Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0104-663220150004&lang=es vol. 32 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[CONTINUOUS AND SEMICONTINUOUS REACTION SYSTEMS FOR HIGH-SOLIDS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LIGNOCELLULOSICS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400805&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract An attractive operation strategy for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics results from dividing the process into three stages with complementary goals: continuous enzyme adsorption at low-solids loading (5% w/w) with recycling of the liquid phase; continuous liquefaction at high-solids content (up to 20% w/w); and, finally, continuous or semicontinuous hydrolysis with supplementation of fresh enzymes. This paper presents a detailed modeling and simulation framework for the aforementioned operation strategies. The limiting micromixing situations of macrofluid and microfluid are used to predict conversions. The adsorption and liquefaction stages are modeled as a continuous stirred tank and a plug flow reactor, respectively. Two alternatives for the third stage are studied: a train of five cascading stirred tanks and a battery of batch reactors in parallel. Simulation results show that glucose concentrations greater than 100 g L-1 could be reached with both of the alternatives for the third stage. <![CDATA[ON-LINE MONITORING OF BIOMASS CONCENTRATION BASED ON A CAPACITANCE SENSOR: ASSESSING THE METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT BACTERIA AND YEAST HIGH CELL DENSITY FED-BATCH CULTURES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400821&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The performance of an in-situ capacitance sensor for on-line monitoring of biomass concentration was evaluated for some of the most important microorganisms in the biotechnology industry: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Bacillus megaterium. A total of 33 batch and fed-batch cultures were carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor and biomass formation trends were followed by dielectric measurements during the growth phase as well as the induction phase, for 5 recombinant E. coli strains. Permittivity measurements and viable cellular concentrations presented a linear correlation for all the studied conditions. In addition, the permittivity signal was further used for inference of the cellular growth rate. The estimated specific growth rates mirrored the main trends of the metabolic states of the different cells and they can be further used for setting-up control strategies in fed-batch cultures. <![CDATA[CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES FOR TREATING EFFLUENT CONTAINING HEDP: DETERMINATION OF THE LIMITING CURRENT]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400831&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Membrane separation techniques have been explored for treating industrial effluents to allow water reuse and component recovery. In an electrodialysis system, concentration polarization causes undesirable alterations in the ionic transportation mechanism. The graphic construction of the current voltage curve is proposed for establishing the value of the limiting current density applied to the cell. The aim of this work was to determine the limiting current density in an electrodialysis bench stack, the function of which was the treatment of an electroplating effluent containing HEDP. For this, a system with five compartments was used with a working solution simulating the rinse waters of HEDP-based baths. The results demonstrated correlation between the regions defined by theory and the experimental data. <![CDATA[OXIDATION OF PHENOL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH COPPER OXIDE CATALYSTS SUPPORTED ON γ-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, PILLARED CLAY AND TiO<sub>2</sub>: COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH CATALYST]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400837&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of phenol using copper oxide catalysts supported by γ-Al2O3, TiO2, and pillared clay was evaluated to identify which of these catalysts was the most appropriate for this reaction. The CuO/PILC, CuO/γ-Al2O3 and CuO/TiO2 catalysts were the most successful at removing phenol and resulted in more than 96% conversion. Among these catalysts, CuO/γ-Al2O3 produced the largest amount of CO2, the lowest amount of intermediate products and the lowest amount of copper leaching. These results showed that the CuO/γ-Al2O3catalyst was the best for the end of the reaction. However, the methods used in this study did not allow us to identify the most appropriate reaction time (or catalyst). An alternative approach for this problem was to quantify the costs for each reaction time. Using this approach, the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was the most economically favorable catalyst when it was used during the first hour of the reaction. <![CDATA[SOLID HOLDUP AND CIRCULATION RATE IN A LIQUID-SOLID CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED WITH VISCOUS LIQUID MEDIUM]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400849&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Experiments were conducted