Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0103-973320100004&lang=en vol. 40 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>The cold dark matter model with cosmological constant and the flatness constraint</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Hubble parameter, a function of the cosmological redshift, is derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equation. The three physical parameters H0, Ω0m and ΩΛ are determined fitting the Hubble parameter to the data from measurements of redshift and luminosity distances of type-Ia supernovae. The best fit is not consistent with the flatness constraint (k = 0). On the other hand, the flatness constraint is imposed on the Hubble parameter and the physical parameters used are the published values of the standard model of cosmology. The result is shown to be inconsistent with the data from type-Ia supernovae. <![CDATA[<b>Aspects of nonmetricity in gravity theories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work, we show that a class of metric-affine gravities can be reduced to a Riemann-Cartan one. The reduction is based on the cancelation of the nonmetricity against the symmetric components of the spin connection. A heuristic proof, in the Einstein-Cartan formalism, is performed in the special case of diagonal unitary tangent metric tensor. The result is that the nonmetric degrees of freedom decouple from the geometry. Thus, from the point of view of isometries on the tangent manifold, the equivalence might be viewed as an isometry transition from the affine group to the Lorentz group, A(d,R) → SO(d). Furthermore, in this transition, depending on the form of the starting action, the nonmetricity degrees might present a dynamical matter field character, with no geometric interpretation in the Riemann-Cartan geometry. <![CDATA[<b>Conformal field theory with two kinds of bosonic fields and two linear dilatons</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We consider a two-dimensional conformal field theory which contains two kinds of the bosonic degrees of freedom. Two linear dilaton fields enable us to study a more general case. Various properties of the model such as OPEs, central charge, conformal properties of the fields and associated algebras will be studied. <![CDATA[<b>2d Gravity with torsion, oriented matroids and 2+2 dimensions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We find a link between oriented matroid theory and 2d gravity with torsion. Our considerations may be useful in the context of noncommutative phase space in a target spacetime of signature (2+2) and in a possible theory of gravity ramification. <![CDATA[<b>First-principles study of carbon chemisorption on γ</b><b>-Fe(111) surface</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In order to study the interaction between γ-Fe and carbon, the geometry structures, surface relaxations, adsorption energies and electronic structures for carbon chemisorption at four different adsorption sites on γ-Fe(111) surface at a monolayer coverage of 1 were studied using density functional theory. The electronic structures were compared with the chemisorption of carbon on nickel (111) at the fcc hollow site. Based on the computational adsorption energies, the relative stabilities were described as follows: hcp hollow ≈ fcc hollow > top-on site, whereas the atomic carbon can not occupy the bridge sites stably. The partial density of states indicated the strong C(2p)-Fe(3d, 4s+p) and the wide C(2s+p)-Fe(3d) ionic bonds, which largely confined the electrons of the surface iron. Accordingly, the number of orbitals at the Fermi level for the iron in the surface is obviously less than that in the subsurface. Moreover, comparing the carbon chemisorptions on γ-Fe and nickel surface at the fcc hollow site, one could see that the number of orbitals at the Fermi level for carbon adsorbed on γ-Fe(111) is less than on Ni(111) surface. This could imply the weaker catalysis of γ-Fe than nickel for carbon atom. <![CDATA[<b>Theoretical-experimental analyses of simple geometry saturated conductivities for a Newtonian fluid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The conductivity (K) of porous media represents an important physical parameter in several areas of knowledge. In saturated flow, the saturated conductivity (K0) is the most important parameter of porous system and it is related to the fluid and porous media properties. In order to evaluate the potential of a new tool for measuring K0, such as the computational simulation with Boltzmann models for fluid flows, two experiments were carried out using two simplified media: 1) a cylindrical cavity and 2) a cavity having a parallelepiped shape. Both have simple geometries that allow analytical K0 solutions in order to compare with the experimental and simulated results. Glycerin was used as infiltrate fluid due to its high viscosity that permits laminar flows and the use of Darcy's law to evaluate K0. The results demonstrate a good agreement among techniques (experimental, computational, and analytical) of K0 determination for cavities that present Reynolds number (Re) smaller than one. <![CDATA[<b>Observational consequences of a dark interaction model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We study a model with decay of dark energy and creation of the dark matter particles. We integrate the field equations and find the transition redshift where the evolution process of the universe change the accelerated expansion, and discuss the luminosity distance, acoustic oscillations and the statefinder parameters. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of electron direct tunneling current through very-thin gate oxides in MOS capacitors with the parallel-perpendicular kinetic energy components and anisotropic masses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An electron direct tunneling current model of n+- poly - Si/SiO2/p - Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors has been developed by considering a parallel-perpendicular kinetic energy coupling, which is represented by the gate electron phase velocity, and anisotropic masses under a parabolic E-k dispersion relationship. The electron effective mass in the oxide and the electron phase velocity in the n+ poly-Si gate are the only two fitting parameters to compare calculated tunneling currents to measured ones. It was obtained that the calculated tunneling currents fit well to the measured ones. The electron effective mass in the oxide layer tends to increase with decreasing the oxide thickness. In addition, the gate electron velocity is a constant of 1x10(5)m/s. Moreover, the theoretical model offers a simple treatment and an accurate result in obtaining the tunneling current. <![CDATA[<b>Pulsar binary systems in a nonsymmetric theory of gravitation II. Dipole radiation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper deals with the emission of gravitational radiation in the context of a previously studied metric nonsymmetric theory of gravitation. The part coming from the symmetric part of the metric coincides with the mass quadrupole moment result of general relativity. The one associated to the antisymmetric part of the metric involves the dipole moment of the fermionic charge of the system. The results are applied to binary star systems and the decrease of the period of the elliptical motion is calculated. <![CDATA[<b>Neutron production evaluation from a ADS target utilizing the MCNPX 2.6.0 code</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Accelerators Driven Systems (ADS) are an innovative type of nuclear system, which is useful for long-lived fission product transmutation and fuel regeneration. The ADS consist of a coupling of a sub-critical nuclear core reactor and a proton beam produced by particle accelerator. These particles are injected into a target for the neutrons production by spallation reactions. This target is of utmost importance for an ADS, representing the coupling of the accelerator and the sub-critical core. The determination of optimal materials for these targets is fundamental for the design of an ADS. The main characteristic of an ideal target is the high production of neutrons per incident proton. In this work are shown results for the neutron production of various types of targets using the MCNPX 2.6.0 code. Furthermore, it is performed a comparative study of transport models to describe the spallation reactions available in this code. <![CDATA[<b>Efficiency dynamics on two coupled small-world networks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We investigate the effect of clusters in complex networks on efficiency dynamics by studying a simple efficiency model in two coupled small-world networks. It is shown that the critical network randomness corresponding to transition from a stagnant phase to a growing one decreases to zero as the connection strength of clusters increases. It is also shown for fixed randomness that the state of clusters transits from a stagnant phase to a growing one as the connection strength of clusters increases. This work can be useful for understanding the critical transition appearing in many dynamic processes on the cluster networks. <![CDATA[<b>Ion-polymer interaction analysis: an inversion of NMR spin echo experimental data</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A methodology for ion-polymer interaction estimation is discussed in the present work. This method is based on the inversion of experimental spin echo NMR data using Hopfield neural network to retrieve transverse relaxation time distributions. The adopted model systems consist of aqueous solutions of poly (ethylene oxide), molar mass 1500, 4000 and 35000 γ mol-1 and sodium nitroprusside (NP) at different concentrations. Dipolar interaction is investigated in this work through the reduction in the transverse relaxation time and increase in the area under the distribution curves of the PEO protons which presented a linear correlation with the NP concentration. Neural network results were compared with the Simplex optimization procedure and experimental NMR values. The proposed methodology is robust, stable, non restrictive in relation to the system and more efficient to handle experimental data. <![CDATA[<b>Study of the structure of free radicals in gamma</b>: <b>irradiated amino acid derivatives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used for the study of the free radicals produced in the powders of L-arginine monohydrochloride, ala-ala and DL-β-leucine gamma-irradiated at room temperature. The structures of the radicals formed in compounds were determined as NH2(NH)NHCHCH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH, CH3CHCOOH and (CH3)2C CH(NH2)CH2COOH respectively. The paramagnetic