Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0104-423020180004&lang=en vol. 64 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The inclusion of internet in patient-physician relationship: a necessary reflexion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400297&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Chronic pain treatment with spinal cord neurostimulation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400299&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient. <![CDATA[Detoxification enzymes: cellular metabolism and susceptibility to various diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400307&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient. <![CDATA[Gluten and Neuroimmunology. Rare association with Myasthenia Gravis and Literature Review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400311&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY As the celiac disease (CD), the non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has also been associated with several autoimmune manifestations. It is rarely associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). This paper shall introduce the case of a young female patient, initially presenting a peripheral neuropathy framework. During clinical and neurological follow-up, she began to present symptoms of various immune-mediated morbidities. Diseases related to gluten represent a clinical spectrum of manifestations with a trigger in common, the ingestion of gluten. CD is the most well-known and serious disease of the spectrum, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy. The NCGS is diagnosed from clinical evidence of improvement in symptoms followed by a Gluten Free Diet (GFD) in patients without signs of enteropathy in duodenal biopsy. There are indications that, although rare, with a prevalence of 1 in 5000, myasthenia gravis (MG) may occur more often when CD is also present. Between 13 to 22% of the patients with MG have a second autoimmune disorder. However, it is often associated with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, lupus erythematosussystemic lupus erythematosus, Addison’s disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the symptoms of neuromuscular junction involvement may give a diagnostic evidence of this rare association. <![CDATA[Exuberant keloid scar associated with skin neoplasia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400315&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY As the celiac disease (CD), the non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has also been associated with several autoimmune manifestations. It is rarely associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). This paper shall introduce the case of a young female patient, initially presenting a peripheral neuropathy framework. During clinical and neurological follow-up, she began to present symptoms of various immune-mediated morbidities. Diseases related to gluten represent a clinical spectrum of manifestations with a trigger in common, the ingestion of gluten. CD is the most well-known and serious disease of the spectrum, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy. The NCGS is diagnosed from clinical evidence of improvement in symptoms followed by a Gluten Free Diet (GFD) in patients without signs of enteropathy in duodenal biopsy. There are indications that, although rare, with a prevalence of 1 in 5000, myasthenia gravis (MG) may occur more often when CD is also present. Between 13 to 22% of the patients with MG have a second autoimmune disorder. However, it is often associated with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, lupus erythematosussystemic lupus erythematosus, Addison’s disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the symptoms of neuromuscular junction involvement may give a diagnostic evidence of this rare association. <![CDATA[Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for head and neck cancer: cost-effectiveness analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400318&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY BACKGROUND: A cost-effectiveness analysis of IMRT compared to 3D-CRT for head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) was conducted in the Brazilian Public Health System. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate radiation therapy-induced dysphagia and xerostomia in HNCPs. Data from the PARSPORT trial and the quality-of-life study were used as parameters. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained were calculated. RESULTS: At 2 years, IMRT was associated with an incremental benefit of 0.16 QALYs gained per person, resulting in an ICER of BRL 31,579 per QALY gained. IMRT was considered cost-effective when using the guideline proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) of three times the national gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (BRL 72,195). Regarding life expectancy (15 years), the incremental benefit of IMRT was 1.16 QALYs gained per person, with an ICER of BRL 4,341. IMRT was also cost-effective using the WHO definition, which states that the maximum cost is equal to the GDP per capita (BRL 24,065). CONCLUSIONS: IMRT was considered cost-effective from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system.