Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0365-059620180001&lang=en vol. 93 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Mycetomas: an epidemiological, etiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Mycetoma is a chronic suppurative disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, characterized by a symptomatic triad: tumor, fistulas and grains. It can be caused by fungi (eumycetoma) and bacteria (actinomycetoma), with similar clinical features. Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation and identification of the etiological agents in the tissue, by mycological/bacteriological, histopathological and immunohistochemical tests. It is important to specify the fungal or bacterial etiology, because the treatments are different. An approach that involves early diagnosis, the use of systemic antibiotics or antifungal agents, including surgical removal of lesions, is the basis for the treatment of these diseases. In this review, the most commonly used diagnostic methods and treatments will be discussed. Also, we will review the history of the disease through epidemiological and etiological aspects. <![CDATA[Prognostic factors for metastasis in cutaneous melanoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: Melanoma is a malignant neoplasia that shows high mortality when diagnosed in advanced stages. Early identification of high-risk patients for the development of melanoma metastases is the main strategy to reduce mortality. Objective: To assess the influence of eight epidemiological and histopathologic features on the development of metastases in patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma. Methods: Our historical cohort comprised patients with invasive primary cutaneous melanoma seen between 1995 and 2012 at a public university hospital and a private oncologic surgery institution in Southeastern Brazil. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, family history of melanoma, site of the primary tumor, clinical and histologic subtype, Breslow thickness, histologic ulceration and the mitotic index. Kaplan-Meier univariate test and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis were used to assess factors associated with disease-free survival. Results: Five hundred and fourteen patients were enrolled. The univariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: gender, age, site of the tumor, clinical and histologic subtype, Breslow thickness, histologic ulceration and mitotic index. Multivariate analysis included 244 patients and detected four significant prognostic factors: male gender, nodular clinical and histologic subtype, Breslow thickness &gt; 4mm, and histologic ulceration. The mitotic index was not included in this analysis. Study limitations: Small number of patients in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The following prognostic factors to the development of melanoma metastasis were identified in the study: male gender, nodular histologic subtype, Breslow thickness &gt; 4mm and ulceration. <![CDATA[Occupational dermatoses reported in Brazil from 2007 to 2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: Occupational diseases are very prevalent in the world, especially in developing countries. Occupational dermatoses are responsible for most of these cases. However, epidemiological studies are rare in Brazil. Objectives: To verify the panorama of occupational skin diseases in Brazil describing frequencies of work-related dermatoses and their sociodemographic and occupational patterns. Methods: We used retrospective data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, (from 2007-2014) tabulated with the Tab program for Windows - TabWin12. We used intentional non-probability sampling and sequential selection, considering all notified occupational dermatoses. Results: All cases of occupational dermatoses referred to in the period were analyzed (n = 4710). Males and the age group of 35-49 years were the most affected. The most affected body area was the upper limb (34.2%) and the hand (25.4%). The "causative agent" field in the forms was not filled in 69.4% of cases, with chrome as the most prevalent cause reported (11.8%). ICD-10 codes more prevalent were L23, L24, and L25, corresponding to 34.2% of the sample. In total, 29% of patients needed to take a sick leave. No cases evolved to death and there were 0.2% of total as permanent disability. Study limitations: The amount of missing information for various items in the system draws attention. Conclusions: Treatment of patients with occupational dermatitis include the identification and removal of the causative agent and specific treatment of the disease. Diagnosis delay in cases of occupational dermatoses brings social and financial consequences to the work and life of workers. <![CDATA[The efficacy and safety of phototherapy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: While phototherapy is a well-established treatment for many dermatoses, data from the literature regarding its use in elderly patients are quite limited. Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the phototherapy indications in geriatric patients and to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of phototherapy in this group. Methods: This study included 95 patients of 65 years of age and older who were treated in our phototherapy unit between 2006 and 2015. The data for this study were collected retrospectively from patient follow-up forms in the phototherapy unit. Results: Phototherapy was administered to 28 (29.5%) patients for mycosis fungoides, 25 (26.3%) patients foplaque type psoriasis, 12 (12.6%) patients for palmoplantar psoriasis, 12 (12.6%) patients for generalized pruritus, and 18 (19%) for other dermatoses. Of the patients, 64.2% had received a narrowband UVB (NB-UVB), 21.1% oral psoralen UVA (PUVA), and 14.7% local PUVA treatment. A complete response was achieved in 76.9-85.7% of the mycosis fungoides and in 73.71-100% of the psoriasis vulgaris patients treated with NB-UVB and PUVA, respectively. All the patients with generalized pruritus were treated with NB-UVB, and 80% of these patients achieved significant improvement. The erythema rate was found to be 0.43% per session for NB-UVB treatment and 0.46% per session for PUVA treatment as a side effect. Study limitations: The limitations of our study are that it was retrospective and the remission durations of the patients are not known. Conclusion: This study showed that phototherapy is effective and reliable in the elderly population with proper dose increases and close follow-up. <![CDATA[Photoprotection in adolescents: what they know and how they behave]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: The greatest sun exposure occurs until adolescence and this is the only factor involved in photocarcinogenesis subject to modification with photoprotection. