Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0365-059620140005&lang=en vol. 89 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Complementary exams in the diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500701&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The diagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a difficult but essential task when considering the high toxicity profile of the drugs available. Since the discovery of its etiologic agent, numerous diagnostic tests have been developed. None of the tests available today can be considered as the gold standard, since they do not add enough accuracy for the disease detection. Good epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the disease are fundamental precepts of the dermatology practice and precede the rational use of existing diagnostic tests. In this article we aim, through extensive literature review, to recall fundamental concepts of any diagnostic test. Subsequently, based on this information, we will weave important comments about the characteristics of existing diagnostic tests, including immunological tests such as Montenegro's skin test, serology and detection of parasites by direct examination, culture or histopathology. Finally we will discuss the new technologies and options for the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The molecular biology technique is considered a promising tool, promoting the rapid identification of the species involved. We also aim to educate dermatologists about a disease with high morbidity and assist in its difficult recognition. <![CDATA[Longitudinal evaluation of manual lymphatic drainage for the treatment of gynoid lipodystrophy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500712&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The gynoidlypodystrophy, known as cellulitis or cellulite, refers to a condition that gives the skin an undulating and uneven appearance, affecting 80-90% of women after puberty. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the efficacy and safety of manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite management. METHODS: this was an open, prospective, intervention study including 20 women aged from 20 to 40 years. Fourteen sessions of manual lymphatic drainage were performed once a week on lower limbs and buttocks. RESULTS: Fifteen women completed the study. A significant improvement on quality of life was observed (p=0.018). A significant reduction (p=0.023), estimated at 0.3±0.8 cm, in hip circumference was found, but no difference was found in thighs circumference (p&gt;0.05). A significant reduction elastic recuperation of skin on buttocks, which means skin elasticity worsening, was observed. All measures obtained by ultrasound images showed no changes (p&gt;0.05). CONCLUSION: manual lymphatic drainage was safe but not effective as an isolated approach for cellulite management. Further randomized, controlled or comparative studies about manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite control, as unique or combined therapeutic modality, are necessary. <![CDATA[Dermatomyositis: analysis of 109 patients surveyed at the Hospital das Clínicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500719&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis affects striated muscles, skin and other organs. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the disease from January 1992 to December 2002, assessing its classification, cutaneous and systemic manifestations, and also laboratory results, therapeutic and prognostic findings compared to those in the literature. METHODS: Data were obtained from medical records of 109 patients who were classified into five groups: 23 juvenile dermatomyositis; 59 primary idiopathic dermatomyositis; 6 amyopathic dermatomyositis; 7 dermatomyositis associated with neoplasms and 14 dermatomyositis associated with other connective tissue diseases. RESULTS: Sixty patients were classified as "definite" diagnosis; 33 as "possible"; four as "probable" and 12 and as amyopathic. The average age at diagnosis was 36 years. Cutaneous manifestations occurred in all patients; the most frequent symptom was loss of proximal muscle strength; the most common pulmonary disorder was interstitial lung disease, and gastritis was the most prevalent digestive manifestation. Tumors were documented in 6.42% of cases. Lactate dehydrogenase was the muscle enzyme most frequently elevated in the majority of cases. Skin biopsies were performed in 68 patients; muscle biopsies in 53; and electroneuromyographies in 58 patients. The most commonly used treatment was corticotherapy and the mortality rate was 14.7%. CONCLUSION: in this sample, the disease appeared in younger individuals, was more frequent in women and the association with cancer was small. <![CDATA[Efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500729&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is a chronic disorder of the hair follicles and nails, of unknown etiology, with clear autoimmune components and genetic factors. Several therapeutic options have been suggested; however, no treatment is able to modify the disease course. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant used in various dermatoses and recently introduced as a therapeutic option for alopecia areata. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata. METHODS: In a retrospective, non-controlled study, we evaluated 31 patients with alopecia areata in current or prior treatment with methotrexate to assess the therapeutic response according to sex, age, pattern of alopecia areata, disease duration, cumulative dose of methotrexate, use of systemic corticosteroids or other treatments, and drug safety. RESULTS: Regrowth greater than 50% was observed in 67.7% of patients, with the best responses observed in those with &lt;5 years of disease progression (79%), age over 40 years (73.3%), male patients (72.8%), cumulative dose of methotrexate 1000-1500 mg, and multifocal alopecia areata (93%). Among patients receiving systemic corticosteroids in combination with methotrexate, 77.3% had greater than 50% regrowth, compared with 44.4% in those who used methotrexate alone. The therapeutic dose ranged from 10-25 mg/week. No patient had serious adverse effects. Relapse was observed in 33.3% of patients with more than 50% regrowth. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate appears to be a promising and safe medication for the treatment of severe alopecia areata when used alone or in combination with corticosteroids. <![CDATA[Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500735&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. <![CDATA[Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500745&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral center between 08/01/2004 and 08/31/2009. Analyzed variables were: gender, age, skin phototype, occupational and recreational sun exposure, use of photoprotection, personal and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer, clinical type and location, time between transplantation and the appearance of the first nonmelanoma skin cancer, occurrence of viral warts, timing of transplantation, type of donor, cause of kidney failure, previous transplants, comorbidities, pre-transplant dialysis, type and duration of dialysis. RESULTS: 64 subjects were included. Males - 71.9%; low skin phototypes (up to Fitzpatrick III) - 89%; mean age - 57.0 years - and mean age at transplant - 47.3 years; sun exposure - 67.2% occupational - and 64.1% recreational; photoprotection - 78.2% (although only 34.4% in a regular manner); squamous cell carcinoma - 67.2%; squamous cell carcinoma/basal cell carcinoma ratio - 2:1; personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer - 25% - and family history - 10.9%; location at photoexposed area - 98.4%; average latency time between transplantation and first nonmelanoma skin cancer appearance - 78.3 months; viral warts (HPV) after transplant - 53.1%; average timing of transplantation - 115.5 months; living donor - 64.1%; triple regimen (antirejection) - 73.2%; comorbidities - 92.2%; pre-transplant dialysis - 98.4%; hemodialysis - 71.7%; average duration of dialysis - 39.1 months; previous transplants - 3.1%; hypertension as cause of renal failure - 46.9%. CONCLUSION: This study allowed the epidemiological characterization of a population of kidney transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. <![CDATA[Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its components in a Brazilian sample of pemphigus patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500752&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris are endemic in the northeastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil. They are treated mainly with systemic corticosteroids, which may provoke osteoporosis; atherosclerosis, higher blood pressure, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and abdominal obesity. These side effects of corticoids also constitute criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and each component of metabolic syndrome in Pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris groups was compared with Brazilian casuistic samples. METHODS: Data of 147 patients (pemphigus foliaceus 48.9% and pemphigus vulgaris 51.1%) were compiled from medical records regarding metabolic syndrome and its components, and included in the analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pemphigus groups compared with the Brazilian casuistic samples. The analysis of each component of metabolic syndrome showed a higher prevalence of: higher blood pressure in male subjects with pemphigus vulgaris, and in pemphigus foliaceus in both genders; diabetes mellitus in both genders for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus; obesity in females for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, and hypertriglyceridemia in both genders for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus groups that were statistically significant compared to the Brazilian reports. Furthermore, the study noted a higher incidence of cardiovascular events in both genders in pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris groups than in Brazilian casuistic samples. CONCLUSION: The components of metabolic syndrome are more numerous in pemphigus when compared with Brazilian casuistic samples. Future studies are necessary to assure that metabolic syndrome may be associated with pemphigus per se, including a greater casuistic sample of patients who have not taken corticoids. <![CDATA[Severe cutaneous reactions to drugs in the setting of a general hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500758&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Cutaneous drug reactions are frequently found. Assessing the clinical and epidemiological profile of severe forms is extremely relevant for their better recognition and management. Few studies have assessed the severe forms of cutaneous drug reactions in patients hospitalized in our setting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and epidemiological aspects of severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs in a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: All cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs in patients hospitalized from January/2005 to December/2010 were retrospectively analyzed for clinical and epidemiological variables. Cases of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, drug hypersensitivity syndrome or Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis were included. RESULTS: An occurrence rate of 1 serious reaction for every 3,048 inpatients was found (total of 173,767 inpatients admitted in the period). Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms was the most frequent presentation. The drugs most frequently involved were anticonvulsants (40.4%), antibiotics (26.3%), and analgesics/anti-inflammatory drugs (10.5%). Thirty seven patients (64.9%) were admitted to hospital because of the cutaneous drug reaction. Ten patients (17.5%) died and in most of those (60%), the drug causing the reaction could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs in our setting is significant. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms seems to be the most frequent presentation of severe cutaneous drug reactions. Most patients developed cutaneous drug reactions outside the hospital. Mortality rates were higher for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and this presentation significantly affected older people. Not knowing the drug causing the reaction was related to mortality. <![CDATA[Translation and validation of Portuguese of a questionnaire for evaluation of psychosomatic symptoms in adults with atopic dermatitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500763&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: atopic dermatitis is directly related to psychological stress, reduced quality of life and psychosomatic symptoms. The Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis is the only questionnaire developed specifically for assessment of psychosomatization in atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: the objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate a Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis. METHODS: adaptation consisted of independent translation and backtranslation by three bilingual translators, followed by a pre-test. The Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis and the Dermatology Life Quality Index were self-administered to 47 patients with atopic dermatitis. Disease severity was evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis was used to identify the dimensions of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis. Internal consistency and convergence validity were also analyzed. Reproducibility was assessed using the Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: factor analysis revealed a two-dimensional structure: stress/laziness/insecurity (I) and maladjustment/social relationships (II), explaining 54.4% of total variance. All dimensions revealed excellent internal consistency. External construct validity was confirmed by positive correlations between the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with k&gt;0.7 for all questions. CONCLUSIONS: the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Psychosomatic Scale for Atopic Dermatitis demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for the evaluation of psychosomatic symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis and as a tool in clinical and epidemiological research. <![CDATA[Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500771&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin, characterized by irregular brown macules symmetrically distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly on the face. It is a common cause of demand for dermatological care that affects mainly women (especially during the menacme), and more pigmented phenotypes (Fitzpatrick skin types III-V). Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Its pathogeny is not yet completely understood, although there are some known triggering factors such as sun exposure, pregnancy, sexual hormones, inflammatory processes of the skin, use of cosmetics, steroids, and photosensitizing drugs. There is also a clear genetic predisposition, since over 40% of patients reported having relatives affected with the disease. In this manuscript, the authors discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of melasma. <![CDATA[Vitiligo - Part 2 - classification, histopathology and treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500784&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In an unprecedented effort in the field of vitiligo, a global consensus resulted on a suggested new classification protocol for the disease. The main histopathological finding in vitiligo is the total absence of functioning melanocytes in the lesions, while the inflammatory cells most commonly found on the edges of the lesions are CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Physical and pharmacological treatment strategies aim to control the autoimmune damage and stimulate melanocyte migration from the unaffected edges of lesions and the outer hair follicle root sheath to the affected skin; moreover, surgical treatments can be combined with topical and physical treatments. <![CDATA[Acroangiodermatitis (pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma) in an HIV sero-positive patient with syphilis and hepatitis C virus coinfection: clinical and dermatopathological features ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500792&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Acroangiodermatitis is an angioproliferative disease usually related to chronic venous insufficiency, and it is considered a clinical and histological simulator of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Immunohistochemistry is the suitable method to differentiate between these two entities. It reveals the following immunostaining profile: immunopositivity with anti-CD34 antibody is restricted to the vascular endothelium in acroangiodermatitis, and diffuse in the KS (endothelial cells and perivascular spindle cells); immunopositivity with anti-HHV-8 only in KS cases. We report the case of an HIV seropositive patient without apparent vascular disease, who presented violaceous and brownish erythematous lesions on the feet, and whose histopathology and immunohistochemistry indicated the diagnosis of acroangiodermatitis. <![CDATA[A rare clinical presentation of Desmoplastic Trichilemmoma mimicking Invasive Carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500796&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Trichilemmoma is a benign neoplasm from the outer sheath of the pilosebaceous follicle. Desmoplastic trichilemmoma, a rare variant, is histologically characterized by a central area of desmoplasia that can clinically mimic an invasive carcinoma, requiring histopathological examination to define the diagnosis. <![CDATA[Alkaptonuria - Case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500799&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Alkaptonuria, also called endogenous ochronosis, is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder. It occurs by complete inhibition of homogentisic acid oxidase enzyme having its deposition in various tissues. Male patient, 52 years old, sought medical help complaining about progressive appearance of hyperchromic papules on the lateral edge of the second finger of both hands for 02 years. He also complained about darkening of urine, sperm and underwear. Incisional biopsy of second hand finger and