<hr/>RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade da radioterapia com intensidade modulada de feixe (IMRT) comparada com a radioterapia conformada para pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço (CCP) no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). MÉTODOS: Foi elaborado um modelo de Markov para comparar os custos médicos diretos e os desfechos de saúde relacionados à qualidade de vida do paciente pós-intervenção radioterápica sofrendo de xerostomia e disfagia. Com essa finalidade, foram usados os dados do estudo PARSPORT e parâmetros de qualidade de vida. Os resultados comparativos das estratégias alternativas de tratamento foram medidos pela razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI). O desfecho analisado foi o de anos de vida ajustados à qualidade (QALY). RESULTADOS: Em um horizonte de tempo de dois anos, a IMRT foi associada com um benefício incremental de ganho de 0,16 QALYs por indivíduo, resultando em um RCEI de R$ 31.579 por QALY ganhado. A IMRT foi custo-efetivo, adotando-se o limite máximo de disposição a pagar, proposto pela OMS, de três vezes o PIB per capita nacional, equivalente a R$ 72.195. No horizonte de tempo de 15 anos, o benefício incremental de ganho foi de 1,16 QALYs por indivíduo, com um RCEI de R$ 4.341. A IMRT foi custo-efetivo, adotando-se o limite de disposição a pagar, proposto pela OMS, de uma vez o PIB per capita nacional, equivalente a R$ 24.065. CONCLUSÃO: A IMRT foi considerada um tratamento custo-efetivo na perspectiva do SUS. <![CDATA[The influence of heel height related on quality of life on the foot in a sample of women]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400324&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Many women have worn high-heel shoes (HHS) at some point in their lives and many wear them on a daily basis, with higher prevalence between 39% and 78% observed in institutional and clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the scores obtained with regard to foot health and health in general in a sample of women that use HHS as opposed to a sample of women without HHS with normalized reference values. A sample of 120 participants with a mean age of 41.94 ± 13.912 came to a health center where self-reported data were registered. The subjects with and without HHS were determined and the scores obtained were compared in the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). This questionnaire is made of 13 questions that assess 4 health domains of the feet, namely pain, function, general health and footwear. The women in the HHS group showed a worse quality of life related to health in general and to foot health specifically. Differences between the two groups were evaluated by means of a t-test for independent samples, showing statistical significance (P&lt;0.01). Women with HHS present a negative impact on the quality of life related to foot health.<hr/>RESUMO Muitas mulheres usaram sapatos de salto alto (SSA) em algum momento de suas vidas e muitas usam diariamente, com maior prevalência entre 39% e 78%, observadas em contextos institucionais e clínicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar os escores obtidos em relação à saúde dos pés e à saúde em geral em uma amostra de mulheres que utilizam SSA em oposição a uma amostra de mulheres sem SSA com valores de referência normalizados. Uma amostra de 120 participantes com idade média de 41,94 ± 13,912 chegou a um centro de saúde onde os dados autorrelatados foram registrados, os informantes com e sem SSA foram determinados e os escores obtidos foram comparados no Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Esse documento tem 13 questões que avaliam quatro domínios de saúde dos pés, nomeadamente dor, função, saúde geral e calçado. As mulheres do grupo SSA apresentaram pior qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em geral e à saúde dos pés, especificamente. As diferenças entre os dois grupos foram avaliadas por meio de um teste t para amostras independentes, mostrando significância estatística (P &lt;0,01). As mulheres com SSA apresentam um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde dos pés. <![CDATA[Agreement between dual x-ray absorptiometers using pencil beam and fan beam: indicators of bone health and whole-body plus appendicular tissue composition in adult athletes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400330&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The current study was aimed to examine intra-individual variation on indicators of bone health in addition to whole-body plus appendicular tissue measurements using two concurrent assessments based on pencil beam and fan beam dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems in adult athletes from several sports. METHOD: Thirty-two male participants (27.6±10.1 years) were measured on anthropometry including multifrequency bioelectric impedance and air-displacement plethysmography. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, fat and lean soft tissue were derived using pencil beam (Lunar DPX-MD+) and fan beam (Lunar iDXA) absorptiometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained for the femoral neck, trochanter and triangle of ward. Finally, the right thigh was defined as a region of interest (ROI). Analyses comprised intra-class correlation (ICC), Effect size (d) from mean differences of repeated measurements, coefficient of variation (CV) RESULTS: ICC were &gt;0.900 for all measurements. Intra-individual differences were large for BMC (d=1,312; CV=2,7%), bone area (d=1,761; CV=2,7%), fat tissue (d=1,612; CV=11%) and all indicators of appendicular lean soft tissue (d=1,237-1687; CV=2,0-4,1%). A very large difference (d=4,014; CV=8.4%) was diagnosed for lean soft tissue of the ROI. CONCLUSION: Although differences among concurrent instruments for BMC and bone area, the effect size of mean differences was negligible for BMD. Fat and lean soft tissue derived from DXA should be interpreted as reference values (not criterion) due to equipment-related variation, more apparently in the ROI values.<hr/>RESUMO OBJETIVO: O presente estudo examinou a concordância entre os indicadores de saúde óssea e composição tecidual resultantes da aplicação de equipamentos concorrentes de absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia (DXA). MÉTODO: A amostra (n = 32), com 27,6 ± 10,1 anos de idade avaliados antropometricamente, inclui impedância bioelétrica com multifrequência e pletismografia de ar deslocado. O conteúdo mineral ósseo (CMO), a área de tecido ósseo, o tecido magro e o tecido gordo de corpo inteiro foram obtidos considerando o modo pencil beam (Lunar DPX-MD+) e o fan beam (Lunar iDXA). Para cada um dos equipamentos, foi efetuado um scanner proximal do fêmur, sendo produzida informação sobre a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) do colo, nomeadamente triângulo de Ward, trocanter e haste. Na fase de processamento, foi definida uma região de interesse (ROI; coxa direita). As análises compreenderam a diferença de médias de medidas repetidas com cálculo da magnitude de efeitos (d), coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI), coeficiente de variação (CV). RESULTADOS: Foram obtidos CCI&gt;0,900 para todas as medidas, com diferenças intraindividuais largas apenas para CMO (d = 1,312; CV = 2,7%), área de tecido ósseo (d = 1,761; CV = 2,7%), tecido gordo total (d = 1,612; CV = 11%) e tecido magro em todos os segmentos (d = 1,237-1,687; CV = 2,0-41%). A massa magra da ROI apresentou uma variaçāo intraindividual muito larga (d = 4,014; CV = 8,4%). CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças negligenciáveis para a DMO de corpo todo. As medidas de massa gorda e massa magra obtidas por DXA nāo devem ser tidas como critério, mas antes como referenda, muito especialmente quando se delimita uma ROI. <![CDATA[Public social security burden of musculoskeletal diseases in Brasil-Descriptive study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400339&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY BACKGROUND: To present data on the social security burden of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (DSOTC) in Brasil in 2014, and evolution of these social security expenditures between 2009 and 2014. METHOD: Compilation and analysis of data on the granting of disability pensions and sickness benefits in the year 2014, available on the official website of Social Security, classified according to ICD 10. It was evaluated the evolution between 2009 and 2014, using the F test to compare the curves with the growth of the active age population (PIA). RESULTS: Among the 22 disease groups classified according to ICD-10, the DSOTC group led benefits grants in 2014, with 19% of the sickness benefits and 13.5% of the disability pensions. The main causes of sickness benefit and disability retirement were, respectively: dorsopathies (43.3% and 41.2%), soft tissue diseases (27.3% and 19.7%), osteoarthritis (7.6% % And 27.8%) and chronic inflammatory arthropathies (2.8% and 7.9%). In the evolution of the number of sickness benefits granted between 2009 and 2014, both INSS and DSOTC totals showed an increasing tendency (35.9 and 35.3%, respectively, with p = 0.000 for both). As for disability retirement, there was a 5.9% increase in the INSS total (p = 0.039), while for the DSOTC there was a decrease of 7.6% (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These data point to a progressive increase in the granting of sickness pensions and disability benefits in the country, superior to the growth of the PIA, as well as a high participation of DSOTC in these benefits.<hr/>RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Apresentar dados sobre o ônus previdenciário das doenças do sistema osteomuscular e tecido conjuntivo (DSOTC) no Brasil no ano de 2014, e sua evolução entre 2009 e 2014. MÉTODO: Compilação e análise de dados sobre a concessão de aposentadorias por invalidez e auxílios-doença no ano de 2014 disponíveis no portal oficial da Previdência Social, classificados segundo o CID 10. Avaliação da evolução entre 2009 e 2014, utilizando-se o teste F para comparar as curvas com o crescimento da população em idade ativa (PIA). RESULTADOS: Entre 22 grupos de doenças classificados de acordo com o CID 10, o das DSOTC liderou as concessões de benefícios em 2014, com 19% dos auxílios-doença e 13,5% das aposentadorias por invalidez. As principais causas de concessão de auxílio-doença e aposentadoria por invalidez