Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira]]> vol. 64 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Breast cancer and hormonal contraception: Should we rethink our concepts?]]> <![CDATA[Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture – Treatment with kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty]]> <![CDATA[Fulminant liver failure in a street runner: Effects of heat stroke]]> Summary We present a clinical case of liver failure induced by heat stroke.<hr/>Resumo Apresentamos um caso de insuficiência hepática decorrente de colapso por calor. Trata-se de entidade pouco conhecida e, provavelmente, subdiagnosticada em nosso país. <![CDATA[Both glucocentric and cardiocentric approaches are necessary for a resilient disease such as diabetes]]> Summary Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease that compromises almost all systems in the human organism. Independently of the intrinsic mechanisms, the source of all consequences of DM is hyperglycemia, a condition associated to intense metabolic changes that will lead to increased morbidity and mortality in the long term. Several different therapeutic hypoglycemic oral agents were developed and significantly facilitated the treatment of hyperglycemia acting at different sites, since patients could take more than one agent. This glucocentric approach was somehow criticized as those hypoglycemic drugs have shown weaker than expected benefits in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and there was a sub use of statins and antihypertensive agents in this population. On the other hand, the catastrophic cardiovascular consequences of hypoglycemia in older adults submitted to tight glycemic control and the results of recent clinical trials that showed impressive reduction in cardiovascular outcomes with less potent antidiabetic agents seem to pave the way to a cardiocentric approach including a lax treatment of DM. Interestingly, the results obtained in recent studies with SGLT2 inhibitors are being mostly attributed to mechanisms other than its hypoglycemic effect in spite of including patients at high cardiovascular risk already taking hypoglycemic agents. Considering the worldwide growing number of patients with diabetes, caregivers must follow a dialectical thinking and choose a synthesis approach where glycemic control is the first and foremost target to be achieved, followed by control of cardiovascular risk factors. <![CDATA[Esophageal lichen planus: An unusual cause of dysphagia in the elderly]]> Summary An 82-year-old man sought our service with dysphagia and was referred for upper endoscopy with biopsies, which evidenced multiple ulcers of the esophagus and oropharinx. Histopathology confirmed the unusual diagnosis of esophageal lichen planus. The correct clinical suspicion of this disease can facilitate the diagnosis and guide specific treatment, which can drastically change the natural course of the disease.<hr/>Resumo Paciente do sexo masculino, de 82 anos, com disfagia, foi encaminhado para realização de endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias, na qual foram evidenciadas múltiplas úlceras de esôfago e orofaringe. O estudo histopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico raro de líquen plano esofágico. A correta suspeita clínica dessa doença pode facilitar o diagnóstico e direcionar para um tratamento específico, o que pode drasticamente alterar o curso natural dessa comorbidade. <![CDATA[Selenium supplementation in pediatric patients using parenteral nutrition: Is it time to do something?]]> Summary Objective: To analyze the nutritional status of selenium and verify the effect of its supplementation in pediatric patients during 14 days of parenteral nutrition (PN). Method: This is a series of cases with patients followed for two weeks while using PN. Data collection was performed at the beginning (T0), in the 7th (T1) and 14th days of PN (T2). The supplemented group received 2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid. Weight and height were measured for nutritional status assessment. Tests requested: plasma selenium, albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Results: Fourteen (14) patients with inflammatory process and with low or very low weight for their ages were evaluated. In both groups (with and without supplementation), all patients had low selenium levels. Median plasma selenium concentrations were 17.4 µg/L (T0), 23.0 µg/L (T1) and 20.7 µg/L (T2). Increase and reduction of selenium occurred both in patients with high CRP and in those presenting normalization of this parameter. Conclusion: Lower plasma selenium levels have been detected since the start of the research and supplementation (2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid) was not to enough to approach the reference values.