Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0103-973320050004&lang=en vol. 35 num. 3A lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<B>Fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline Y<SUB>1-<I>x</I></SUB>Pr<I><SUB>x</I></SUB>Ba<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7-<FONT FACE=Symbol>d</SUB></FONT> superconductors</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We studied the effect of superconducting fluctuations on the electrical conductivity of granular samples of Y1 - xPr xBa2Cu3O7-delta superconductors, with x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.10. Samples were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction technique, with two different types of calcination process, in air at 900 &ordm;C ( x < 0.07 ) and in vacuum at 850 &ordm;C ( 0.05 < x < 0.10 ). For the samples prepared in air, our results revealed a splitting of the bulk transition, denoted by T C1 and T C2, besides the coherence transition. It was observed fluctuation regimes above the highest transition ( T C1 ) and the lowest transition ( T C2 ). For the samples calcinated in vacuum and high concentrations of Pr, changes were observed in the critical region with chemical substitution of the Pr ion for the Y ion. In the regime of approach to the zero resistance state it was observed an occurrence of a coherence transition for all concentrations of praseodymium. <![CDATA[<B>Statistical and wavelet analysis of the solar wind data</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We perform statistical and wavelet analysis of three time series based on the solar wind velocity of the year 2000, the original time series and two filtered components. We use the Haar Wavelet Transform to separate this annual time-series into two parts, corresponding to high and low frequencies. We then calculate the kurtosis and skewness parameters for the three time-series. The results show that these parameters present high values in the low-pass filtered time-series, indicating that the intermittence level is superior at large scales (low-frequencies) if compared with the small scales of the turbulence. It is possible to conjecture that the Coherent Structures are responsible for this behavior. The use of the Morlet Wavelet Transform is presented to understand this behavior in terms of the gradient and nonlinear interaction of energy between scales. <![CDATA[<B>Higgs boson decay in the large <I>N</I> limit</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Equivalence Theorem is commonly used to calculate perturbatively amplitudes involving gauge bosons at energy scales higher than gauge boson masses. However, when the scalar sector is strongly interacting the theory is non-perturbative. We show that the Equivalence Theorem holds in the large N limit at next-to-leading order by calculating the decay widths h -> W+W- and h <FONT FACE=Symbol>® p</FONT>+pi-. We also show, in the same scheme of calculations, that unitarity is fulfilled for the process h <FONT FACE=Symbol>® p</FONT>+pi-. <![CDATA[<B>Thermodynamics of an ideal gas of bosons harmonically trapped</B>: <B>equation of state and susceptibilities</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We present theoretical aspects concerning the thermodynamics of an ideal bosonic gas trapped by a harmonic potential. Working in the Grand Canonical ensemble we are able to properly identify the extensive thermodynamic variable equivalent to the volume and the intensive thermodynamic variable equivalent to the pressure. These are called the "harmonic volume" and the "harmonic pressure" and their physical meaning is discussed. With these variables, the problem of Bose-Einstein condensation is studied in terms of the behavior of the corresponding equation of state and in terms of measurable susceptibilities such as the heat capacities, the isothermal compressibility and the coefficient of thermal expansion. From the analysis, an interesting analogy with Black-Body radiation emerges, showing that at and below the critical temperature, the non-condensate fraction of atoms behaves thermodynamically like a gas of massless particles. <![CDATA[<B>Ultra cold neutrons</B>: <B>determination of the electric dipole moment and gravitational corrections via matter wave interferometry</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We propose experiments using ultra cold neutrons which can be used to determine the electric dipole moment of the neutron itself, a well as to test corrections to gravity as they are foreseen by string theories and Kaluza-Klein mechanisms. <![CDATA[<B>Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective density matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end. <![CDATA[<B>Test of Anderson-Stuart model and the "universal" conductivity in rubidium and cesium silicate glasses</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An analysis and brief discussion of experimental ionic conductivity sigma and activation energy E A in the binary rubidium and cesium silicate systems is presented, exemplified on 23 and 30 glasses respectively, in a wide composition range (5-45 Rb2O and Cs2O mole%). The Anderson and Stuart model has been considered to describe the variation of activation energy E A with alkali concentration in both alkali-silica systems. In this analysis were considered experimental parameters, like shear modulus G and relative dielectric permittivity epsilon. An "universal" finding is obtained using logsigma&times; E A/kB T in 51 of 53 glasses considering both alkali systems, where E A is the activation energy for conduction, kB is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature. This strong correlation by more than 13 (Rb-based glasses) and 15 (Cs-based glasses) orders of magnitude means that sigma is governed mainly by E A. An explanation for this behavior links ionic conductivity and microscopic structure. <![CDATA[<B>Dependence of transition probabilities for non-linear photo-ionization of He atoms on the structure of the exciting radiation pulses</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We discuss the expected dependence of the probability transitions for 2-photon and 3-photon absorption in Helium gas on the spatial and temporal structure of the exciting radiation pulses. Regarding spatial structure, we assumed a Gaussian radial intensity distribution; we find, as expected, that the 2-photon and 3-photon processes become negligible at distances D away from the focus, where D is of the order of the beam waist FWHM. Regarding temporal structure, we compared transition probabilities for square, Gaussian and cosine squared temporal profiles; we find that for the same FWHM, Gaussian and cosine squared pulses give essentially the same transition probabilities, but the square pulses are about twice as efficient. We finally studied the effect of sharp versus smooth rise and fall edges in the light pulse; we find negligible correlation with the shape of the pulse edges, and strong correlation with the pulse FWHM, i.e., with pulse total energy, as might be expected. <![CDATA[<B>Effects of torsion on electromagnetic fields</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work, we investigate the effects of torsion on electromagnetic fields. As a model spacetime, endowed with both curvature and torsion, we choose a generalization of the cosmic string, the cosmic dislocation. Maxwell's equations in the spacetime of a cosmic dislocation are then solved, considering both the case of a static, uniform, charge distribution along the string, and the case of a constant current flowing through the string. We find that the torsion associated to the defect affects only the magnetic field whereas curvature affects both electric and magnetic fields. Moreover, the magnetic field is found to spiral up around the defect axis. <![CDATA[<B>Two-body relationship between the Pearson-Takai-Halicioglu-Tiller and the Biswas-Hamann potential functions</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An approximate and a good parametric relationship between the Pearson-Takai-Halicioglu-Tiller (PTHT) and the Biswas-Hamann (BH) empirical potential energy functions is developed for the case of 2-body interaction. The approximate relationship between PTHT and BH was obtained by equating the zeroth up to the second order of the potential functions' derivative with respect to the interatomic distance at the equilibrium bond length, followed by comparison of coefficients at the repulsive and attractive terms. A refined relationship was then suggested by including the third order derivative. Plots of non-dimensional 2-body energy versus the non-dimensional interatomic distance verified the analytical relationships developed herein. Finally, the physical significance of the developed parametric relationships is discussed with reference to conservative design methodology. <![CDATA[<B>Remarks on gauge fixing and BRST quantization of noncommutative gauge theories</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We consider the BRST gauge fixing procedure of the noncommutative Yang-Mills theory and of the gauged U(N) Proca model. An extended Seiberg-Witten map involving ghosts, antighosts and auxiliary fields for non-Abelian gauge theories is studied. We find that the extended map behaves differently for these models. For the Yang-Mills theory in the Lorentz gauge it was not possible to find a map that relates the gauge conditions in the noncommutative and ordinary theories. For the gauged Proca model we found a particular map relating the unitary gauge fixings in both formulations. <![CDATA[<B>Mass scales and their relations in symmetric quantum field theory</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We illustrate the importance of mass scales and their relation in the specific case of the linear sigma model within the context of its one loop Ward identities. In the calculation it becomes apparent the delicate and essential connection between divergent and finite parts of amplitudes. The examples show how to use mass scales identities which are absolutely necessary to manipulate graphs involving several masses. Furthermore, in the context of the Implicitly Regularization, finite(physical) and divergent (counterterms) parts of the amplitude can and must be written in terms of a single scale which is the renormalization group scale. This facilitates, e.g., obtaining symmetric counterterms and immediately lead to the proper definition of Renormalization Group Constants. <![CDATA[<B>Electromagnetic field correlators, Maxwell stress tensor, and the Casimir effect for parallel walls</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We evaluate the quantum electromagnetic field correlators associated with the electromagnetic vacuum distorted by the presence of two plane parallel conducting walls and in the presence of a conducting wall parallel to a perfectly magnetically permeable one. Regularization is performed through the generalized zeta funtion technique. Results are applied to rederive the atractive and repulsive Casimir effect through Maxwell stress tensor. Surface divergences are shown to cancel out when stresses on both sides of the material surface are taken into account. <![CDATA[<B>A Mössbauer effect study of the Soledade meteorite</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We performed a Mössbauer spectroscopy study of the iron meteorite Soledade. This meteorite, which consists of a metallic