Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Polímeros]]> vol. 28 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[After 12 years Profa. Regina Celia Nunes departs as Associated Editor of Polímeros]]> <![CDATA[Recovery of Terephthalic Acid by employing magnetic nanoparticles as a solid support]]> Abstract The aim of this research work is focused on the improvement of Terephthalic acid recovery from PET wastes by using organically modified nano-Fe3O4@Cyanuric Chloride as the solid support. The performance of organically modified nano magnetic was examined in detail and the obtained results were compared with the unsupported reaction data. Required reaction time for complete glycolysis of the wastes, consumption of the solvent as well as catalyst decreases up 99%, 37.5% and 40% respectively. Result showed that nano-Fe 3O4@Cyanuric Chloride delivered good performance as solid support in depolymerizing of PET to the terephthalic acid. <![CDATA[FT-IR methodology (transmission and UATR) to quantify automotive systems]]> Abstract When using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) under the qualitative aspect for characterization of polymer blends, often a simple identification of each one of the existing polymers in the blend does not justify the material failure since different amounts of each component may result in different mechanical properties, which should be a possible cause for of material failure when applied to an automotive part. Thus, seeking for a better justification in the understanding of material failure analysis, a new quantitative FT-IR methodology was developed in the mid-infrared region (MIR), using the transmission techniques and universal attenuated reflectance for the determination of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC). Transmission mode was more suitable. The relative band (A831 /A2237) was chosen for the preparation of the calibration curve that showed a 0.99% error methodology, which is within the FT-IR spectrometer accuracy limit (≤ 2%); therefore, it is accurate for the analysis of the system. <![CDATA[Analysis of chemical polymerization between functionalized MWCNT and poly(furfuryl alcohol) composite]]> Abstract In this study, the chemical interaction between functionalized carbon nanotuboes with carboxyl groups (CNT-f) and the subsequent addition of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and mixture with poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin was evaluated. The FA with CNT-f was mixed in PFA resin to facilitate the chemical interaction of CNTs. The morphological and chemical interaction were studied by Transmission Electron Microcopies (MET), FTIR analyses, Raman Spectroscopy, viscosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that a chemical interaction occurs through the opening of the hydroxyl polymer chain with a subsequent output of one water molecule. This interaction was evident from the FTIR and XPS data of the PFA composites. In this way, the mixture of functionalized carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups in the FA, before adding this reinforcement into the PFA resin, can be considered a good procedure in order to obtain an appropriate chemical interaction between the CNT and PFA resin. <![CDATA[Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel]]> Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR) is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. This paper aimed to assess the resistance of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) with 28% of acrylonitrile content to soybean biodiesel in comparison with non-carboxylated nitrile rubber samples, with high and medium acrylonitrile content (33 and 45%). NBR with medium acrylonitrile content showed little resistance to biodiesel. However, carboxylated nitrile rubber even with low acrylonitrile content had similar performance to NBR with high acrylonitrile content. <![CDATA[Microstructure and thermal and functional properties of biodegradable films produced using zein]]> Abstract Research is being conducted in an attempt to produce biodegradable packaging to replace plastic products, thereby reducing solid waste disposal. In this work, zein films were produced from vegetable oils (macadamia, olive and buriti) and from pure oleic acid. The surface of zein-based films made using oleic acid has a good lipid distribution. The high content of oleic acid produced a film with the greatest elongation at break (8.08 ± 2.71%) due to the greater homogeneity of the protein matrix. The different oils did not affect the glass transition temperature (Tg). Tg curves of films with fatty acids showed a reduction in mass at between 50 and 120 °C due to water evaporation. At 120 °C the weight loss was 3-5% and above this temperature further weight loss was observed with the highest loss being seen in the film made using pure oleic acid. In conclusion, although biodegradable films were produced using the four different oils, the film made from pure oleic acid has the best characteristics. <![CDATA[FSSC 22000 Packaging Implementation: a Plastics Industry Research]]> Abstract This paper presents the outcomes of an exploratory research carried out in companies, which are located in Brazil. They are FSSC-22000-certified food plastic packaging manufacturers. In order to identify the key aspects of the implementation process and certification, a questionnaire was developed and sent to twenty certified organizations. Out of them, eleven of which participating companies responded in a collaborative way. Based on the data obtained, improving competitiveness and customer retention were the reasons, which led the companies to seek the certification. However, the greatest difficulties were related to personnel, which presented technical and behavioral issues. In addition, it was noted that an overall satisfaction, derived from after-certification benefits, has been arisen in the companies. For instance, enhanced employee awareness, improved company's image and winning new customers, significantly contributing to their competitiveness, are some of the benefits found in this process. <![CDATA[Hyperbranched polyester polyol modified with polylactic acid as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch/polylactic acid blends]]> Abstract A hyperbranched polyester polyol of the second generation (HBP2) was modified with polylactic acid (HBP2-g-PLA) and employed as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch (TPS)/polylactic acid (PLA) blends. The effect of the compatibilizer HBP2- g-PLA was evaluated in comparison to the control sample (TPS/PLA blend without HBP2-g-PLA). The torque value of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2- g-PLA was lower than that of the control sample, while thermal stability and crystallinity followed opposite behavior. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and degree of crystallinity of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g-PLA decreased with increasing mass fraction of HBP2-g-PLA. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was observed that the morphology of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g -PLA was more homogeneous than that of the control sample, confirming that HBP2- g-PLA acted as a compatibilizer and plasticizing agent to the TPS/PLA blends. Rheological analysis of the compatibilized TPS/PLA blends indicated the presence of microstructure. <![CDATA[Stabilization of guava nectar with hydrocolloids and pectinases]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to stabilize guava nectar using hydrocolloids and/or enzymes, and evaluate the stability and the bioactive compounds content during storage. In general, there was a decrease in pH and an increase in titratable acidity and soluble solids of the nectars. During storage, it was observed that nectars with pectinase showed decrease in pH, increase in titratable acidity and soluble solids, and also less phase separation, standing out among them the nectar with enzyme and guar gum. The nectar formulated with xanthan showed the highest antioxidant capacity. All nectars showed slight decrease in the carotenoid content and high losses of vitamin C during the storage period. <![CDATA[Cashew nut shell liquid, a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline nanofibers]]> Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an abundant and renewable by-product of the cashew nut industry. It appears to be a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline (PAni) nanomaterial with enhanced thermal stability and well-defined nanofiber morphology following a polymerization dispersion process. This study confirms that CNSL acts as a soft template during PAni synthesis, leading to an improvement in the nanofiber aspect. CNSL also improves the thermal stability of the PAni nanomaterial. Moreover, CNSL is an effective surfactant that promotes and stabilizes the dispersion of PAni nanofibers within water, allowing the more ecofriendly preparation of PAni nanomaterial by substituting the commonly used organic solvent with aqueous media. Finally, although CNSL promotes the formation of the conductive emeraldine salt form of PAni, increasing CNSL concentrations appear to plasticize the PAni polymer, leading to reduced electrical conductivity. However, this reduction is not detrimental, and PAni nanofibers remain semiconductive even under high CNSL concentrations. <![CDATA[Reinforcement of poly (vinyl alcohol) films with alpha-chitin nanowhiskers]]> Abstract Composites Films were produced using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) as the soft material and reinforced with Chitin Nanowhiskers(NWCH) as the rigid material. The present work studies the reinforcing mechanisms of NWCH in PVA films, made through a solvent casting technique and characterized for their calorimetric, swelling and mechanical properties. DSC tests revealed a sharp increase of 45 °C in glass transition temperatures with only 1.5% NWCH, while melting temperature had a small increases suggesting an anti-plasticizing effect. Swelling tests revealed decreasing hygoscopy when NWCH volume fraction increases. Estimates for elastic tensile modulus using a model that predicts the formation of a percolating network were not consistent with the experimental data of tensile tests suggesting that contrary to the reinforcement with cellulose nanowhiskers the percolating network is not primarily responsible for the reinforcement of the films. By adjusting the Halpin-Tsai equations, modified by Nielsen it was found that the mechanical properties were mainly influenced by the packing of the NWCH. <![CDATA[Effect of PVA and PDE on selected structural characteristics of extrusion-cooked starch foams]]> Abstract The aim of this work was to determine selected physical properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS) filling foams manufactured by extrusion-cooking technique from different combinations of potato starch and two additives: poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA and Plastronfoam PDE. Foams were processed with seven starch/additives combinations at two different extruder-cooker’s screw rotational speeds. The densities of starch foams depended significantly on the additive type and content. The linear relationship between the Young modulus and the ultimate compression force and apparent density was found. The foams processed with the addition of PVA had low density, porosity and lower values of the Young modulus than the foams prepared with PDE. <![CDATA[Compatibilization of recycled polypropylene and recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) blends with SEBS-g-MA]]> Abstract The compatibilization of recycled PP/PET blend with high and low concentration (20 and 5 phr) of elastomer functionalized by maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) was achieved. Recycled polypropylene from plastic industry and recycled PET from post-consumer bottles was used. PP/PET blends: 80:20 w/w, 50:50 w/w and 20:80 w/w were prepared in an internal mixer for mechanical properties, thermal properties, morphology and rheological properties. SEBS-g-MA promoted compatibilization of the PP/PET blends and improved their properties. With an increasing compatibilization level, the refinement of morphology was observed in the PET rich blend. Compatibilized blends showed negative deviation in the PET glass transition temperature related to neat PET, demonstrating that compatibilization was very successful. PET crystallization was accelerated in the blends due to PP presence that enhanced nucleation. It was found that the 50/50/20 blend showed huge potential for textile fiber application and that of 80/20/20 showed more intermediary properties than neat polymers.