foram, respectivamente: dorsopatias (43,3% e 41,2%), doenças de partes moles (27,3% e 19,7%), osteoartrite (7,6% e 27,8%) e artropatias inflamatórias crônicas (2,8% e 7,9%). Na evolução do número de auxílios-doença concedidos entre 2009 e 2014, tanto o total do INSS quanto o do grupo DSOTC apresentaram tendência crescente (35,9 e 35,3%, respectivamente, com p = 0,000 para ambos). Já para aposentadoria por invalidez, houve aumento de 5,9% no total do INSS (p = 0,039), enquanto que para as DSOTC houve um decréscimo de 7,6% (p = 0,005). CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se uma elevação progressiva na concessão de auxílio-doença e aposentadoria por invalidez no País, superior ao aumento da população em idade ativa. As DSOTC foram o grupo com maior participação relativa nesses benefícios. <![CDATA[Abdominal obesity and reduction of glomerular filtration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400346&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY The objective was to evaluate the association between nutritional status and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in remaining quilombolas. Cross-sectional study carried out on 32 remaining quilombola communities in the municipality of Alcântara-MA. The nutritional indicators (IN) used were: body mass index (BMI); Waist circumference (WC); Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); conicity index (CI) and estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT). GFR was estimated from the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C formula. The Shapiro Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of the quantitative variables. In order to compare the second IN sex, the chi-square test was applied. The Anova or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to verify the association between IN and GFR. Of the 1,526 remaining quilombolas studied, 89.5% were black or brown, 51.2% were women, 88.6% belonged to economic classes D and E and 61.2% were farmers or fishermen. Clinical investigation revealed 29.2% of hypertensive patients, 8.5% of diabetics and 3.1% with reduced GFR. The BMI revealed 45.6% of the remaining quilombolas with excess weight. When compared to men, women presented a higher prevalence of overweight by BMI (56.6% vs 33.8%, p &lt;0.001) and abdominal obesity CC (52.3% vs 4.3%), WHR (76,5% vs 5.8%), WHtR (82.3% vs 48.9%) and VAT (27.1% vs 14.5%) (p &lt;0.001). Comparing the means of IN according to the GFR, it was observed that the higher the mean value of the IN lower the GFR (p &lt;0.05). The GFR reduced with increasing mean values of nutritional indicators of abdominal obesity, regardless of sex.<hr/>RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre o estado nutricional e a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) em remanescentes quilombolas. Estudo transversal, realizado em 32 comunidades remanescentes de quilombolas, no município de Alcântara - MA. Os indicadores nutricionais (IN) utilizados foram: índice de massa corporal (IMC); circunferência da cintura (CC); relação cintura-quadril (RCQ); relação cintura-estatura (RCEst); índice de conicidade (Índice C) e tecido adiposo visceral estimado (TAVe). A TFG foi estimada a partir da fórmula do CKD-EPI creatinina-cistatina C. O teste Shapiro Wilk foi utilizado para avaliar a normalidade das variáveis quantitativas. Para comparar os IN segundo sexo foi aplicado o teste qui-quadrado. Os testes Anova ou Kruskal-Wallis foram usados para verificar a associação entre os IN e a TFG. Dos 1.526 remanescentes quilombolas estudados, 89,5% eram da cor preta ou parda, 51,2% eram mulheres, 88,6% pertenciam às classes econômicas D e E e 61,2% eram lavradores ou pescadores. A investigação clínica revelou 29,2% de hipertensos, 8,5% de diabéticos e 3,1% com TFG reduzida. O IMC revelou 45,6% dos remanescentes quilombolas com excesso de peso. Quando comparadas aos homens, as mulheres apresentaram maior prevalência de excesso de peso pelo IMC (56,6% vs. 33,8%; p &lt;0,001) e obesidade abdominal CC (52,3% vs. 4,3%), RCQ (76,5% vs. 5,8%), RCEst (82,3% vs. 48,9%) e TAVe (27,1% vs. 14,5%) (p&lt;0,001). Comparando as médias dos IN segundo a TFG observou-se que, quanto maior o valor médio dos IN, menor a TFG (p&lt;0,05). A TFG foi reduzida com o aumento dos valores médios dos indicadores nutricionais de obesidade abdominal, independentemente do sexo. <![CDATA[The effect of hemodialysis on the body composition and cardiovascular disease markers in recently diagnosed end stage renal disease patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400354&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY AIM: Uremic toxins and excess fluid contributes to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We aimed to determine the body fluid status in patients who are just starting hemodialysis (HD) and to determine the effects of excess fluid removed by HD on the CV system. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had just started HD were included. Before the HD, the left atrial diameter was measured, the volumes were calculated, the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx) were measured, the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was performed, the blood was taken for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). When patients reached their dry weight with HD, the same measurements were repeated. RESULTS: Measurements were made to determine the volume status, and all parameters except the fat tissue index decreased significantly after HD. With the removal of fluid by HD, there was an average weight reduction of 4.38 kilograms. Positive correlations between PWV and age and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) before HD were determined. Negative correlations were found between PWV and lean tissue mass (LTM) and intracellular water (ICW) before HD. At the end of the last HD, PWV was positively correlated with age, CTR, central pulse pressure Correlation between pulse wave velocity and LTI was negative CONCLUSIONS: HD significantly improves PWV in patients reaching dry weight. Reduction of fluid excess by ultrafiltration in HD patients may reduce CV mortality by reducing arterial stiffness.<hr/>RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), toxinas urêmicas e hipervolemia contribuem para aumentar o risco cardiovascular. Nosso objetivo foi determinar o estado de hidratação em pacientes com DRC iniciando hemodiálise (HD) e avaliar os efeitos da correção da hipervolemia sobre o sistema cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 52 pacientes que haviam acabado de iniciar HD. Antes do início da sessão, foram determinados o diâmetro e o volume atrial esquerdo, a velocidade de onda de pulso (VOP) e o índice de amplificação sistólica (“augmentation index”, AI). Além disso, realizamos análise da composição corporal por bioimpedância elétrica (BIA) e mensuramos os níveis plasmáticos de peptídeo natriurético tipo B. Os mesmos procedimentos foram repetidos após os pacientes alcançarem o “peso seco”. RESULTADOS: O peso corporal dos pacientes foi reduzido, em média, em 4,38 kg. Na BIA, todos os parâmetros, exceto o índice de gordura corporal, foram significativamente reduzidos após a hemodiálise. Antes da HD, a VOP se correlacionou positivamente com idade e razão cardiotorácica (RCT), e negativamente com a massa magra e a água intracelular. Ao final da hemodiálise, a VOP se correlacionou positivamente com idade, RCTe pressão de pulso central, correlacionando-se negativamente com a Lean Tissue Index (LTI). CONCLUSÃO: A hemodiálise melhora a VOP por meio da redução da volemia. O controle da hipervolemia via ultrafiltração pode reduzir a mortalidade cardiovascular por meio da redução da rigidez arterial. <![CDATA[Expressions of TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in pulmonary blood vessels with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and their relationships with pulmonary vascular remodelling]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400361&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims at investigating the expressions of TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in pulmonary blood vessels with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their relationships with pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). METHODS: 60 para-tumour tissues were divided into the COPD group and the control group (n=30); the inflammations, pulmonary artery wall area/total artery area (WA%), and wall thickness/vascular outer diameter (WT%) were compared. The expressions of TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1, and PCNA in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells were detected, and their relationships with PVR were then analysed. RESULTS: The inflammations (1.6±0.8), WA% (44.0±6.4), and WT% (27.3±3.3) in the COPD group were higher than in the control group (0.3±0.5, 26.1±2.8, 15.6±1.8), and the expressions of TLR-4 (31.4±147) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2.2±2.6) were increased compared to the control group (4.7±4.5, 1.9±12). Correlation analysis: TLR-4 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 were positively correlated with the inflammations (r=0.18, P&lt;0.01), WA% (r=0.68, P&lt;0.01), and WT% (r=0.73, P&lt;0.01), as well as positively correlated with the expression of PCNA (r=0.44, P&lt;0.01); the upregulation of TLR-4 was positively correlated with the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of TLR-4 in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells of COPD patients could promote the inflammations and the MMP-9 expression, thus causing abnormal degradation of extracellular matrix, so it played an important role in the process of PVR.<hr/>RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as expressões de TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) e metaloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9)/inibidor de tecido da metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) em vasos sanguíneos pulmonares com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e suas relações com o remodelamento vascular pulmonar (PVR). MÉTODOS: Sessenta tecidos paratumorais foram divididos em grupo COPD e o grupo controle (n = 30). Foram comparadas as inflamações, área da parede da artéria pulmonar/área da artéria total (WA%) e espessura da parede/diâmetro externo vascular (WT%). As expressões de TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1 e PCNA em células de músculo liso vascular pulmonar foram