species were found to be stable at room temperature more than three months. It was determined that unpaired electron interacted with nearby protons and 14N nucleus in these radicals. The g values of the radicals and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron were also measured. These results were compared with the earlier studies in amino acid and derivatives radicals and discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Radiatively induced non linearity in the Walecka model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We evaluate the effective potential for the conventional linear Walecka non perturbatively up to one loop. This quantity is then renormalized with a prescription which allows finite vacuum contributions to the three as well as four 1PI Green's functions to survive. These terms, which are absent in the standard relativistic Hartree approximation, have a logarithmic energy scale dependence that can be tuned so as to mimic the effects of ø³ and ø4 type of terms present in the non linear Walecka model improving quantities such as the compressibility modulus and the effective nucleon mass, at saturation, by considering energy scales which are very close to the nucleon mass at vanishing density. <![CDATA[<b>Vortex dynamics equation in type-II superconductors in a temperature gradient</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work we determined a vortex dynamics equation in a temperature gradient in the frame of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this sense, we derived a local solvability condition, which governs the vortex dynamics. Also, we calculated the explicit form for the force coefficients, which are the keys for the understanding of the balance equation due to vortex interactions with the environment. <![CDATA[<b>Experimental study of low-pressure nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The electrical and spectral characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are experimentally investigated in a sealed off coaxial cylinder filled with nitrogen at a pressure of 10 mbar. The discharge is a transient diffused glow at low frequency alternating voltage (60 Hz) and changes to a filamentary mode at high frequency alternating voltage (35 kHz). In case of pulsed voltage, the discharge is always transient diffused glow at any frequency. The intensity of a second positive system (SPS) of the nitrogen molecule has been also measured to characterize the discharge excitation. The effective vibrational temperature is estimated from the SPS vibrational band, Δv = -2. It is concluded that the intensity of the SPS of the nitrogen and the effective vibrational temperature depends upon the reduced electric field and the energy consumed per cycle by the device. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of thermo-mechanical parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of microalloyed steels</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work the effects of controlled rolling parameters and adding of Niobium have been studied. In this order two steel grades with and without Niobium are planed and after steelmaking and continuous casting, rolling process are done. Then, laboratory investigations such as microstructure, mechanical properties and grain size analysis were performed Tensile and Charpy impact tests specimens were machined out of the central part of the rolled billets. The microstructure of the specimens was examined for each experimental condition using optical microscopy. The results indicate that increasing the reheating temperature above the dissolution temperature of Nb (C, N) improved the impact energy values. By increasing the cooling rate from 0.5 to 1.5 ºC/s both tensile strength and impact toughness were improved. High elongation percent was also observed on samples reheated at higher temperature and/or cooled with the higher cooling rates. The obtained mechanical properties were related to the characteristics of microstructural components including acicular ferrite, retained austenite, pearlite and ferrite. <![CDATA[<b>Optical and electrical diagnostics of microdischarges at moderate to high pressure in argon</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-97332010000400018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Microdischarges at moderate to high pressure in argon were investigated. A hole opening diameter of 500 µm direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were characterized by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) for pressures ranging between 90 and 800 Torr and current from 5 to 20 mA. Current-voltage characteristic curves were obtained as a function of the pressure for this hole diameter. MHCD enables stable dc discharges for molybdenum electrodes material at constant Ar + 2%H2 flow of 0.03 l/min. Optical emission spectroscopy and analysis of the spectral line broadening of plasma line emissions were performed in order to measure gas discharge parameters. Electron number densities were obtained from Hβ Balmer line ( ~ 10(14) cm-3). For the above mentioned discharge conditions, gas temperature was estimated to be 550 - 850 K from OH rotational bands. Excitation temperature was measured based on two lines method (from atomic Mo lines) and from 4p - 4s and 5p - 4s Ar radiative transitions. Hydrogen atom temperature was measured for 800 Torr ( ~ 12000 K).