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the habits and knowledge of adolescents regarding photoprotection. Method: Cross-sectional study that included 512 students from primary and high school. Data were collected by questionnaires with questions about habits and knowledge on sun protection. For data analysis, Pearson's Chi-square test and Yates test were applied, with 5% level of significance. Results: We evaluated 512 students, with a mean age of 14 years old. The teenagers agreed that ultraviolet rays cause skin cancer and aging (96% and 70%, respectively). Knowledge about the occurrence of burns even on cloudy days was recorded in 68% of cases, as well as the need for photoprotection for sports in 72%. The source of information about sun protection were by parents in 55%. In 70% was observed previous occurrence of sunburn, the daily use of sunscreens was found in 15% and 67% used only at the beach. of sunscreens with SPF higher than 30 was reported by 70% of students and 57% reported going to the beach between 10h and 16h. In 68% of cases it was registered insufficient sun protection, attributed, in 57% of the time to forgetfulness. Study limitations: The sample refers to two schools of Curitiba (PR), Brazil. Conclusion: Teenagers know the risks of sun exposure, but they do not adopt the practices for adequate protection. <![CDATA[Epidemiological and histopathological aspects of primary cutaneous melanoma in residents of Joinville, 2003-2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: The worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has been continuously increasing over the last decades. Primary and secondary prevention, with attention to risk factors and early diagnosis, remain the cornerstone for reducing the burden of cutaneous melanoma. Detailed information with respect to clinical and pathological data on cutaneous melanoma is scarce in Brazil. Objective: The purpose of our study was to analyze epidemiological and pathological characteristics of primary cutaneous melanoma in Joinville, southern Brazil. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study in which 893 reports of primary cutaneous melanoma from the local population were analyzed in the period 2003-2014. The study was approved by the local Ethics and Research Committee. Results: We observed a female predominance of cutaneous melanoma (56.3%). The age standardized incidence rate of primary cutaneous melanoma for the world population in the period 2003-06 was 11.8 per 100,000 population (CI 95%, 10.3-13.4), and 17.5 (CI 95%, 15.7-19.3) in 2011-14, revealing a significant increase of 48.3% (p &lt; 0,05). Six and a half percent of patients had multiple cutaneous melanomas (mean 2.2 years and a maximum of 10.0 years between diagnoses). We observed significant differences between the location head/neck and cutaneous melanoma in situ, lower limb with Breslow depth S III and upper limb with Breslow depth S I. The comparison of the characteristics of cutaneous melanoma in the elderly and non-elderly (&lt; 60 years old) showed significant differences with respect to all the variables studied. Study limitations: Using secondary data source. Conclusion: Joinville has high incidence coefficients for Brazilian standards, showing an increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. <![CDATA[A study of the association of glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to vitiligo in Egyptian patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100054&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: The association of glutathione S-transferases M1/T1 (GSTM1/T1) null polymorphisms with vitiligo was proposed in several studies including two Egyptian studies with contradictory results. Objective: The aim here was to assess the association between GSTM1/T1 null polymorphisms and the susceptibility to vitiligo in a larger sample of Egyptian patients with generalized vitiligo. Methods: This study included 122 vitiligo patients and 200 healthy controls that were age, and gender matched. Assessment of GSTM1/T1 gene polymorphisms was done using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Increased odds of generalized vitiligo was observed with the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms (P&lt;0.05). Controls with GSTM1 null/GSTT1+ heterozygosis presented with a 2.97 odds protection from having generalized vitiligo (OR=2.97, 95%CI=1.1-7.7) (P=0.02) compared with patients. Study Limitations: Small sample size of patients. Conclusions: This study showed a significant trend towards an association with the combination of the GSTM1/GSTT1 double null polymorphism and generalized vitiligo. Individuals with GSTM1 null/GSTT1+ heterozygosis have a 2.97 odds protection from having generalized vitiligo compared with patients. It was is the first time, to our knowledge, that such an association has been reported. <![CDATA[Nickel, chromium and cobalt: the relevant allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Comparative study between two periods: 1995-2002 and 2003-2015]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100059&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. Objectives: To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Methods: Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Results: Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p&lt;0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p&lt;0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p&lt;0.0001) and hands (45%; p&lt;0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p&lt;0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p&lt;0.0001). Study limitations: The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. Conclusion: The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes. <![CDATA[The potential role of Th17 lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100063&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by increased keratinocyte proliferation due to abnormal differentiation of basal keratinocytes. The etiology of the disease is unclear, and according to the survey results, it is hypothesized that a combination of genetic and environmental factors prompts an abnormal immune response in patients with psoriasis. CD4+ Th cells play a multifaceted role in both immune defense and pathogenesis of certain diseases such as psoriasis. Nonetheless, the exact contribution of different subpopulations of Th cells in psoriasis is still not clear. Objective: The aim of present study was to determine the mRNA expression level of RORC as potential inducer of Th17 cell differentiation and expression pattern of Th17-signature cytokines (IL-17A and IL-22). Methods: Twenty patients with psoriasis and twenty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated and expression of three genes were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-22 were also evaluated by ELISA. Results: RORC, IL-17A and IL-22 gene expression was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis compared with healthy controls (P&lt;0.05). In addition, a marked increase in plasma IL-17A and IL-22 levels was observed in patient group compared to controls (P&lt;0.001). Study limitations: small number of patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that Th17 response may contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. <![CDATA[Application of dermoscopy image analysis technique in diagnosing urethral condylomata acuminata]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100067&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: In this study, cases with suspected urethral condylomata acuminata were examined by dermoscopy, in order to explore an effective method for clinical. Objective: To study the application of dermoscopy image analysis technique in clinical diagnosis of urethral condylomata acuminata. Methods: A total of 220 suspected urethral condylomata acuminata were clinically diagnosed first with the naked eyes, and then by using dermoscopy image analysis technique. Afterwards, a comparative analysis was made for the two diagnostic methods. Results: Among the 220 suspected urethral condylomata acuminata, there was a higher positive rate by dermoscopy examination than visual observation. Study limitations: Dermoscopy examination technique is still restricted by its inapplicability in deep urethral orifice and skin wrinkles, and concordance between different clinicians may also vary. Conclusion: Dermoscopy image analysis technique features a high sensitivity, quick and accurate diagnosis and is non-invasive, and we recommend its use. <![CDATA[Hyaluronic acid in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: relationship with disease and cutaneous lesions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100072&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: There are scarce studies in the literature about hyaluronic acid in systemic autoimmune myopathies. Objectives: To analyze the serum level of hyaluronic acid in patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Methods: Cross-sectional study, single-center, that evaluated hyaluronic acid in 18 dermatomyositis and 15 polymyositis (Bohan and Peter criteria), newly diagnosed, with clinical and laboratory activity, with no previous drug treatment. The patients were also age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched to 36 healthy individuals. The hyaluronic acid was analyzed by ELISA/EIA kit anti-hyaluronic acid. Results: There was a higher serum level of hyaluronic acid in patients with autoimmune myopathies, in relation to control group (P&lt;0.05). Moreover, the serum level of this glycosaminoglycan was higher in dermatomyositis, when compared to polymyositis. Both groups were comparable with regard to demographic, clinical and laboratory data, except for the presence of skin lesions in the first group. Study limitations. The presence of hyaluronic acid in cutaneous lesions, particularly of patients with dermatomyositis, was not analyzed neither quantified. In addition, due to disease rarity and the establishment of strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, there was a small sample in the present study. Conclusions: As an example of others systemic autoimmune diseases, it is possible that the hyaluronic acid is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune myopathies, and particularly when associated with cutaneous lesions. <![CDATA[Chronic urticaria in a health maintenance organization of Buenos Aires, Argentina - new data that increase global knowledge of this disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100076&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Background: In spite of the frequency of chronic urticaria, there are no epidemiological studies on its prevalence in Argentina. Objective: The objective of this study was to define the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic urticaria patients in Buenos Aires. Methods: The population studied were the members of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, a prepaid health maintenance organization located in the urban areas around the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. All patients with diagnosis of chronic urticaria members of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, and with at least 12 months of follow up were included in the study. All medical records obtained between January 1st, 2012 and December 31, 2014 were analyzed. The prevalence ratio for chronic urticaria per 100,000 population with 95% CI for December 31, 2014 was calculated. The prevalence rate for the entire population and then discriminated for adults and pediatric patients (less than 18 years old at diagnosis) was assessed. Results: 158,926 members were analyzed. A total of 463 cases of chronic urticaria were identified on prevalence date (68 in pediatrics, 395 in adults), yielding a crude point prevalence ratio of 0.29% (CI 95% 0.26-0.31%). The observed prevalence of chronic urticaria in the adult population