matrix, is an octahedrite with polycrystalline troilite, cohenite, schreibersite and rhabdites as major constituents. A chemical analysis indicates 6.78 % Ni, 0.46% Co, besides traces of Cu, Cr, Ga, Ge, As, Sb, W, Re, Ir and Au. No traces of silicates have been found and no oxygen was detected. Iron is appearing in the austhenitic phase and alloyed with nickel. An analysis of the Mössbauer spectra at room temperature indicates that the Fe-Ni phase is homogeneously distributed in the matrix, although variations in the composition between different regions are observed. <![CDATA[<B>Efficiency of LH+EC current drive in tokamaks featuring an internal transport barrier</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the present paper we study the effects due to the occurrence of radial transport of particles in a tokamak on the efficiency of current drive due to combined action of lower hybrid waves and electron cyclotron waves, in the presence of an internal transport barrier. The results are obtained by numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation which rules the evolution of the electron distribution function. We assume that the radial transport of particles can be due to magnetic or to electrostatic fluctuations, and compare the two situations. In both cases the efficiency of current drive is shown to increase with the increase of the fluctuations which originate the transport. The current drive efficiency is shown to depend weakly on the radial position of the barrier, with a slightly more pronounced dependence in the case of magnetic fluctuations. <![CDATA[<B>Normal-state properties of uniaxially pressed Bi<SUB>1.65</SUB>Pb<SUB>0.35</SUB>Sr<SUB>2</SUB>Ca<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>10+<FONT FACE=Symbol>d</SUB></FONT> ceramics</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We have studied the effects of the uniaxial compacting pressure on the physical properties of polycrystalline Bi1.65Pb0.35Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+delta (Bi-2223) superconductors. Powders of this material were pressed at different uniaxial compacting pressures ranging from ~ 90 to ~ 600 MPa and heat-treated at the same temperature. A characterization of samples by using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffractometry indicated an appreciable improvement of the degree of texture with increasing pressure. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity rho(T) exhibits a T-linear behavior at temperatures higher than T<FONT FACE=Symbol>*</FONT> ~ 235 K. The deviation of rho(T) from the linear behavior below T<FONT FACE=Symbol>*</FONT> indicates the opening of the pseudogap, a feature confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements performed in powder samples. From linear fittings of the normal-state electrical resistivity we were able to separate contributions to rho(T) arising from both the grain misalignment and microstructural defects. The results suggest that the grain orientation and the connectivity between them are improved with increasing compacting pressure. Also, based on the linearity of the electrical resistivity data both the transport electron-phonon coupling constant, lambdatr, and the mean free path, l, were estimated. We have found that in the sample with the highest degree of texturelambdatr ~ 0.53, a value comparable with the one obtained in Bi-2223 single crystals. However, the result for l ~ 12.7 Å at 300 K, in the same ceramic sample, is close to 3 times lower than the single crystal value. The influence of the intergranular electrical resistivity in determining band-theory parameters was analyzed within the framework of a current conduction model for granular superconducting materials. <![CDATA[<B>Ensemble formalism for nonequilibrium systems and an associated irreversible statical thermodynamics</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is reviewed what can be considered as the present research trends in what regards to the construction of an ensemble formalism - Gibbs' style - for the case of far-from-equilibrium systems. The main questions involved are presented accompanied with brief discussions. The construction of a nonequilibrium statistical operator is described and its applications commented, and, particularly, it is presented the derivation of an Irreversible Thermodynamics based on the statistical foundations that the nonequilibrium ensemble formalism provides. <![CDATA[<B>Ferrofluids</B>: <B>properties and applications</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332005000400018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Magnetic fluids may be classified as ferrofluids (FF), which are colloidal suspensions of very fine (~ 10 nm) magnetic particles, and magnetorheological fluids, which are suspensions of larger, usually non-stable, magnetic particles. We review the general classification and the main properties of FF, some theoretical models and a few applications. We consider the stability of a FF in terms of various forces and torques on the magnetic particles. We discuss thermodiffusion, which is an important phenomenon in FF, and which gives rise to the Soret effect. We also consider the rotational dynamics of the magnetic moments of the particles. A large portion of this review is dedicated to applications of FF, including a few of the many technological applications. Among the uses of a FF in the study of materials, we have selected the doping of liquid crystals. Among the very promising uses in Medicine, we discuss drug targeting, hyperthermia, cell separation, and contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. We also make some comments on directions for future research on the properties of ferrofluids.