test for homogentisic acid in the urine results were positive. The findings are compatible with the diagnosis of alkaptonuria. Given these findings, treatment was initiated, followed-up by other specialties and he was advised to avoid certain foods. <![CDATA[Topical calcipotriol as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of clear cell acanthoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500803&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although uncommonly diagnosed, clear cell acanthoma represents an original source of speculative interest for dermatologists. Due to its clinical variability, it is often only recognized accidentally after histology. Dermoscopy has improved the reliability of clinical diagnosis of typical clear cell acanthoma thanks to the vascular pinpoint pattern and desquamative, peripheral collarette. Generally, therapy of clear cell acanthoma is oriented towards ablative solutions, such as surgery or cryotherapy. We propose a conservative therapy, based on the application of topical calcipotriol, which has produced complete regression after 2 months and no relapse one year after the end of treatment. A dermatoscope monitored all changes of clear cell acanthoma, showing its utility not only in diagnosis but also in therapeutic follow-up. This new therapeutic approach should support an inflammatory etiology of clear cell acanthoma, although further observations are needed to confirm this. <![CDATA[Vulvar vitiligo-like depigmentation and multiple halos of hypomelanosis at the trunk following treatment with imiquimod 5% cream for vulvar condylomata: casual or related events?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500806&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 25-year-old Caucasian female with multiple genital warts involving the vulvar area was treated with imiquimod 5% cream. During follow-up the patient developed areas of hypopigmentation at the site of application of imiquimod cream and areas of hypomelanosis around multiple preexisting nevi of the trunk. At 18 months follow-up genital depigmentation persisted and halo nevi of the trunk were still present. Different mechanisms of imiquimod-induced depigmentation have been reported. Halo nevi are considered expression of an autoimmune response. In the case presented here, it might be conceivable that both vitiligo-like depigmentation at the site of application and halo of hypomelanosis around melanocytic nevi have been induced by the same immunologic mechanism elicited by topical application of imiquimod. <![CDATA[Atypical lesions in relapsed leprosy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500808&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Relapsed cases of leprosy are not common in patients treated regularly with the recommended polychemotherapeutical schemes. Relapses must be readily identified and distinguished from reactions. This article reports a clinical case of relapse in leprosy, with atypical and exuberant skin changes in patient treated for eleven years with a paucibacillary scheme. <![CDATA[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: report of two cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500812&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a rare inherited multisystem disorder that is characterized by a pathological mineralization of the elastic connective tissue, which involves predominantly the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Its cause lies on mutations in the ABCC6 gene, which lead to reduction or absence of the transmembrane transport ADP dependent protein (MRP6), causing an accumulation of extracellular material and subsequent deposition of calcium and other minerals in the elastic tissue. The authors report two cases of pseudoxanthoma elasticum, emphasizing its major clinical features and the importance of early diagnosis of the disorder, aiming for adequate therapeutic management of associated complications. <![CDATA[Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma in the wrist - Case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500816&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Synovial sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting mainly young adults, presenting as a slow growth mass located in deep soft tissues of extremities, near the joints. In this report a 34-year-old male patient, presented an ulcerovegetative lesion on the right wrist which was completely excised. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed synovial sarcomas with poorly differentiated cells. This patient presented 11 months later with ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis, which emphasizes the unfavorable prognosis of this synovial sarcoma variant. The indolent growth pattern of this sarcoma justifies the well circumscribed initial stages, which progressively infiltrate adjacent structures with lung metastasis (80%) and lymph node involvement (20%) and thus corroborates the importance of early diagnosis and proper treatment. <![CDATA[Exuberant clinical picture of Buschke-Fischer-Brauer palmoplantar keratoderma in bedridden patient ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500819&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Buschke-Fisher-Brauer keratoderma is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant disease of incomplete penetrance. Important differential diagnoses include other palmoplantar keratinization disorders, acquired or hereditary, which is done based on the histopathological findings. This diagnosis alerts especially about the possibility of associated neoplasms. Treatment involves topical keratolytic agents, usually with little efficacy, or with long-term systemic retinoids with follow-up of exuberant collateral effects. <![CDATA[Livedoid vasculopathy as a marker of systemic disease: report of two cases ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500822&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The livedoid vasculopathy is an obstructive vascular process of etiology not yet fully known, being possibly associated with several prothrombotic events. It is clinically characterized by the presence of painful and recurring purpuric lesions, which usually suffer ulceration and evolve with