was 0.34 % (95% CI 0.31-0.38%), while in pediatrics it was 0.15 % (95% CI 0.11-0.20%). Study limitations: the main weakness is that the results were obtained from an HMO and therefore the possibility of selection bias. Conclusions: chronic urticaria is a global condition. Its prevalence in Buenos Aires is comparable with other countries. <![CDATA[Orofacial granulomatosis and diet therapy: a review of the literature and two clinical cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100080&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Orofacial granulomatosis is a nonspecific term that contains a wide variety of granulomatous entities, which share a clinical and histopathological presentation. It manifests as persistent or recurrent orofacial swelling, amongst other findings. Idiopathic orofacial granulomatosis, characterized by an absence of systemic granulomatous disease, is a diagnosis of exclusion. The main differential diagnosis is Crohn's disease. Its pathogenesis is unknown, however, it seems to be immune-mediated. Patch-test sensitivity to multiple allergens is well documented. Currently, therapeutic options consider restrictive diets, topical, intralesional, and systemic agents. First-line therapy is currently a matter of debate. We present a review of the value of diet therapy in this syndrome, along with two illustrative cases. <![CDATA[Erythromelalgia: a cutaneous manifestation of neuropathy?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: The low prevalence of erythromelalgia, classified as an orphan disease, poses diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The aim of this review is to be an update of the specialized bibliography. Erythromelalgia is an infrequent episodic acrosyndrome affecting mainly both lower limbs symmetrically with the classic triad of erythema, warmth and burning pain. Primary erythromelalgia is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, while secondary is associated with myeloproliferative diseases, among others. In its etiopathogenesis, there are neural and vascular abnormalities that can be combined. The diagnosis is based on exhaustive clinical history and physical examination. Complications are due to changes in the skin barrier function, ischemia and compromise of cutaneous nerves. Because of the complexity of its pathogenesis, erythromelalgia should always be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions that cause chronic pain and/or peripheral edema. The prevention of crisis is based on a strict control of triggers and promotion of preventive measures. Since there is no specific and effective treatment, control should focus on the underlying disease. However, there are numerous topical and systemic therapies that patients can benefit from. <![CDATA[Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma: case report and importance of differential diagnosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100096&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: A few cases of pigmented squamous cell carcinoma affecting the skin and the ocular and oral mucosa of the elderly have been described in the literature. The disease manifests itself as papular and nodular erythematous or pigmented lesions. The main clinical differential diagnoses are pigmented basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Histopathological examination is characterized by proliferation of atypical squamous cells with formation of horn pearls permeated by dendritic melanocytes. For this reason, a careful diagnosis is necessary to rule out other tumors that show melanin pigment. Surgical removal is the indicated treatment and the prognosis is similar to the classical squamous cell carcinoma. We report a case of pigmented squamous cell carcinoma with diagnosis confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examinations. <![CDATA[Demographics and spatial distribution of the Brazilian dermatologists]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100099&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: The medical-dermatological demographics favors health planning and guides expansion of the specialty. We conducted an ecological study of dermatologists members of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology (SBD). We evaluated: gender, age, address; which were compared with population and human development index indicators of municipalities. We evaluated 8384 members, distributed in 527 (9.5%) municipalities throughout Brazil. The female sex represented 78.4% of the members and the median age was 43 (36-54) years. The median density of dermatologists was 0.35 (0.21-0.37) per 10,000 inhabitants. The correlation (Spearman's rho) between density of dermatologists and human development index was 0.39 (p &lt;0.01). The Brazilian dermatologist is characterized as: female, age &lt;50 years and presenting an heterogeneous distribution throught the country. <![CDATA[New and developing therapies for atopic dermatitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease. New understanding in disease pathogenesis has led to a considerable number of promising new drugs in development. New topical agents can be especially helpful for children, providing an alternative to the need for chronic topical corticosteroid use. While many patients with mild or moderate disease can be managed with topical treatments, there are unmet needs for recalcitrant and severe cases. New and developing therapies hold promise for real advances in management of this complex disease. <![CDATA[Lichen simplex chronicus on the scalp: exuberant clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin disease that mostly affects female patients, with a peak incidence between ages 35 and 50 years. On the scalp, it appears as a single or multiple oval lesions, showing scaling and hair shaft loss or breakage. An important dermoscopic feature of the disease are the "broom fibers." Histopathology reveals the "hamburger" and the "gear wheel" signs. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a case of lichen simplex chronicus on the scalp with typical and exuberant clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings. <![CDATA[Atrophic nodular cutaneous amyloidosis*]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100111&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Primary cutaneous amyloidosis is limited to the skin without involving any other tissue. Nodular amyloidosis is rare, and atrophic nodular cutaneous amyloidosis is even rarer. We describe the fourth case of atrophic nodular cutaneous amyloidosis by searching PubMed databases. A 52-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 2-year history of orange papules and nodules without subjective symptom on her right abdomen. Review of systems was negative. Atrophic nodular amyloidosis may progress to primary systemic disease in up to 7% of cases. Because our patient had no systemic involvement, she was diagnosed with atrophic nodular cutaneous amyloidosis based on characteristic symptoms and histopathologic examination. Routine follow-up for this patient is necessary to detect any potential disease progression. <![CDATA[Periungual basal cell carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100114&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Periungual basal cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be differentiated from other common diseases that affect this region. Several factors are associated with the development of this tumor, and sun damage seems to play an important role in its pathogenesis. Dermoscopy of clinically indolent lesions on the nail unit can shorten the diagnostic process and avoid destructive treatment and functional damage. <![CDATA[Subcorneal pustular dermatosis in the pediatric age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100116&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Subcorneal pustular dermatosis is a rare pustular eruption which occurs mainly in middle-aged women and rarely during childhood. We report a case of a 15-year-old female with a 4-year history of pustular lesions on the proximal region of the upper limbs with subsequent impairment of the trunk. Physical examination revealed small pustules distributed on the trunk and proximal region of the limbs. Histopathology showed a subcorneal pustule and direct immunofluorescence for IgA, IgM, IgG and fibrinogen was negative, confirming the diagnosis of subcorneal pustular dermatosis. The patient was treated with dapsone with good clinical response after one month. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis is a rare condition and there are only isolated cases reported in the literature in pediatric patients. Thus, we discuss the main clinical aspects and treatment response of this condition during childhood. <![CDATA[Panniculitis associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Panniculitis is a rare clinical finding in dermatomyositis, with less than 30 cases reported and there is only one case associated with the amyopathic subtype described in the literature. The present report describes a 49-year-old female patient that one year after being diagnosed with amyopathic dermatomyositis, presented indurated, painful, erythematous to violaceous nodules located on the upper limbs, thighs and gluteal region. Skin biopsy revealed lobular panniculitis with a lymphocytic infiltrate. The patient was treated with prednisone and methotrexate, but remained unresponsive to treatment. <![CDATA[Leprosy and American cutaneous leishmaniasis coinfection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100123&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen. <![CDATA[Unusual size, topography, and surgical resolution of an acquired fibrokeratoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100126&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Acquired fibrokeratoma is a rare benign skin tumor that usually manifests as a slow-growing solitary nodular lesion of the digits. We report a case of plantar acquired fibrokeratoma evidencing its atypical size and topography, in addition to the treatment with simple surgical excision followed by healing by second intention. Nondigital fibrokeratomas may occur in 18% of cases and rarely affect the palmoplantar region. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and show ≥ 3cm in size at the time of diagnosis due to delayed diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, which is usually curative. In general, primary closure is chosen; however healing by second intention becomes an option in regions of difficult approach. <![CDATA[Corymbiform syphilis associated with three other sexually transmitted infections]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100129&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Secondary syphilis can have different clinical presentations, with corymbiform rash as its rarest manifestation. The disease is characterized by a central papule surrounded by smaller ones. We report the case of a man who has sex with man with corymbiform syphilis. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with HIV infection, hepatitis B, non-gonococcal urethritis, as well as infection of the central nervous system by treponema. This case not only illustrates a rare presentation of secondary syphilis, but also demonstrates the importance of further investigation of sexually transmitted infections, particularly among at-risk patients. <![CDATA[Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum as a predictor of hematological malignancies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100133&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Pyoderma gangrenosum may precede, coexist or follow diverse systemic diseases. The bullous variety is usually associated with hematologic disorders. From 31 patients with pyoderma gangrenosum diagnosed in our hospital during 10 years, only 2 presented with the bullous type. One patient had previous diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Both had fast-progressive, painful lesions, and both showed an excellent response to systemic corticosteroids. In less than 3 months the lesions recurred simultaneously with the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia in one patient and with the initial diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia in the other one. They died in less than four weeks. These findings emphasize the importance of its timely diagnosis. Cutaneous lesions could be the first predictor of an underlying disease. <![CDATA[Do you know this syndrome? Ichthyosis associated with neurological condition and alteration of hairs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100135&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Trichothiodystrophy refers to a heterogeneous group of rare genetic diseases that affects neuroectodermal-derived tissues with multisystem involvement. The hallmark of these syndromes is the deficiency of sulfur in hair matrix proteins, leading to short and brittle hair. Few cases of this rare disorder have been published. The authors report a case of trichothiodystrophy in a male infant with ichthyosis, photosensitivity, spastic paraparesis, short stature, and neurologic and psychomotor retardation. Diagnosis was based on clinical and microscopic features of hair samples. <![CDATA[Dermoscopy in the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100138&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Juvenile xanthogranuloma is the most common form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It manifests clinically as a red-yellow papule, usually showing spontaneous remission. The diagnosis is based on clinical and histological findings. We report the use of dermoscopy ("setting sun" pattern) as an adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a female patient presenting with a 2-month history of a pre-auricular papule. <![CDATA[Figurate erythematous lesion by <em>Microsporum canis</em> in immunosuppressed patient]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100141&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Dermatophytes are fungi capable of invading keratinized tissues. Isolation of the fungus with the culture is essential to guide the treatment, because there are more resistant species like Microsporum canis. The chronic use of corticosteroids leads to the deregulation of immunity, promoting atypical manifestations of infections. Topical antifungal therapy is often insufficient, requiring systemic medications. We describe the case of a patient undergoing systemic corticosteroid therapy with a large figurate lesion who presented complete response to exclusively topical treatment. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis. Atypical genital lesion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100143&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: We present a case of a penile lesion with a clinical appearance similar to Mondor penile disease (thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis) or penile sclerosing lymphangitis. Laboratory evaluation, however, showed a solid lesion, with no vascular component to Doppler ultrasonography and no treponema to immunohistochemistry. Histological and serological tests were compatible with secondary syphilis. The authors reinforce the need for the inclusion of syphilis in the differential diagnosis of penile cord injuries. <![CDATA[Polyhexanide 0.2% in treatment of trophic foot ulcers in leprosy - preliminary study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100145&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which affects peripheral nerves, skin and mucous membranes. The impairment of neural function as well as sensory or sensory-motor disabilities in leprosy continue to be a problem that requires careful attention in the management of patients with the aim to avoid or minimize their progression to prevent sequelae. One of the most common characteristics of these ulcers is the tendency to chronicity, with variable therapeutic response. In this article, we shall discuss the therapeutic management of thirteen trophic leprosy ulcers in eight patients using polyhexanide 0.2% products. <![CDATA[Genetic ancestry of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in a country with mixed races: a cross-sectional study (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100148&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Porphyria cutanea tarda has a complex etiology with genetic factors not completely elucidated. The miscegenation of the Brazilian population has important implications in the predisposition to diseases. There are no studies concerning the genetic ancestry of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda from a mixed population. Thirty patients living in Rio de Janeiro with sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda were studied for the genetic ancestry through informative markers - INDELS. There was a significant predominance of European ancestry across the sample of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (70.2%), and a small contribution of African and Amerindian ancestry, 20.1% and 10.9%, respectively. <![CDATA[Evaluation of nickel and cobalt release from mobile phone devices used in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100151&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100154&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Methotrexate-induced mucositis with extra-mucosal involvement after acidental overdose]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100155&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Urban American cutaneous leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100156&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Topical corticosteroid therapy: a treatment option for nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100158&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Giant onychomatricoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100160&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models. <![CDATA[Fox-Fordyce disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962018000100161&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Nickel and cobalt are often responsible for metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis. With the increasing use of cell phones, we observed an increase in cases reports on telephone-related allergic contact dermatitis. The present study evaluated nickel and cobalt release from mobile phones used in Brazil. We evaluated devices of 6 brands and 20 different models using nickel and cobalt allergy spot tests. Of the 20 models, 64.7% tested positive for nickel, with 41.1% positive results for the charger input and 23.5% for other tested areas. None of them was positive for cobalt. Nickel release was more common in older models.