<hr/>Resumo Objetivo: Analisar o estado nutricional relativo ao selênio e verificar o efeito da suplementação desse mineral em pacientes pediátricos durante 14 dias de nutrição parenteral (NP). Método: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo de uma série de casos de pacientes acompanhados durante duas semanas de uso de NP. A coleta de dados foi realizada no início (T0), no 7º (T1) e no 14º dia de NP (T2). Após randomização, o grupo suplementado recebeu 2 µg/kg/dia de ácido selenioso. Peso e altura foram aferidos para avaliação do estado nutricional. Exames coletados: selênio plasmático, albumina, pré-albumina, proteína C-reativa (PCR), colesterol total e HDL-colesterol. Resultados: Foram avaliados 14 pacientes com processo inflamatório em curso e com baixo ou muito baixo peso para a idade. Os pacientes (grupo suplementado e não suplementado) tinham baixas concentrações de selênio. A mediana dos valores de selênio plasmático foi de 17,4 µg/L (T0), 23,0 µg/L (T1) e 20,7 µg/L (T2). Aumento e redução de selênio ocorreram tanto nos pacientes com PCR elevada quanto naqueles que apresentaram normalização desse parâmetro. Conclusão: Os níveis de selênio detectados foram muito baixos e a suplementação (2 µg/kg/dia de ácido selenioso) não foi suficiente para normalização dos níveis plasmáticos. <![CDATA[Is serum angiotensin converting enzyme level a useful non-invasive marker for liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C?]]> Summary Objective: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) continues to be a critical problem. The liver fibrosis score is the most valuable tool in determining treatment and prognosis. Liver biopsy is still considered a gold method but, due to unmet needs, new non-invasive markers are required. The aim of this study was to investigate any possible relationship between serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels and the stages of liver fibrosis in patients with CHC. Method: A total 100 CHC and 100 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The relationship between serum ACE level and the stages liver fibrosis was investigated using three different formats, as follows: (group [G]-I, classic Ishak’s Score from F1 to F6; G-II, mild [F1-2], moderate [F3-4] and severe [F5-6]; G-III, mild [≤ F2] and advanced [F &gt; 2]). The clinical usability of serum ACE level for both groups was also investigated. Results: Median serum ACE levels were higher in the healthy group than in CHC (42.5 [7-119] vs. 36 [7-91] U/I, p=0.002). There was no statistical difference among the three different fibrosis groups (G-I, G-II, G-III, p=0.797, p=0.986, and p=0.874) and no correlation between serum ACE level and the stages of liver fibrosis (r=0.026, p=0.923). The usability of serum ACE for evaluated patients with CHC and healthy subjects were calculated as 47% and 64%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study indicated that there is no relationship or correlation between serum ACE levels and stages of liver fibrosis in patients with CHC. The assessment of serum ACE level using genetically corrected reference values may provide more accurate results. <![CDATA[The clinical efficacy and safety of paclitaxel combined with avastin for NSCLC patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion]]> Summary Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of paclitaxel combined with avastin for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Method: Total of 33 patients diagnosed with NSCLC as well as malignant pleural effusion were included. All of them received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and avastin (5 mg/kg). Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the total response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival and changes in MPE volume. Adverse events and rates of toxicities were examined as well. Results: The total response rate reached 77% while the overall survival and the median progression-free survival were respectively 22.2 months and 8.4 months. Toxicities of grade 3-4 consisted of neutropenia in 57% of patients, anemia in 17% of them, febrile neutropenia in 11%, as well as anorexia in 7%. No treatment-correlated deaths were found. Conclusion: Paclitaxel combined with avastin decreased MPE volume and increased survival rate of NSCLC patients via inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor expression. <![CDATA[Quality of life in a sample of Brazilian adults using the generic SF-12 questionnaire]]> Summary Objective: This study describes the summary scores of the Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire, according to socio-demographic factors obtained in a probabilistic and representative sample of the Brazilian urban population. Method: Five thousand (5,000) individuals, over the age of 15, were assessed in 16 capital cities, in the five regions of the country. The selection of households was random. Face-to-face approach was applied in the household interviews. The SF-12 questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were also evaluated: gender, age, marital status, skin color, region of the country and use of the public health service. Results: The mean value (SD) of the SF-12 for the entire population was 49.3 (8.7) for the physical component (PCS-12) and 52.7 (9.7) for the mental component (MCS-12). Statistical differences were found for gender (PCS-12 and MCS-12), age (PCS-12) and working status (PCS-12 and MCS-12). Women, elderly, widowed and unemployed individuals, those with lower income and with complaints in the last seven days showed lower mean values (PCS-12 and MCS-12). Conclusion: From this point forward, we can provide the basis for comparisons with future research that use the SF-12 for quality of life assessment in Brazil. The Brazilian population has a lower degree of quality of life related do the physical component, and the SF-12 is a useful and discriminative instrument for assessing quality of life in different socio-demographic groups.