Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Scientia Agricola]]> vol. 71 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields</b>]]> Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122) were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield) and development stages (crop phenology) were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %). Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1) and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb) for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping) at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations. <![CDATA[<b>Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions</b>]]> There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females) from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês) were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study. <![CDATA[<b>Biological aspects of the beetle <i>Delphastus</i> <i>davidsoni</i> fed with whitefly eggs laid on tomato genotypes</b>]]> Many plant breeding programs have incorporated plant resistance characteristics without considering how this resistance may affect the natural enemies of plant pests. We evaluated the biological aspects of Delphastus davidsoni (Gordon) fed with Bemisia tabaci B biotype eggs laid on tomato genotypes with different trichome densities and types. On LA1335 and NAV1062, the development periods were 21 days, and the larval mortality rates were 46.7 % and 28.9 %, respectively; on IAC294, the development period was 26 days, and the mortality rate 88.9 %. None of the larvae completed development when fed with whitefly eggs laid on PI134418. Most of the deaths took place in the second instar stage because the larvae became trapped in the glandular trichomes; similar results were also observed on IAC294. The adult longevity and female fecundity on LA1335 and NAV1062 were 32 and 34 days, and 61 and 78 eggs, respectively. The type IV and VI glandular trichomes present on PI134418 and IAC294 adversely affected the larval development of D. davidsoni, resulting in high mortality rates. Nevertheless, type V non-glandular trichomes, in high (NAV1062) or low (LA1335) densities, did not affect the development of the insect. <![CDATA[<b>Respiration rate of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration and with different controlled atmospheres</b>]]> Knowledge of the respiration rate during the storage is important in the evaluation of the post-harvest tools that preserve fruit quality, and also for the provision of information for the development of new packages. This work aimed to evaluate the respiration rate of 'Golden' Carica papaya stored under refrigeration and controlled atmosphere conditions. The fruit was kept at 13 °C in controlled atmospheres comprising three levels of O2 (20.8 %, 6 %, 3 %) with a minimum level of CO2 (0.1 %); and three levels of CO2 (0.1 %, 6 %, 12 %) with the lowest level of O2 (3 %). Measurements were taken at intervals of 5 days during the 30 days of storage. The mass loss and the peel color of the fruits were identified at the end of the storage period. The fruit maintained under 'normal' atmosphere conditions (20.8 % O2 and 0.1 % CO2) increased its respiration rate after the 10th day, reaching after 30 days 4.3 times the initial value. After 30 days in 3 % O2, the respiration rate was 2.9 times less than in the normal atmosphere. The decrease in respiration rate minimized the mass loss in fruit stored at 3 % O2, but it was unaffected by increasing levels of CO2. <![CDATA[<b>Soil water dynamics and litter production in eucalypt and native vegetation in southeastern Brazil</b>]]> High productivity of eucalypt plantations is the result of advances in research that have led to gradual improvements in intensive silvicultural technology. High productivity notwithstanding, eucalypt plantations remain the focus of environmental concerns. Our study aimed to compare the soil water regime, litter fall and nutrients dynamics either in a fragment of native forest or in an adjacent stand of growing eucalypt. We took field measurements during the first three years of eucalypt plantation in a sandy soil in the southeastern region of Brazil. Soil moisture and internal drainage were higher during the early stages of growth of the eucalypt stand, as compared with native vegetation. However, one and a half years after planting, available soil water was similar in both vegetations. Higher water availability under the eucalypt stand during the first year occurs because of silvicultural operations (soil preparation and weed control) and the small size of eucalypt trees; these factors increase water infiltration and decrease transpiration. Total leaf fall, over the study period, was similar for both ecosystems; however, differences were observed in the winter and early spring of 2010. The transfer of nutrients to soil by leaf fall was similar except for N and S, which was higher in native vegetation. Nitrogen concentration in the soil solution was higher in native vegetation, but K was higher under the eucalypt stand, mainly to a depth of up to 0.2 m. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of VRN1 gene in triticale and common wheat genetic background</b>]]> In cereals, the transition from the vegetative stage to flowering is controlled in the main by the set of vernalization genes. Within these genes the most important role is played by VRN1, which encodes a MADS-box transcription factor, regulating the transition of shoot apical meristem to the reproductive phase. The level of vernalization requirement is strongly linked to the molecular structure of this gene. In this study we analyzed molecular mechanisms regulating the vernalization requirement in triticale on the basis of comparative analysis of the VRN1 locus between triticale (×Triticosecale Witt.) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. We also estimated the influence of VRN genotype on heading time and the winter hardiness of these two species. Molecular markers developed for VRN genotype detection in common wheat were successfully applied to an analysis of triticale genomic DNA. Subsequent analysis of the amplicons nucleotide sequence confirmed full similarity of the products obtained between triticale and common wheat. All winter triticale cultivars tested contained the recessive vrn-A1 allele, whereas all spring genotypes carried the dominant Vrn-A1a allele. Molecular analysis of the Vrn-B1 gene revealed the presence of the dominant Vrn-B1b allele in only one of the triticale genotypes analyzed (Legalo). The major system of determination of the vernalization requirement in triticale was transferred from common wheat without changes and is based on an alteration in the VRN1 gene promoter sequence within the A genome. <![CDATA[<b>Diversity and genetic structure of jenipapo (</b><i><b>Genipa americana</b></i><b> L.) Brazilian accessions</b>]]> Usually known as jenipapo, Genipa americana L. is a Rubiaceae Brazilian native species. It is an important species in the restoration of Brazilian riparian forests and is one of the most promising fruit trees for sustainable harvesting programs. In this study we provide the first data on the genetic diversity and structure of a Jenipapo Germplasm Bank using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We evaluated 160 accessions from wild populations, and the data generated from 12 ISSR primers were used to determine genetic variability via a model-based Bayesian procedure (Structure) and molecular variance analysis. In addition, Shannon index, genetic diversity and Jaccard coefficients were estimated. A total of 12 primers were used, which generated 123 polymorphic fragments. Four groups were formed from the analysis of the fragments, and the CR1-2 genotype was isolated, being more divergent than the other genotypes. <![CDATA[<b>Genetic diversity assessment in sorghum accessions using qualitative morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers</b>]]> Qualitative morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were compared for assessment of genetic diversity. Nine qualitative morphological traits were recorded to compare genetic relationships among 17 sorghum accessions with information derived from six AFLP primer combinations analysis. The mean morphological genetic similarity was lower in comparison to similarity computed using AFLP markers. Genetic similarity measured by AFLP markers was similar within the Ethiopian and South African material, as well as between South African and Ethiopian material. Morphological similarity was much higher in the Ethiopian material than in the South African material, indicating that the genotypes were related. The two techniques described genetic variability in different ways. Dendrogram generated from the morphological data matrix separated accession 216737 as being genetically distinct from the rest of the accessions. Accessions M101 and 97MW6127 were the most dissimilar accessions based on AFLP data. <![CDATA[<b>High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection</b>]]> Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collection, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p < 0.01) between landraces and introduced populations. Starch and oil contents were higher in introduced populations at 0.84 % and 0.39 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Twenty-three accessions had high levels of tryptophan content. A high percentage of kernel type 1 and 2 indicated the presence of endosperm hardness modifier genes. Recessive o2 allele was found in most of the accessions. Absence of o2 in some high tryptophan accessions indicated action of another mutation. In two high tryptophan accessions an unknown band was detected. Absence of negative correlations between proteins, tryptophan and oil makes certain accessions suitable for use in the simultaneous improvement of target genotypes for these traits. Identified drought tolerant, high quality accessions can be used in breeding programs aimed at nutritional improvement of maize grown under drought conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Cadmium phytoavailability in soils and evaluation of extractant effectiveness using an isotope technique</b>]]> Large areas of land are nowadays contaminated by heavy metals and, it is therefore, important to monitor their levels in soils. Vegetables act as transfer mechanisms of such contaminants from soils to higher levels in the food chain. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical extractants by the L-value method for Cd phytoavailability using the 109Cd radionuclide. In a greenhouse experiment, rocket plants (Eruca sativa L.) were cultivated in pots with samples from Typic Hapludox and Typic Quartzipsamment soils. Cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mg kg-1 were added to a 200 mL solution containing 148 kBq 109Cd. The available Cd in the soil was extracted by DTPA, Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and a mixture of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and oxalic acids). Cd concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 109Cd radionuclide activity was measured by low-level β-counting. The dry matter yield was not influenced by Cd rates, but the Cd content and accumulation in shoots had a positive linear correlation. Generally, Cd was extracted in higher quantities by Mehlich-1 followed by DTPA, Mehlich-3, and organic acids. A linear correlation was found between the chemical extractants and Cd accumulation in shoots for both soils. According to the L Ratio, the extractants based on strong acids and chelating agents presented low efficiency regarding Cd phytoavailability. The organic acids, which presented values close to the L-value, may provide a promising method for evaluating environmental contaminants. <![CDATA[<b>Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices</b>]]> In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories. <![CDATA[<b>Biological Control in Brazil</b>: <b>an overview</b>]]> The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on in Brazil and there are, in fact, excellent programs in place that use insects or entomopathogenic microrganisms for insect pest control. Most of the studies in this area have been published in Portuguese and are, therefore, not readily available internationally. Importantly, half of the planted sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), around four million hectares, is treated with natural enemies (insects) and/or pathogens. In contrast to other countries that employ Biological Control in small areas, the challenge in Brazil is to implement programs in large farms. Many obstacles must be overcome and discussed in working groups so that we can assume a world leadership position in the use of Biological Control in tropical regions as Brazil is already considered the leader in tropical agriculture. In this review, use of Biological Control is discussed within the Integrated Pest Management philosophy, as a path toward sustainable agriculture that is in harmony with other pest control methods. We must develop a technology of Biological Control adapted to tropical regions, rather than copying models developed for temperate regions, which are usually inappropriate for Brazilian conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants</b>]]> Enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.