in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed with different viscous liquids and particles to study the hydrodynamics, average solid hold up and solid circulation rate. The effects of operating parameters, i.e., primary liquid flow rate in the riser, auxiliary liquid flow rate, total liquid flow rate and viscosity of the liquid were studied for solids of different density and particle size. Results show that the circulating fluidization regime starts earlier for more viscous solutions because of the decrease in critical transitional velocity. The onset of solid holdup increases with an increase in liquid viscosity for sand and for glass beads. The solid circulation rate increases with an increase in total velocity and auxiliary velocity, and also increases with increasing viscosity. <![CDATA[HYDRODYNAMICS OF PLATE COLUMN FOR ENZYMATIC REACTIONS OF OIL]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400857&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This work describes the hydrodynamics of a plate column of 5 cm inner diameter and 2.75 m height, operated in a semi-batch manner using an oil-water system especially important for enzymatic catalyzed reactions. The parameters such as dispersed phase superficial velocity, plate orifice size, number of nozzles, nozzle size and plate spacing, affecting the dispersed phase hold up, were investigated. It was observed that the orifice plate produced an uneven change in drop diameter and hence nozzles were used to study the hydrodynamics. The total and dynamic hold ups determined were increased with an increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity, while decreased with an increase in a nozzle size. The total hold up decreased, while dynamic hold up slightly increased with an increase in plate spacing. Correlations obtained are found to be appropriate for the estimation of the total hold up and dynamic hold up. <![CDATA[LIQUID FLOW IN IMPELLER SWEPT REGIONS OF BAFFLED AND UNBAFFLED VESSELS WITH A TURBINE-TYPE AGITATOR]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400865&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Liquid flow in the impeller swept region of vessels with a turbine-type agitator was examined for the flow path between the neighboring blades of the rotating impeller. Visualization of the flow and its measurement were done using particle tracking velocimetry with a camera rotating along with the impeller. Internal liquid flow of the impeller differed when the velocity magnitudes were compared in conditions with and without baffles. Larger circumferential and radial velocities were observed without the baffles and with the baffles, respectively, which was considered to result in the difference of impeller power transmission. Efficiencies produced, based on the flow-head concept, reflected the impeller power characteristics. The turbine-type impeller as an actuator was demonstrated to improve in the flow characteristics with viscous losses increased by the baffles. In terms of impeller efficiencies based on the power consumption, the effect of baffles for the energy was as a decreased transmission and an increased transport. <![CDATA[SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) OF NO BY AMMONIA OVER V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/TiO<sub>2</sub> CATALYST IN A CATALYTIC FILTER MEDIUM AND HONEYCOMB REACTOR: A KINETIC MODELING STUDY]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400875&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The present study addresses a numerical modeling and simulation based on the available knowledge of SCR kinetics for prediction of NO conversion over a V2O3/TiO3 catalyst through a catalytic filter medium and honeycomb reactor. After introducing the NH3-SCR system with specific operational criteria, a reactor model was developed to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters such as flue gas temperature, velocity, NH3/NO molar ratio, etc., on the SCR process. Computational investigations were performed based on the proposed model and optimum operational conditions were identified. Simulation results indicate that SCR performance is substantially under the effects of reactant concentration and operating temperature, so that the concentration of unreacted ammonia emitted from reactor discharge (ammonia slip) increases significantly at NH3/NO ratios of more than 1.14 and operating temperatures less than 360 ºC and 300 ºC, respectively, in the catalytic filter medium and honeycomb reactor. The results also show that there are three sections in NO conversion variation versus changing temperature and the required conversion with a maximum of almost 87% and low level of ammonia slip can be achieved at the NH3/NO ratio of 1 and temperature range of 240–360 ºC in both reactors. <![CDATA[REMOVAL OF WATER CONTENT FROM BIODIESEL AND DIESEL FUEL USING HYDROGEL ADSORBENTS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400895&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The removal of water content present in fuels such as biodiesel and diesel is quite important to adequate the fuel to standards for commercialization and to avoid corrosion of storage tanks and injection equipment in diesel engines. In this study, hydrophilic hydrogels were employed to remove the water content in biodiesel and diesel fuel samples. The results showed that the hydrogels