<hr/>Resumo Objetivo: Este estudo descreve os escores sumários do questionário Short Form-12 (SF-12), de acordo com os fatores sociodemográficos obtidos em uma amostra probabilística e representativa da população urbana brasileira. Método: Cinco mil (5.000) indivíduos, com idade superior a 15 anos, foram avaliados nas cinco regiões do país, em 16 capitais. A seleção dos domicílios foi aleatória. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas domiciliares. O questionário SF-12 foi utilizado para a avaliação de qualidade de vida. Características demográficas e socioeconômicas também foram avaliadas: sexo, idade, estado civil, cor da pele, região do país e uso do serviço público de saúde. Resultados: O valor médio (DP) do SF-12 para a população total foi de 49,3 (8,7) para o componente físico (PCS-12) e 52,7 (9,7) para o componente mental (MCS-12). Foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas para sexo (PCS-12 e MCS-12), idade (PCS-12) e estado laboral (PCS-12 e MCS-12). Mulheres, idosos, viúvos, indivíduos que não estavam trabalhando, pessoas com menor renda e queixas nos últimos sete dias apresentaram valores médios mais baixos (PCS-12 e MCS-12). Conclusão: Os resultados apresentados fornecem bases populacionais para comparações com pesquisas futuras que utilizem o SF-12 para a avaliação da qualidade de vida no Brasil. A população brasileira tem um menor grau de qualidade de vida relacionada ao componente físico, e o SF-12 é um instrumento útil e discriminativo para a avaliação de qualidade de vida em diferentes grupos sociodemográficos. <![CDATA[A review on the relationship between marital adjustment and maternal attachment]]> Summary Objective: To determine the relationship between marital adjustment of mothers who have babies between 1-4 months old and their maternal attachment; as well as the relationship of maternal attachment and marital adjustment with sociodemographic characteristics. Method: The research is descriptive and correlational. Its sample consists of 113 mothers. Maternal Attachment Index (MAI) and Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS) are used as data collection tools. Results: We found that, for mothers who participated in this research, the average level of maternal attachment is 92.17 ± 8.49, and the average level of marital adjustment is 43.06 ± 7.90. We discovered that the maternal attachment level is higher for mothers who have completed high school and university, those who breastfeed their babies exclusively and whose spouses help care for the baby. We also discovered that the Marital Adjustment Score is higher among mothers who are employed, get married by companionship (not arranged), continue attending pregnancy classes and whose duration of marriage is between 1-5 years and 10-15 years. There is weak positive relationship (r=0.38; p=0.00) between marital adjustment and maternal attachment; and the regression analysis that is run to explain this relationship is statistically significant (F=26.131; p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: In our study, the level of maternal attachment was high, while the level of marital adjustment was liminal. There are many factors affecting sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and baby care. The level of marital adjustment for mothers increases the maternal attachment. <![CDATA[Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (CIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (CUTIs): A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials]]> Summary Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (CIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (CUTIs) with meta-analysis method. Method: We included six randomized clinical trials identified from Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, “ISRCTN Register” and “” which compared ceftazidime-avibactam with comparison group. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager software version 5.3. Results: Ceftazidime-avibactam versus active comparisons demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of microbiological response success on microbiological evaluable populations at the test-of-cure visit (95CI 1.10-2.38, p=0.02) and late-follow-up visit (95CI 1.09-2.23, p=0.02) for the treatment of CUTIs. Ceftazidime-avibactam versus active comparisons demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of microbiological response success on EME populations at the test-of-cure visit (95CI 1.08-4.27, p=0.03) and late-follow-up visit (OR=1.75, 95CI 1.33-2.29, p&lt;0.0001) for the treatment of CUTIs. Similar results were obtained at the late-follow-up visit (OR = 1.58, 95CI 1.26-1.97, p&lt;0.0001) on microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) populations for the treatment of CUTIs. We can find better eradication rates for E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae based on mMITT populations. In terms of AEs, SAEs and mortality, ceftazidime-avibactam had a safety and tolerability profile broadly similar to the comparison group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence of the efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam as a potential alternative for the treatment of patients with CUTIs, and CIAIs. <![CDATA[Dyslipidemia and maternal obesity: Prematurity and neonatal prognosis]]> Summary Objective: To identify the changes caused by dyslipidemia and obesity in pregnancy suggesting causes for premature birth, and the prognosis for the newborn. Method: Systematic review based on the Medline, Lilacs, Embase and Cochrane library databases between 1996 and 2016. The search for studies included the following keywords: “dyslipidemia, pregnancy, obesity, preterm birth.” A protocol was programmed and a protocol for inclusion/exclusion of studies was implemented. Results: Of the 5,789 articles initially selected between March 1996 and July 2016, only 32 were in accordance with the established criteria. Of these, 28.12% discussed risk factors of prematurity; 37.50%, metabolic alterations and gestational dyslipidemia; 21.87%, dyslipidemic complications in preterm birth; and 12,50%, lipid metabolism, glycemic and placental transfer. Conclusion: There is a reduced adaptation of obese pregnant women to the metabolic changes of gestation. This favors dyslipidemic intercurrences in the mother, which, directly or indirectly, suggests the occurrence of premature births and high lipid transfer to the fetus. Therefore, preterm newborns, whose mothers were dyslipidemic during pregnancy, have greater risk of epicardial fat, both in early (first year of life) and in later (adult) phases of life.<hr/>Resumo Objetivo: Identificar as alterações provocadas pela dislipidemia e pela obesidade na gestação que sugerem causas de partos prematuros e o prognóstico para o recém-nascido. Método: Revisão sistemática nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, Embase e da biblioteca Cochrane entre os anos de 1996 e 2016. O processo de seleção ocorreu a partir dos descritores dislipidemia, gravidez, obesidade, nascimento prematuro. Um protocolo foi programado, havendo uma etapa seletiva de inclusão/exclusão das pesquisas. Resultados: Dentre os 5.789 artigos inicialmente selecionados entre março e julho de 2016, somente 32 estavam de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos. Desses, 28,12% focavam nos fatores de risco da prematuridade; 37,50%, em alterações metabólicas e dislipidemia gestacional; 21,87%, em intercorrências dislipidêmicas no parto prematuro; 12,50%, em metabolismo lipídico, glicêmico e transferências pela placenta. Conclusão: Existe uma menor adaptação da gestante obesa às mudanças metabólicas da gestação, favorecendo intercorrências dislipidêmicas na mãe, o que, direta ou indiretamente, sugere a ocorrência de partos prematuros e uma elevada transferência de lipídios para o feto. Portanto, recém-nascidos prematuros de mães dislipidêmicas durante a gravidez apresentam maior risco de desenvolver gordura epicárdica tanto na fase precoce (primeiro ano de vida) quanto na tardia (vida adulta). <![CDATA[Portuguese Primary Care physicians response rate in surveys: A systematic review]]> Summary Introduction: Surveys are a useful tool in primary care. However, low response rates can introduce selection bias, impairing both external and internal validity. The aim of this study was to assess the average response rate in surveys with Portuguese general practitioners (GPs). Method: We searched the Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo, SciELO, IndexRMP, RCAAP, Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Geral e Familiar, Acta Médica Portuguesa and the proceedings of conferences of general practice from incepton to December 2016. We included all postal, e-mail, telephone and personal surveys to primary care physicians without language restrictions. We did not assess risk of bias of included studies, since the main outcome was survey response rate. We performed planned subgroup analyses of the use of monetary incentives, the use of non-monetary incentives, survey delivery modes and prior contact with participants. Results: A total of 1,094 papers were identified and 37 studies were included in this review. The response rate in surveys done to Portuguese GPs was 56% (95CI 47-64%). There was substantial heterogeneity among included studies (I2=99%), but subgroup analysis did not explain this heterogeneity. Conclusion: Consistent with other published studies, the average response rate in surveys done with Portuguese GPs was 56%, with substantial variation among studies. Use of monetary incentives, one of the most effective strategies to increase response rates, was not present in any of the included studies.<hr/>Resumo Introdução: Questionários são úteis na investigação em cuidados de saúde primários. Contudo, baixas taxas de resposta podem introduzir um viés de seleção, prejudicando a validade externa e interna. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a taxa de resposta média a questionários aplicados a médicos de família (MF) portugueses. Método: Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo, SciELO, IndexRMP, RCAAP, Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Geral e Familiar, Acta Médica Portuguesa e resumos em conferências de medicina familiar do início até dezembro de 2016. Incluiram-se estudos realizados a médicos de família portugueses independentemente de sua tipologia, do tipo de entrega (correio, e-mail, pessoalmente e por telefone) e do idioma do artigo. Não foi avaliado o risco de viés dos artigos porque o principal resultado considerado foi a taxa de resposta. Foram efetuadas análises de subgrupos sobre a utilização de incentivos monetários, de incentivos não monetários, o modo de entrega e o contato prévio com os participantes. Resultados: Foram identificados 1.094 artigos e incluídos 37 estudos. O número de participantes em cada estudo variou entre 13 e 2.815 participantes. A taxa de resposta média foi de 56% (IC95% 47-64%). Identificou-se uma heterogeneidade substancial (I2=99%) não explicável pela análise de subgrupos. Conclusão: A taxa de resposta média a inquéritos realizados a MF portugueses foi de 56%, o que corresponde aos valores identificados em revisões internacionais, apesar da variação significativa entre os estudos englobados nesta revisão. O uso de incentivos monetários, uma das estratégias mais eficazes para aumentar as taxas de resposta, não foi identificado em qualquer dos estudos incluídos. <![CDATA[Human leishmaniasis in Brazil: A general review]]> Summary Leishmaniasis is a disease with ample clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity and is considered a major public health problem. This article presents an overview of the transmission cycles, host-parasite interactions, clinical, histological and immunological aspects, diagnosis and treatment of various forms of the human disease.<hr/>Resumo A leishmaniose representa um complexo de doenças com amplo espectro clínico e diversidade epidemiológica, sendo considerada um grande problema de saúde pública. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão geral sobre os ciclos de transmissão, as interações parasito-hospedeiro, os aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e imunológicos, o diagnóstico e o tratamento das diversas formas da doença humana. <![CDATA[Current guidelines for prostate cancer screening: A systematic review and minimal core proposal]]> Summary Objective: Considering the importance of screening for prostate cancer, the possibility of damage resulting from indiscriminate screening and the difficulty of disclosure and adherence to the main guidelines on the subject, we aimed to identify current guidelines, look for common approaches and establish a core of conducts. Method: Systematic review of the literature on screening practice guidelines for prostate cancer searching the databases PubMed, Lilacs and Google Scholar and active search in the sites of several national health entities. Results: Twelve (12) guidelines were selected, whose analysis resulted in the identification of six common points of conduct, with the following minimum core of recommendations: (1) screening indication or not: must be individualized, and preceded by an informed decision; (2) tests used: PSA with or without rectal digital examination; (3) age at which initiate testing in men in general risk: 50-55 years; (4) age at which to initiate testing in men at increased risk: 40-45 years; (5) the interval between screening: annual or biennial; and (6) age at which to discontinue testing: 70 years-old or life expectancy less than 10 years. Conclusion: Although there are differences between them, it was possible to establish a minimum core of conducts that may be useful in the daily practice of the physician.<hr/>Resumo Objetivo: Considerando a importância do rastreamento de câncer de próstata, a possibilidade de dano decorrente do rastreamento indiscriminado, a dificuldade de divulgação e adesão às diretrizes sobre o assunto, objetivamos identificar as principais diretrizes vigentes, procurar pontos de abordagem comuns e estabelecer um núcleo mínimo de condutas. Método: Revisão sistemática da literatura sobre guias de prática de rastreamento para câncer de próstata nas bases Pubmed, Lilacs e Google Scholar, além de busca ativa nos sítios de diversas entidades de saúde nacionais. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 12 diretrizes, cuja análise resultou na identificação de seis pontos comuns de conduta, com o seguinte núcleo mínimo de recomendações: (1) a indicação ou não de rastreamento: deve ser individualizada e precedida de uma decisão informada; (2) os exames utilizados: PSA com ou sem exame digital retal; (3) a idade de início geral: 50-55 anos; (4) a idade de início em homens com risco aumentado: 40 anos; (5) o intervalo entre os rastreamentos: anual ou bienal; e (6) a idade de suspensão do rastreamento: 70 anos ou expectativa de vida menor que 10 anos. Conclusão: Embora existam divergências entre elas, foi possível estabelecer um núcleo mínimo de condutas que podem ser úteis na prática diária do médico.