formation of white atrophic scars usually located in the lower limbs. Two cases are here reported of painful ulcerated lesions on the lower limbs, in which the identification of VL enabled the diagnosis of systemic diseases. <![CDATA[Pigmented Bowen's disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500825&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. <![CDATA[High-frequency ultrasound associated with dermoscopy in pre-operative evaluation of basal cell carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500828&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The recent development of high-frequency ultrasound, associated with the improved sensitivity in color Doppler, enabled the identification of various skin structures and layers. In basal cell carcinoma, the 22 MHz frequency ultrasound permits the delimitation of tumor margins, while color Doppler, determines its vascularization. We present two cases in which the association of both exams allowed an in vivo analysis of the tumor's morphology, size, thickness and vascularization, thus contributing to a better pre-operative evaluation. <![CDATA[Dermoscopy assisting the diagnosis of mycetoma: case report and literature review ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500832&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mycetomas are a chronic skin infection characterized by perilesional edema, formation of sinus tracts, and discharge of purulent or seropurulent exudate containing grains. This report aims to demonstrate the clinical diagnosis (by dermoscopy) of a skin lesion that initially bared no clinical features of a mycetoma. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500835&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It is characterized by usually asymptomatic keratotic papules along the borders of the hands and/or feet. The main differential diagnosis is acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa, which differs from the former only by not presenting elastorrhexis in histopathological examination, thus requiring this exam for a correct diagnosis. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500837&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hansen's disease is a chronic infecto-contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The bacillus prefers low-temperature areas and the nose is usually the initial site of lesions. Transmission of the bacilli occurs by nasal and oropharyngeal secretions, and through solutions of continuity of the skin and/or mucosae. Nasal manifestations are found in the later stages of the disease. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500839&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Majocchi's granuloma is a persistent supurative folliculitis, associated with a deep granulomatous reaction induced by dermatophytes. There are two clinical forms of Majocchi's granuloma: the superficial form that appears in healthy individuals after localized trauma; and the nodular form, which occurs in inmunocompromised patients. We present a case of nodular Majocchi's granuloma on the forearm of an immunocompetent patient. Microbiological culture and examination of a deep aspiration sample identified Trichophyton rubrum. Collecting a deep sample of tissue is essential in achieving a good diagnostic performance. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500841&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ostraceous psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis, characterized by lesions with firmly adhered thick scales, in various colors, with surfaces resembling oysters shells. The protracted course of clinical presentation allied with peculiar lesions and histopathological examination permit the diagnosis. Lesions are usually resistant to topical medications, requiring systemic treatment. It is important that dermatologists are able to diagnose the unusual forms of psoriasis to avoid iatrogeny. We report the case of a patient with ostraceous psoriasis treated with methotrexate. <![CDATA[Syndrome in question]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500843&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream. <![CDATA[Correlation between psoriasis' severity and waist-to-height ratio]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500846&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the absence of ideal biomarkers, the research for clinical markers correlated to the severity of psoriasis and/or its comorbidities becomes crucial. Recently, studies have shown positive correlation between body mass index and prevalence and severity of psoriasis. Abdominal circumference showed stronger correlation with disease severity than body mass index. We evaluated the waist-to-height ratio in a sample of 297 adult patients with psoriasis and observed that it has a significant correlation with body mass index and PASI, and together with body mass index allows the identification of central obesity, reducing its subdiagnosis. <![CDATA[Occurrence of two autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the neighborhood of Caju, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500848&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en American cutaneous leishmaniasis is in full geographic expansion in Brazil and it is considered among the infectious and parasitic diseases of utmost importance worldwide, not only by its frequency, but mainly by therapeutic difficulties, deformities and sequelae that may result. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the first autochthonous case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was registered by Rabello in 1913. The authors report two cases of the disease in the region around the Cemetery São Francisco Xavier, in the Caju neighborhood, Rio de Janeiro city, and emphasize the need for actions that aim to early diagnosis and treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases. <![CDATA[Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring" ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500851&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. <![CDATA[ERRATUM]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962014000500854&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring.