references. The clones SK3 and SK1 were closely related to RRIM 600 with similarity coefficients of 0.891 and 0.809, while NK1 and T2 were closely related to RRIT 250 (0.836) and RRIC 110 (0.864), respectively. <![CDATA[Sugar-and-acid profile of Penjar tomatoes and its evolution during storage]]> The alcobaça mutation in the Penjar tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) variety alters the ripening process and confers a long shelf life (more than four months). Storage of Penjar tomatoes leads to a distinctive sensory profile valued by local consumers, who prefer aged tomatoes to fresh ones. To study chemical changes occurring during storage, we characterized the complete sugar-and-acid profile of 25 accessions at harvest and at 2 and 4 months after harvest. We found considerable variability in the sugar-and-acid profile within the Penjar variety, especially for fructose and glucose. Some accessions presented exceptionally high values for sugars, making them especially interesting for breeding programs. During postharvest, the concentration of glucose, fructose, and citric acid decreased, whereas the concentration of malic and glutamic acids increased. Data from this study offer novel insights into postharvest changes in tomato quality parameters and help elucidate the reasons for the appreciation of this variety by consumers. <![CDATA[Histochemical aspects of wheat resistance to leaf blast mediated by silicon]]> Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, has become a significant disease threat to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate at the histochemical level if silicon (Si) could enhance the production of flavonoids in the leaves of wheat plants in response to P. oryzae infection. Plants from the Aliança cultivar, which are susceptible to blast, were grown in hydroponic cultures containing 0 (-Si) or 2 mM of Si (+Si) and inoculated by spraying a conidial suspension of P. oryzae (1 × 105 conidia mL−1) on all adaxial leaf surfaces of plants at 60 days after emergence (growth stage 65). The fourth and fifth leaves of each plant were used to evaluate blast severity at 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation (hai). At 96 hai, leaves were collected from plants to determine the foliar Si concentration. For cytological observations, leaf samples were randomly collected from the fourth and fifth leaves of each plant at 72 hai. The foliar Si concentration was higher in +Si plants (36 g kg−1) in comparison to -Si plants (2.6 g kg−1). This increased Si concentration was correlated with reduced fungal growth inside the epidermal cells and the development of blast symptoms on leaves. Strong fluorescence, which is an indication of the presence of flavonoids, was detected in the leaf cells of +Si plants using Neu’s and Wilson's reagents. A novel item of evidence is that, at the histochemical level, Si is involved in the potentiation of the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids that increases wheat resistance to blast. <![CDATA[Magnesium-induced alterations in the photosynthetic performance and resistance of rice plants infected with <em>Bipolaris oryzae</em>]]> Brown spot (BS), caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases contracted by rice. We investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) on the development of BS, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and the effects of disease development on the photosynthetic performance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants (cv. Metica-1) grown in nutrient solutions containing 0.25 or 4.0 mM of Mg. Assessments of BS severity, leaf Mg and pigment concentrations (total chlorophylls and carotenoids), were carried out at 120 h after inoculation, in addition to gas exchange parameters,. Higher leaf concentration of Mg was observed in plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg than in those supplied with 0.25 mM. The increase in leaf Mg was accompanied by a decrease in BS severity, higher concentration of total chlorophyll and better photosynthetic performance. Plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg had higher average values for carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and internal leaf CO2 concentration when compared with plants supplied with 0.25 mM Mg. Conversely, the concentration of carotenoids was lower in plants supplied with the higher Mg rate. These results suggest that Mg suppresses disease severity and preserves photosynthetic performance by allowing for better stomatal conductance and, consequently, greater availability of CO2 at the carboxylation sites. <![CDATA[Carbon pool ratios as scientific support to field morphology in the differentiation of dark subsurface soil horizons]]> In soil surveys, it is usual to find profiles with an uncommon disposition of horizons. Dark horizons in depth might be either the consequence of erosion and redeposition of soil materials from upslope or an indication of the podzolization process, which forms a spodic horizon. Few laboratory analyses are known to characterize dark subsurface horizons which could allow for the differentiation of spodic from buried A horizons. Some researchers propose C-humic and C-fulvic acid fraction ratios and forms of carbon to analyze characteristics of these horizons. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize dark subsurface horizons found in soils under a Eucalyptus minimum tillage system in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to relate soil organic carbon to landscape features in toposequences. The characterization was performed by using the following ratios: humic acid and fulvic acid fractions (Cha/Cfa); pyrophosphate extractable-C and organic carbon (Cp/OC); fulvic acid fraction and pyrophosphate extractable-C (Cfa/Cp), and fulvic acid fraction and organic carbon (Cfa/OC). Soil organic carbon was related to slope gradient and Geomorphons in a Geographic Information System (GIS). None of the horizons analyzed met the criteria required for spodic horizon classification, where Cha/Cfa &lt; 0.50, Cfa/OC &lt; 0.30, and the ratio Cp/OC ≥ 0.50 simultaneously with Cfa/Cp ≥ 0.50. A relationship was found between landscape features and soil organic carbon content. The methodology proved to be satisfactory for providing scientific support to field morphology classification of dark subsurface horizons, specifically in the case where they could be misinterpreted as spodic horizons. <![CDATA[Use of organic compost produced from slaughterhouse waste as fertilizer in soybean and corn crops]]> Slaughterhouses generate large amounts of rumen content and its use as a fertilizer may offer an environmentally friendly strategy for its management. The effect of an organic fertilizer produced from slaughterhouse waste on the fertility of sandy and clayey soils as well as soybean yield (Glycine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) crops was evaluated. Field experiments were set up and five rates up to 16 t ha−1 of organic fertilizer (293 kg ha−1 N, 334 kg ha−1 P and 27 kg ha−1 K) were applied annually, before sowing in spring/summer, as well as a mineral fertilization of 300 kg ha−1 in the formulation 2-20-20 for soybean and 300 kg ha−1 of 12-15-15 for corn. The organic fertilizer changed soil fertility in the field experiments by increasing pH, Ca, Mg, K, P-Mehlich and P-resin. Such effects were more evident in the sandy than in the clayey soil, and the most superficial layer was affected more. The organic fertilizer rate needed to achieve maximum yield decreased for corn in both soils and for soybean in the sandy soil, although the amounts required may still be regarded as high. <![CDATA[Novel insights into the early stages of infection by oval conidia of <em>Colletotrichum sublineolum</em>]]> Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex Sacc. &amp; Trotter, is one of the most important sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] diseases in Brazil. This fungus exhibits conidial dimorphism, producing either falcate or oval conidia on solid and liquid media, respectively. We compared patterns of the initial infection events by these two types of conidia on sorghum leaves using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The infection events during the first 24 h were similar for both oval and falcate conidia. Globose and melanized apressoria were formed at 24 h after inoculation (hai) regardless of the conidia type. Dense mycelium and oval conidia developed from germinated falcate conidia at 32 hai. Hyphal mass displaying acervuli filled with falcate conidia and surrounded by setae, developed from germinated oval conidia at 48 hai. Oval conidia were as capable as falcate conidia of infecting sorghum leaves. The inherent ability to grow faster and the easeness with which oval conidia can be produced in vitro as compared to falcate, make the former a preferred choice for studies on the C. sublineolum-sorghum interaction. It would be instructive to further investigate the potential role of the oval conidia in epidemics. <![CDATA[Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances]]> Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1) alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF) activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA) and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A). It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance. <![CDATA[Seed vigor testing: an overview of the past, present and future perspective]]> The assessment of seed vigor has many important implications to the seed industry as a basic monitoring of seed physiological potential during different phases of seed production and a support for strategic decisions regarding the selection of high quality seedlots to meet the consumer demand. The potential attributes of seed vigor as a fundamental physiological seed characteristic and its association with field stand establishment and crop productivity has been worldwide recognized from the 1960s onward. This led to the diversification of research approaches involving the synchronization of different physiological characteristics and events that determine the potential for high performance during seed storage and after sowing. The basic objective of vigor testing is to provide a consistent identification of differences in physiological potential among seedlots of commercial value and this represents a more sensitive parameter than the germination test. There are various procedures to assess seed vigor including those that directly or indirectly evaluate seed metabolic state or identify seed tolerance to specific stress(es). At the same time, in more recent years, new knowledge has come from molecular biology, biotechnology, biophysics and seed and seedling imaging analyses; these approaches has been important complements to traditional seed research.. This text has the purpose to emphasize the role of Brazilian research in seed vigor, whose competence is internationally recognized, and to provide an overview of the evolution of knowledge also attempting to highlight events that contributed to the advancement of research on the subject.