detectadas, e suas relações com PVR foram então analisadas. RESULTADOS: As inflamações (1,6 ± 0,8), WA% (44,0 ± 6,4) e WT% (27,3 ± 3,3) no grupo COPD foram maiores que no grupo controle (0,3 ± 0,5; 26,1 ± 2,8; 15,6 ± 1,8). E as expressões de TLR-4 (31,4 ± 14,7) e MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2,2 ± 2,6) foram aumentadas em relação ao grupo controle (4,7 ± 4,5, 1,9 ± 1,2). Na análise de correlação, TLR-4 e MMP-9/TIMP-1 foram positivamente correlacionadas com as inflamações (r = 0,18; P &lt;0,01), WA% (r = 0,68; P &lt;0,01) e WT% (r = 0,73; P &lt;0,01), bem como correlacionadas positivamente com a expressão de PCNA (r = 0,44; P &lt;0,01). A elevação da TLR-4 foi correlacionada positivamente com as expressões de MMP-9 e TIMP-1. CONCLUSÕES: A regulação positiva do TLR-4 nas células do músculo liso arterial pulmonar de pacientes com DPOC poderia promover as inflamações e a expressão de MMP-9, causando assim uma degradação anormal da matriz extracelular, por isso desempenhou um papel importante no processo de PVR. <![CDATA[Metabolic syndrome and psoriasis: a study in 97 patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400368&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of MS varies according to the studied population as it suffers influence of genetics, aging, sedentary behaviour and diet. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of MS in local psoriasis patients and the influence of psoriasis variables on its appearance. METHODS: A group of 97 psoriasis patients were studied for MS and compared with 97 controls. Psoriasis type, nail involvement, psoriasis extension measured by PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) were obtained through physical examination and history of previous myocardial infarction, angina and stroke were obtained through chart review. RESULTS: Comparison of MS prevalence in psoriasis patients (49.4%) with controls (35.0%) showed difference with p=0.04; OR=1.8 (95%CI=1.02-3.23). Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (p=0.02), higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.007), lower HDL cholesterol (p=0.01), higher glucose (p=0.04), higher waist circumference (p=0.003) and more angina pectoris (p=0.03;OR=2.5; 95% 0=1.04-6.15) than controls. When psoriasis sample with and without MS were compared, those with MS were older (p=0.0004), had disease onset at older age (p=0.02), more tobacco exposure (p=0.02), and a tendency to have less scalp involvement (p=0.06) in univariate analysis. Logistic regression showed that only age and scalp involvement were independently associated with MS in the psoriasis sample. CONCLUSION: In our psoriasis sample, MS prevalence is high and the items that deserve more attention are central obesity, low HDL, hypertension and smoking habits. In the psoriasis group, MS was associated independently with older age and less scalp involvement.<hr/>RESUMO OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência de SM (Síndrome metabólica) em pacientes com psoríase de nossa localidade, assim como a influência das variáveis da psoríase no seu aparecimento. MÉTODOS: Noventa e sete pacientes com psoríase foram estudados para SM e comparados com 97 controles. Dados sobre o tipo de psoríase, envolvimento de unhas e extensão da lesão cutânea medida pelo PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) foram obtidas por meio de exame físico. Dados de infarto do miocárdio, angina pectoris e acidente vascular cerebral prévios foram coletados por meio de revisão de prontuários e questionamento direto. RESULTADOS: A comparação da prevalência de SM em pacientes com psoríase (49,4%) com controles (35,0%) apresentou diferença com p = 0,04; OR = 1,8 (IC95% = 1,02-3,23). Pacientes com psoríase apresentaram maior índice de massa corporal (p = 0,02), maior pressão arterial sistólica (p = 0,007), menor colesterol HDL (p = 0,01), maiores valores de glicose (p = 0,04), maior circunferência da cintura (p = 0,003) e mais angina pectoris (p = 0,03; OR = 2,5; IC95% = 1,04-6,15) do que controles. Quando os pacientes de psoríase com e sem SM foram comparados entre si, aqueles com SM eram mais velhos (p = 0,0004), apresentaram início da doença em idade mais avançada (p = 0,02), tinham maior exposição ao fumo (p = 0,02) e tendência a ter menor envolvimento no couro cabeludo (p = 0,06) quando comparados com os sem SM na análise univariada. A regressão logística mostrou que apenas a idade e o envolvimento do couro cabeludo foram independentemente associados à SM na amostra de psoríase. CONCLUSÃO: Na presente amostra de pacientes com psoríase, a prevalência de SM é alta e os itens que merecem mais atenção são obesidade central, baixo HDL, hipertensão e hábito de fumar. No grupo da psoríase, a SM foi associada de forma independente com idade mais avançada e menor envolvimento no couro cabeludo. <![CDATA[Evolution of incidence, mortality and cost of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies treated in Brasil in a period of nine years]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400374&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, mortality and cost of non-traumatic abdominal emergencies treated in Brazilian emergency departments. METHODS: This paper used DataSus information from 