were capable of decreasing the free water content and also the soluble water content present in the samples. The highest decrease of total water content in samples of biodiesel was 53.3% wt and for diesel samples the reduction of water content was 32.0%, starting with samples that had 2160 ppm and 240 ppm of water, respectively. The highest decrease of total water content (free and soluble water) for diesel samples was 80.4% wt, from a diesel sample initially containing 348 ppm of total water content. <![CDATA[PREDICTION OF STABILITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SnO<sub>2</sub>NANOFLUID VIA STATISTICAL METHOD AND AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400903&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and artificial neural networks (ANN) have been applied to optimize the performance of nanofluid systems. In this regard, the performance was evaluated by measuring the stability and thermal conductivity ratio based on the critical independent variables such as temperature, particle volume fraction and the pH of the solution. A total of 20 experiments were accomplished for the construction of second-order polynomial equations for both target outputs. All the influential factors, their mutual effects and their quadratic terms were statistically validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). According to the results, the predicted values were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data as more than 96% and 95% of the variation could be predicted by the respective models for zeta potential and thermal conductivity ratio. Also, ANN proved to be a very promising method in comparison with CCD for the purpose of process simulation due to the complexity involved in generalization of the nanofluid system. <![CDATA[PLANTWIDE PERIODICAL DISTURBANCES ISOLATION AND ELIMINATION IN A PETROCHEMICAL UNIT]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400919&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Reducing process variability is crucial to reach a more profitable operating point. Periodical disturbances, however, impose barriers to achieve this goal. Their effect can be strong since one disturbance that appears in a specific loop of a highly coupled plant can be seen in several loops. Thus, isolating their source and diagnosing their cause are essential. In this work, we describe the application of spectral independent component analysis to isolate a periodical disturbance that has a strong impact on the final variability in a polyethylene plant located in Southern Brazil. After the first analysis, the source was detected and the cause identified: valve stiction. To identify the cause (valve, bad tuning, or periodic disturbance), we used the methodology based on higher-order statistics. Once the valve problem had been overcome, the product variance was reduced by 93%. <![CDATA[CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF VERAPAMIL RACEMATE USING A VARICOL CONTINUOUS MULTICOLUMN PROCESS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400929&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Verapamil is a chiral drug that is marketed in its racemic form, but because of the pharmacological effects due to molecule’s chirality, one of the enantiomers is more potent, and the other exhibits different activities of therapeutic interest. The preparative separation of the verapamil enantiomers was performed using a continuous Varicol unit operated on a scale of 1 g/day. Amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) functioned as the stationary phase, and n-hexane/isopropanol/ethanol mixtures were used as the mobile phase. Diethylamine was used as the additive. The enantiomeric purities were 93.0% for S-(-)-verapamil and 92.0% for R-(+)-verapamil in the raffinate and extract streams, respectively. The unit provided productivities of 0.18 kg of raffinate per day per kg of adsorbent and 0.20 kg of extract per day per kg of adsorbent when using a feed concentration of 12.5 g L-1. <![CDATA[MODELING OF THE EXTRACTION PROCESS OF TEA SEED OIL WITH SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400941&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The kinetics of the extraction of tea seed oil with supercritical CO2was studied. A kinetic model of the extraction of tea seed oil using supercritical CO2 was developed on the basis of the differential mass balance to simulate the extraction process. The model could simulate the distribution of the solute concentration in CO2 inside the extraction bed as a function of extraction time and height of the extraction bed. The model could also simulate of the solute concentration in CO2 at the outlet of the extractor as a function of time. The effects of the parameters such as pressure and temperature on extraction yield and the process were investigated through the model. This model could simulate satisfactorily the process of extraction with an error between simulation data and experimental data of less than 10%. <![CDATA[CHROMIUM EXTRACTION BY MICROEMULSIONS IN TWO- AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400949&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Microemulsion systems were used to remove chromium from an aqueous solution obtained from acid digestion of tannery sludge. The systems were composed by: coconut oil soap as surfactant, 1-butanol as cosurfactant, kerosene as the oil phase, and chromium solution as the aqueous phase. Two- and three-phase microemulsion extraction methods were investigated in the experiments. Viscosity, effective diameter of the droplets, and extraction and re-extraction efficiencies were evaluated for each system. Two- and three-phase systems showed small variations in droplet diameter, which can be attributed to the formation of micellar structures. Chromium recovery efficiencies for the studied systems were over 96%. The re-extraction step showed that the stripping solution used can release more than 96% of the chromium from the microemulsion phase. Experimental results confirm that chromium can be recovered efficiently using microemulsion systems. <![CDATA[THERMODYNAMIC TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION OF MAXIMUM BOILING AZEOTROPES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400957&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This paper provides a feasibility study of azeotropic mixture separation based on a topological analysis combining thermodynamic knowledge of residue curve maps, univolatility and unidistribution curves, and extractive profiles. Thermodynamic topological features related to process operations for typical ternary diagram classes 1.0-2 are, for the first time, discussed. Separating acetone/chloroform is presented as an illustrative example; different entrainers are investigated: several heavy ones, a light one, and water, covering the Serafimov classes 1.0-2, 1.0-1a and 3.1-4, respectively. The general feasibility criterion that was previously established for ternary mixtures including only one azeotrope (1.0-1a or 1.0-2) is now, for the first time, extended to that including three azeotropes (class 3.1–4). <![CDATA[PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR BINARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING IONIC LIQUID WITH WATER OR HYDROCARBONS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400967&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this work, the mutual solubilities of sets of ionic liquids ([CnMIM] [TF2N] (n = 4, 8, 12), [C4PY] [TF2N], [C8MIM] [OTF]) and organic compounds (heptane, o-xylene, toluene, or water) are investigated. The experimental data measured for these systems were used to adjust the binary interaction parameters between their components for the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model. The results showed that the solubility increased with temperature, with high hygroscopicity (10-1 in terms of mole fraction) of the ILs, low interactions with aliphatic hydrocarbons, high interactions with aromatic hydrocarbons and the presence of a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In addition, this study is the first to show that [C12MIM] [TF2N] is completely soluble in toluene and ortho-xylene between 273.15 and 373.15 K at 1 bar. The average deviations related to the mole fraction between the experimental and calculated values by the NRTL were less than 2.4%. <![CDATA[Letter to the Editor:]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400975&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this work, the mutual solubilities of sets of ionic liquids ([CnMIM] [TF2N] (n = 4, 8, 12), [C4PY] [TF2N], [C8MIM] [OTF]) and organic compounds (heptane, o-xylene, toluene, or water) are investigated. The experimental data measured for these systems were used to adjust the binary interaction parameters between their components for the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model. The results showed that the solubility increased with temperature, with high hygroscopicity (10-1 in terms of mole fraction) of the ILs, low interactions with aliphatic hydrocarbons, high interactions with aromatic hydrocarbons and the presence of a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In addition, this study is the first to show that [C12MIM] [TF2N] is completely soluble in toluene and ortho-xylene between 273.15 and 373.15 K at 1 bar. The average deviations related to the mole fraction between the experimental and calculated values by the NRTL were less than 2.4%. <![CDATA[Authors' Reply to the Letter to the Editor: Reply to "Non green perspective on biodegradable polymer nanocomposites"]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322015000400976&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this work, the mutual solubilities of sets of ionic liquids ([CnMIM] [TF2N] (n = 4, 8, 12), [C4PY] [TF2N], [C8MIM] [OTF]) and organic compounds (heptane, o-xylene, toluene, or water) are investigated. The experimental data measured for these systems were used to adjust the binary interaction parameters between their components for the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) model. The results showed that the solubility increased with temperature, with high hygroscopicity (10-1 in terms of mole fraction) of the ILs, low interactions with aliphatic hydrocarbons, high interactions with aromatic hydrocarbons and the presence of a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In addition, this study is the first to show that [C12MIM] [TF2N] is completely soluble in toluene and ortho-xylene between 273.15 and 373.15 K at 1 bar. The average deviations related to the mole fraction between the experimental and calculated values by the NRTL were less than 2.4%.