2008 to 2016 (http://www.tabnet.datasus.gov.br). The number of hospitalizations, costs - AIH length of stay and mortality rates were described in acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, acute diverticulitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, and inflammatory intestinal disease. RESULTS: The disease that had the highest growth in hospitalization was diverticular bowel disease with an increase of 68.2%. For the period of nine years, there were no significant changes in the average length of hospital stay, with the highest increase in gastric and duodenal ulcer with a growth of 15.9%. The mortality rate of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease increased by 95.63%, which is significantly high when compared to the other diseases. All had their costs increased but the one that proportionally had the highest increase in the last nine years was the duodenal and gastric ulcer, with an increase of 85.4%. CONCLUSION: Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies are extremely prevalent. Hence, the importance of having updated and comparative data on the mortality rate, number of hospitalization and cost generated by these diseases to provide better healthcare services in public hospitals.<hr/>RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução da Incidência, mortalidade e custo das urgências abdominais não traumáticas atendidas nos serviços de emergência do Brasil durante o período de nove anos. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho utilizou informações do DataSus de 2008 a 2016, (http://www.tabnet.datasus.gov.br). Foram analisados número de internações, valor médio das internações (AIH), valor total das internações, dias de permanência hospitalar e taxa de mortalidade das seguintes doenças: apendicite aguda, colecistite aguda, pancreatite aguda, diverticulite aguda, úlcera gástrica e duodenal, e doença inflamatória intestinal. RESULTADOS: A doença que teve o maior crescimento do número de internações foi a doença diverticular do intestino, com o valor de 68,2%. Ao longo dos nove anos não houve grandes variações da média de permanência hospitalar, sendo que o maior aumento foi o da úlcera gástrica e duodenal, com crescimento de 15,9%. A taxa de mortalidade da doença por úlcera gástrica e duodenal teve um aumento de 95,63%, consideravelmente significante quando comparada com as outras doenças. Todas tiveram seus valores de AIH aumentados, porém, a que proporcionalmente teve o maior aumento nos últimos nove anos foi a úlcera gástrica e duodenal, com um acréscimo de 85,4%. CONCLUSÃO: As urgências abdominais de origem não traumática são de extrema prevalência, por isso a importância em ter dados atualizados e comparativos sobre a taxa de mortalidade, o número de internações e os custos gerados por essas doenças, para melhor planejamento dos serviços públicos de saúde. <![CDATA[Spine surgery in patients with ankylosing spondylitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400379&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an idiopathic seronegative spondyloartropathy that involves mainly the axial skeleton and the sacroiliac joints. AS promotes biomechanical changes in the spine that predispose to fractures, spinal deformity and spondylodiscitis. The aim of this article is to report the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of patients with AS who underwent spinal surgery at our Institution. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical charts of patients who had AS and underwent spinal interventions. RESULTS: Nine patients were found and eight were included in the present study. There were three men and six women and the patients’ mean age was 57 years old. All patients had pain at the involved spinal level and one patient had tetraparesis due to cervical myelopathy. Acute-phase proteins were positive in six patients (75%), and HLA-B27 was found in two patients (25%). Four patients had the radiological diagnosis of spondylodiscitis (50%) and underwent a spinal disc biopsy. They were all characterized as having aseptic spondylodiscitis. Three patients were free of pain with analgesics in their last follow-up and one patient had only partial solution of his pain. Three additional patients had spinal fractures surgically treated (37.5%) and one patient was operated because of a cervical kyphotic deformity (12.5%). There were no deaths or surgical complications in this series. CONCLUSIONS: the majority of our clinical and laboratories findings were discrepant with the medical literature. These differences may be secondary to regional characteristics or by the fact that our population included only those patients who underwent spinal surgery.<hr/>RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A espondilite anquilosante (EA) é uma espondiloartropatia soronegativa, caracterizada principalmente pelo envolvimento do esqueleto axial e das articulações sacroilíacas. A EA promove alterações biomecânicas que predispõem a coluna a fraturas, deformidades e à espondilodiscite. O objetivo do presente estudo é reportar as características clínicas e laboratoriais dos pacientes com EA que foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos na coluna vertebral em nossa instituição. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com revisão de dados médicos dos pacientes com EA que foram submetidos a intervenções na coluna vertebral. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes foram encontrados e oito incluídos no presente estudo. Três pacientes eram homens e seis mulheres, com média de 57 anos de idade. Todos os pacientes apresentavam dor no segmento da coluna acometido pela doença e um paciente tinha tetraparesia por mielopatia cervical. Seis pacientes (75%) apresentaram proteínas de fase aguda com níveis séricos elevados e dois eram HLA-B27 positivos. Em quatro pacientes houve o diagnóstico radiológico presumido de espondilodiscite e estes foram submetidos à biópsia de disco (três por via percutânea e um com biópsia aberta) - em nenhum deles houve identificação de agente infeccioso. Desses, três pacientes tiveram melhora total da dor durante o seguimento, enquanto um deles mantinha dores leves. Houve três casos de fraturas tratadas cirurgicamente (37,5%) e um caso de deformidade cervical cifótica grave (12,5%). Não houve mortes ou complicações relacionadas às cirurgias nessa série. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos dados clínicos e laboratoriais de nosso estudo divergiu da literatura. Essas diferenças podem ser atribuídas às características regionais de nossa população ou pelo fato de incluirmos apenas pacientes que foram submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica. <![CDATA[Neuroaxial anesthesia for gynecological surgeries: meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302018000400384&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an idiopathic seronegative spondyloartropathy that involves mainly the axial skeleton and the sacroiliac joints. AS promotes biomechanical changes in the spine that predispose to fractures, spinal deformity and spondylodiscitis. The aim of this article is to report the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of patients with AS who underwent spinal surgery at our Institution. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical charts of patients who had AS and underwent spinal interventions. RESULTS: Nine patients were found and eight were included in the present study. There were three men and six women and the patients’ mean age was 57 years old. All patients had pain at the involved spinal level and one patient had tetraparesis due to cervical myelopathy. Acute-phase proteins were positive in six patients (75%), and HLA-B27 was found in two patients (25%). Four patients had the radiological diagnosis of spondylodiscitis (50%) and underwent a spinal disc biopsy. They were all characterized as having aseptic spondylodiscitis. Three patients were free of pain with analgesics in their last follow-up and one patient had only partial solution of his pain. Three additional patients had spinal fractures surgically treated (37.5%) and one patient was operated because of a cervical kyphotic deformity (12.5%). There were no deaths or surgical complications in this series. CONCLUSIONS: the majority of our clinical and laboratories findings were discrepant with the medical literature. These differences may be secondary to regional characteristics or by the fact that our population included only those patients who underwent spinal surgery.<hr/>RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A espondilite anquilosante (EA) é uma espondiloartropatia soronegativa, caracterizada principalmente pelo envolvimento do esqueleto axial e das articulações sacroilíacas. A EA promove alterações biomecânicas que predispõem a coluna a fraturas, deformidades e à espondilodiscite. O objetivo do presente estudo é reportar as características clínicas e laboratoriais dos pacientes com EA que foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos na coluna vertebral em nossa instituição. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com revisão de dados médicos dos pacientes com EA que foram submetidos a intervenções na coluna vertebral. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes foram encontrados e oito incluídos no presente estudo. Três pacientes eram homens e seis mulheres, com média de 57 anos de idade. Todos os pacientes apresentavam dor no segmento da coluna acometido pela doença e um paciente tinha tetraparesia por mielopatia cervical. Seis pacientes (75%) apresentaram proteínas de fase aguda com níveis séricos elevados e dois eram HLA-B27 positivos. Em quatro pacientes houve o diagnóstico radiológico presumido de espondilodiscite e estes foram submetidos à biópsia de disco (três por via percutânea e um com biópsia aberta) - em nenhum deles houve identificação de agente infeccioso. Desses, três pacientes tiveram melhora total da dor durante o seguimento, enquanto um deles mantinha dores leves. Houve três casos de fraturas tratadas cirurgicamente (37,5%) e um caso de deformidade cervical cifótica grave (12,5%). Não houve mortes ou complicações relacionadas às cirurgias nessa série. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos dados clínicos e laboratoriais de nosso estudo divergiu da literatura. Essas diferenças podem ser atribuídas às características regionais de nossa população ou pelo fato de incluirmos apenas pacientes que foram submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica.