Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0365-059620170004&lang=es vol. 92 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Behçet's disease: review with emphasis on dermatological aspects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400452&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis characterized by attacks of acute inflammation, which can affect almost every vascularized area of the body. There is a close correlation between the geographical distribution of HLA-B51 and its prevalence. In the etiopathogenesis there are indications of genetic susceptibility associated with environmental influence. Among the involved genes are those that encompass innate and adaptive immunities. Polymorphisms and epistatic interactions in several genes are described, as well as the presence of imbalance lineage between HLA-B51 and A (MICA). Herpes simplex and Streptococcus sanguinis may be important extrinsic factors. An increase of Th1 response and of IL-21 is observed. The production of IL-21 is positively related to Th17 cells and negatively to T-regs. The mucocutaneous manifestations are Behcet´s disease markers, and their earlier onset indicates a worse prognosis. Recurrent oral ulcers have varied sizes and arrangements, genital ulcers are recurrent, leaving scars, skin lesions are multivaried, and pathergy, although not so frequent, is important for the diagnosis. There are numerous attempts to validate indexes that can evaluate the disease activity and among them the Mucocutaneous Activity Index. This is a specific score that can help with therapeutic decisions and to reduce morbidity, but still lacks validation. The clinical manifestations of other organs are described as well as treatment options. <![CDATA[Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400466&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: The clinical significance of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, especially in systemic disease accompanied by interstitial lung disease remains to be elucidated. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Methods: A hundred and seven patients with new-onset SLE were enrolled. Presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in the sera was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence as well as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay against proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase. Clinical features and laboratory parameters of patients were also recorded. All patients were subjected to chest X-ray, chest high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function test. Results: Forty-five systemic lupus erythematosus patients (45/107, 42%) were seropositive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Compared with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-negative patients, the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive patients had significantly higher incidence of renal involvement, anemia, and Raynaud's phenomenon as well as decreased serum level of complement 3/complement 4 and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, there was a positive correlation between serum anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies level and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, prevalence of interstitial lung disease in the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies -positive patients (25/45, 55.6%) was obviously higher than that in the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-negative patients (15/62, 24.2%). Study limitations: The sample size was limited and the criteria for screening new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients might produce bias. Conclusions: The level of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients correlates positively with the disease activity and the prevalence of interstitial lung disease. <![CDATA[The relationship between pruritus and clinical variables in patients with psoriasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400470&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Pruritus is the most commonly occurring subjective symptom of dermatological disease. Published data on both prevalence and intensity of pruritus in psoriasis is limited. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence of pruritus and its relation with psoriasis area severity index, body mass index and presence of systemic disease in patients with psoriasis. Methods: We analyzed data of psoriatic patients diagnosed in our psoriasis outpatient clinic between March 2013 and June 2014 collected retrospectively from PSR-TR registration system. Results: In total, 880 patients were analyzed. Pruritus was more prominent in female patients. This difference was statistically significant. No significant associations were found between age of patients, clinical type of disease and pruritus. The itching was more common in patients with higher body mass index. Presence of pruritus was correlated significantly with severity of psoriasis. Five hundred and sixty of 880 patients had no systemic disease. The presence of pruritus was not related with presence of systemic disease. Existence of systemic disease with psoriasis has minimal effect on pruritus. Study Limitations: We did not evaluate intensity of pruritus. Conclusions: Pruritus is not mentioned within the classical symptoms of psoriasis. Pruritus in psoriasis is a very unpleasant symptom with great potential to impair patient's quality of life and may exacerbate psoriasis as a Koebner phenomenon. <![CDATA[Wound natural healing in treatment of tumor-like hypertrophic scar]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400474&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Surgical sutures, wound tension, additional skin incisions and other factors may result in recurrence of tumor-like scar. Objective: To investigate the role of wound natural healing therapy in tumor-like hypertrophic scar. Methods: In this study, tumor-like hypertrophic scars of 47 cases were excised completely and the residual wounds were treated with natural healing. The short-term and long-term effects of treatment were evaluated. Results: All cases were successfully cured by natural healing therapy. The healing time of the maximum wound (80mm × 20mm) and the minimal wound (5mm× 5mm) was 25 days and 7 days respectively. The size of new skin scars ranged from 3mm to 11 mm. Clinical followed-up was performed in 34 cases for 36 months. Among them, no recurrence happened in 31 cases and new scar size ranged from 2mm to 8mm, while local recurrence happened in 3 cases whose scar size were less than 5 mm. Study Limitations: The cure rate of the therapy was 91.2%. Conclusion: The wound natural healing therapy is effective in treating tumor-like hypertrophic scar, which can prevent recurrence and has good cosmetic results. <![CDATA[Chromoblastomycosis: tissue modifications during itraconazole treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400478&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Histological and mycological changes during itraconazole use have not been totally established in chromoblastomycosis. Objectives: To evaluate tissue modifications in chromoblastomycosis carriers under itraconazole treatment. Methods: A histological retrospective study of 20 cases of chromoblastomycosis seen at the university hospital at the south of Brazil, during itraconazole 400 mg daily treatment. Patients were classified into two groups: plaque or tumor lesions, and underwent periodic evaluations every four months during three years. Hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to analyze epidermal modifications, inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis, and Fontana-Masson stain for parasite evaluation. Results: Fontana-Masson stain was superior to hematoxylin-eosin stain in fungal count in the epidermis (mean difference=0.14; p&lt;0.05). The most distinct mycosis tissue responses were registered in the dermis. Epidermal thinning, granulomatous infiltrate decrease or disappearance, fibrosis increase and quantitative/morphological changes occurred during treatment. Study limitations: Patients could not be located to have their current skin condition examined. Conclusion: Parasitic and tissue changes verified in this study can reflect the parasite-host dynamics under itraconazole action. <![CDATA[Vascular sclerosing effects of bleomycin on cutaneous veins: a pharmacopathologic study on experimental animals]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400484&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Varicose veins and the complications of venous disease are common disorders in humans. Objective: To study the effects of bleomycin as a potential new sclerosing agent and its adverse events in treating varicose veins. Methods: Bleomycin-loaded liposomes 0.1ml was injected in the dorsal ear veins of white New Zealand rabbits. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate was used as a positive control. Normal saline was used as negative control. The blood vessels of the treated ears were photographed before and at one hour and two, eight and 45 days after treatment. Biopsies from the treated areas were obtained for histological examination. Blood samples were collected to determine any possible toxicity. Results: Bleomycin by itself was ineffective; therefore, liposomes were used as a vector to deliver bleomycin to the vein lumen. Subsequently, bleomycin started showing its sclerosing effects. Toxicity monitoring showed no apparent hematologic, pulmonary, hepatic or renal toxicities. This study revealed that bleomycin induced vasculitis, which led to vascular occlusion, which was observed on day 1 and day 8. No bleomycin-related injury was noted by histopathological examination of lung sections. The calculation of the lung/body weight coefficient indicated that edema was present in the experimental groups compared with the negative and positive controls. Study limitations: Relatively small number of experimental animals used. Conclusions: This study showed that bleomycin-loaded liposomes were able to induce vasculitis and vascular occlusion without any toxicity or complications. It might be useful, hence, to treat patients suffering from Varicose veins and other ectatic vascular diseases with this agent. <![CDATA[Study of factors affecting the incidence of skin cancer in patients after liver transplant]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400492&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Many factors are currently being identified as potential inductors of skin cancer in patients after a liver transplant, among them, immunosuppressive regimen. Objective: To study the factors that influence the incidence of skin cancer in patients after liver transplant. Methods: We have carried out a retrospective and observational study with 170 transplanted patients who had undergone transplantation from 1997 to 2010. We have adjusted the multiple logistic regression model (saturated model) to the ensemble of collected data using skin cancer as dependent variable, indicated in anatomopathological analysis between 1997 and 2014. Results: Incidence of skin cancer was 9.4%. Predictors were incidence of diabetes in the third year after the transplantation (p=0.047), not using tacrolimus in the first year after the transplantation (p=0.025) and actinic keratosis (p=0.003). Study Limitations: An important limitation is that the interpretation of the results was based on information collected of patients undergoing transplantation at a single center. Future research, multicentric and involving larger and more diverse populations, are needed. Conclusions: Factors found might contribute to Brazilian surveillance programs associated with decreased incidence of skin cancer. <![CDATA[Pilot study of homologous platelet gel in venous ulcers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400499&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Venous ulcers represent 70% of the lower limb ulcers. They are difficult to heal, requiring a correct diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Many products have been developed to healing, such as homologous platelet gel obtained from the platelet concentrate exceeding from blood transfusion. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of homologous platelet gel in venous ulcers compared with hydrocolloid dressing. Method: A pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with venous ulcers. Randomized groups (homologous platelet gel and hydrocolloid groups) were followed for 90 days and were assessed through the evolution of ulcerated area, qualitative analysis of vascularization and adverse events. Both groups used elastic compression. Results: We included 16 participants, with a total of 21 venous ulcers. Both treatments promoted a reduction of the areas of the ulcers in 90 days (mean 69%), there was significant difference between the groups concerning the gradual reduction of the ulcers areas, favorably to the hydrocolloid (70% vs 64%; p &lt;0.01). There were some mild adverse events in both groups. Study limitations: Single-center study with a small number of patients, preventing more accurate assessment of the effects of platelet gel. Conclusion: The homologous platelet gel associated with the elastic compression can be an alternative to the venous ulcer treatment and is safe due to the occurrence of a few mild local adverse events and no serious adverse events. Clinical trials with larger numbers of patients must be performed to maintain the indication of this treatment for venous ulcer. <![CDATA[Psychosocial impact of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400505&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Acne is one of the most common skin diseases. It has significant effect on self-image and negative impact on quality of life. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is an acquired hypermelanosis that occurs after a skin injury or cutaneous inflammation. It is common sequelae in acne patients. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial impact of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation among patients treated in a dermatology outpatient clinic at the University of Miami Hospital. Methods: The study had the participation of 50 patients with acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. All participants volunteered to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing socio-demographical information, questions about patient's attitudes toward postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was more predominant in the face. Makeup was frequently used to conceal the imperfections and the majority of patients felt embarrassed due to their condition. Interestingly, the majority of our patients did not have their quality of life impacted for acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Study limitations: A limitation of the study was the relatively small sample size. For this reason, the findings of the study should not be generalized to the broader community. Conclusion: The current medical literature has many studies analyzing the psychological impact of acne. This study is the first study in the literature that analyzed the psychosocial impact of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne. <![CDATA[Psychopathology and alexithymia in patients with psoriasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400510&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Background: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, relapsing skin disease that has a psychosocial impact on the patients' life. Objective: This study aimed to investigate psychopathology in patients with psoriasis based on a valid psychometric instrument, as well as on the relationship between psychopathology and alexithymia. Methods: 108 patients with psoriasis were included in the study. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and alexithymia with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Disease severity was clinically assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Results: As regards the psychopathological dimensions, female patients presented with statistically significant higher somatization, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism than males. Patients with alexithymia presented with statistically significant higher somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and phobic anxiety than non-alexithymic patients. Alexithymia positively correlated with somatization (r = 0.26, p &lt; 0.01), interpersonal sensitivity (r = 0.24, p &lt; 0.05), depression (r = 0.27, p &lt; 0.01), anxiety (r = 0.26, p &lt; 0.01), and phobic anxiety (r = 0.26, p &lt; 0.01). In addition, alexithymia also contributed to the prediction of these conditions. Study Limitations: A larger study sample could yield safer generalized results. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate various psychopathological dimensions in patients with psoriasis. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that alexithymia and female sex were associated with several psychopathological dimensions in patients with psoriasis. It may be suggested that alexithymia constitutes an important factor in the development of mental disorders among patients with psoriasis. <![CDATA[Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400517&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. <![CDATA[Sensitive skin: review of an ascending concept]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400521&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Sensitive skin is a condition characterized by stinging, burning and itching sensations. The diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of sensitive skin are still under discussion. In the last years, studies on its epidemiology have been performed, showing a high prevalence and impact on quality of life. Brazilian population was also considered in these studies. Cosmetics, climate changes and skin barrier impairment are the main factors that contribute for skin hyperreactivity. New studies are trying to bring new knowledge about the theme. This review will describe data on epidemiology, triggering factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. <![CDATA[Ultrastructural aspects of pseudoxanthoma elasticum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400527&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: We report the ultrastructural findings in a case of a 72-year-old black woman with confluent yellowish papules in the cervical region. She had no comorbidities. Ophthalmological examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were normal. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the affected skin showed strong alterations in the mid-dermis with irregular clumps of eosinophilic material and loss of the normal parallel arrangement of collagen bundles. Orcein staining revealed that the elastic fibers lost their normal linear configuration, showing clump fragmentation, sometimes forming square structures. Transmission electron microscopy showed aberrant elastic fibers with an irregular outline and heterogenic inner structures. We also observed small elastic fibers. Collagen fibers showed a normal structure with irregular distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed important disorganization of collagen fibers and small stone-like deposits measuring around 5 µm associated with bigger structures ranging from 10-16 µm. Higher magnification revealed that these small stone-like structures were sometimes polyhedral-shaped or squared. <![CDATA[The recurrent nevus phenomenon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400531&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Recurrent melanocytic nevus is a proliferation of melanocytes arising from a melanocytic nevus removed partially. Asymmetry and irregular pigmentation may lead to misdiagnosis of melanoma. We report a patient presented with a lesion on the lower abdomen, which was removed by shave excision. Anatomopathological examination revealed an intradermal melanocytic nevus. Two months later, a new irregular hyperpigmented lesion appeared in the surgical scar. Histopathology of the excisional biopsy revealed a recurrent melanocytic nevus. Recurrent melanocytic nevus manifests as a scar with hyper or hypopigmented areas, linear streaking, stippled pigmented halos, and/or diffuse pigmentation patterns. Histologically, the dermoepidermal junction and the superficial dermis show melanocytic proliferation overlying the scarred area. When a pathological report of the previous lesion is not available, complete excision is the gold standard. Otherwise, regular dermoscopic monitoring is a therapeutic option. The present report emphasizes the importance of histopathological examination of the excised material - even in cases of suspected benign lesions - and warns patients about the possibility of recurrence in case of incompletely removed lesions. <![CDATA[Episodic angioedema associated with eosinophilia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400534&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with recurrent angioedema on the face, trunk, and extremities, and concomitant marked weight gain for 5 years. During the episode, her white blood cell count increased to 47.7×109/L with 89.9% eosinophils, followed by elevated serum level of IL-5, IgE, IgM, and LDH. Histopathology showed perivascular eosinophilic infiltration and diffuse eosinophilic infiltration throughout the dermis. Possible causes of hypereosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of vital organs were ruled out. We also tested the FIP1L1/PDGFRa and ETV6/PDGFRb fusion gene to exclude the possibility of myeloid and lymphatic vessel neoplasms. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone and discharged with an oral prednisolone taper, which resulted in complete remission of the edema and normalization of peripheral blood eosinophil count, serum IL-5 level, IgE, IgM, and LDH. <![CDATA[Trichotillomania: a good response to treatment with N-acetylcysteine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400537&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Trichotillomania is considered a behavioral disorder and is characterized by the recurring habit of pulling one's hair, resulting in secondary alopecia. It affects 1% of the adult population, and 2 to 4.4% of psychiatric patients meet the diagnostic criteria. It can occur at any age and is more prevalent in adolescents and females. Its occurrence in childhood is not uncommon and tends to have a more favorable clinical course. The scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes are the most commonly affected sites. Glutamate modulating agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to be a promising treatment. N-acetylcysteine acts by reducing oxidative stress and normalizing glutaminergic transmission. In this paper, we report a case of trichotillomania with an excellent response to N-acetylcysteine. <![CDATA[Langerhans' cell histiocytosis with neurological injuries diagnosed from a single cutaneous lesion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400540&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Histiocytoses are rare diseases caused by the proliferation of histiocytes. The pathogenesis remains unknown and the highest incidence occurs in pediatric patients. The clinical presentations can be varied, in multiple organs and systems, and the skin lesions are not always present. Evolution is unpredictable and treatment depends on the extent and severity of the disease. It is described the case of a patient with various neurological symptoms, extensively investigated, who had its was diagnosed with histiocytosis from a single skin lesion. This report highlights the importance of Dermatology in assisting the investigation of difficult cases in medical practice. <![CDATA[Lichen planopilaris developed during childhood]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400543&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Lichen planopilaris is a disease that appears with lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia. It is considered a follicular variant of lichen planus. The examination of affected areas shows alopecia with perifollicular erythema and scaling, revealing a predilection for hair follicles. The involvement of children is uncommon, with few reports in this population in the literature. This study presents a clinical case of a male patient of 15 years of age with characteristic lesions of lichen planopilaris. <![CDATA[Giant atypical lipoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400546&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Liposarcomas correspond to the most common histological subtype of soft tissue sarcomas. They can be subdivided into: well differentiated or atypical lipoma, undifferentiated, myxoid, round, and pleomorphic cells. Atypical lipomas are the most prevalent and usually appear as asymptomatic softened tumors. They are locally aggressive but rarely lead to distant metastases. The diagnosis of this tumor is based on the imaging and histopathologic findings. Treatment consists of excision surgery with complete tumor removal. It has a good prognosis due to the low percentage of distant metastases. We report a rare case of giant atypical lipoma as well as the adopted therapy and evolution. <![CDATA[Concomitant poroma and porocarcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400550&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Eccrine poromas and porocarcinomas are adnexal tumors derived from the sweat duct epithelium. However, eccrine poroma is benign in nature, whilst eccrine porocarcinoma is regarded as its malignant counterpart. We report the case of a man who presented simultaneously with an eccrine poroma and eccrine porocarcinoma. Both lesions had no clear distinctive features, enhancing the need of high-level clinical suspicion together with surgical excision and histopathology for prompt diagnosis confirmation. <![CDATA[Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis with spontaneous regression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400553&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis is a rare, benign, self-limiting variant of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). LCH encompasses a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis typically appears at birth or in the neonatal period as isolated cutaneous lesions, often appearing as multiple crusted papules with no systemic findings. Although clinical features seem aggressive, the lesions tend to involute spontaneously within weeks to a few months leaving residual hypo or hyperpigmented macules. Timely diagnosis with histology, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopic studies will eliminate unnecessary therapeutic interventions. Although mostly self-resolving, it carries a variable clinical course in some patients with cases of extracutaneous involvement and/or recurrences. Hence, reassurance and long-term follow-up play key roles in the management of this disease. <![CDATA[Norwegian scabies in a patient treated with Tripterygium glycoside for rheumatoid arthritis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400556&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: We report an 80-year-old male patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis who was treated with tripterygium glycoside, an immunosuppressive agent made from the extract of a Chinese medicinal herb called Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. The patient had no apparent skin lesions before the treatment, but he developed aggressive hyperkeratotic lesions with rapid progression after using tripterygium glycoside. He was repeatedly diagnosed with eczema, but treatment failed to achieve efficacy. Interestingly, a microscopic examination of the lesions revealed numerous scabies mites and eggs. Thus, we confirmed the diagnosis of Norwegian scabies infection. Treated with crotamiton 10% cream and 10% sulfur ointment for one month, the patient's clinical symptoms disappeared. <![CDATA[Hemoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy for the treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks in pediatric patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400559&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Port-wine stain is a type of common congenital superficial telangiectasia in the dermal layer mostly occurring on the forehead, face, and neck. The affected skin shows abnormal red or purple lesions, which darken and thicken. Nodular changes may develop with advancing age. If untreated, port-wine stains scarcely regress, which can have serious lifelong psychological impact on patients and affect their quality of life. In this report, we focused on two cases of port-wine stain in pediatric patients; the youngest patient was only 1.5 years old. During and after treatment, Hemoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy features fewer adverse reactions, short light protection period, easy nursing, and good efficacy. <![CDATA[Multiple vulvar dilated pores in a postmenopausal woman]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400562&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Winer's dilated pore is an infrequent appendageal tumor characterized by a giant comedone on the face, neck, and upper trunk in adults. We report a 57-year-old woman who developed multiple asymptomatic black papules on both labia majora. Histopathology showed grouped dilated follicles lined by keratinizing squamous epithelium in the superficial dermis. The superficial lining epithelium and interfollicular epidermis were atrophic, while the deep epithelium showed mild proliferation and melanin pigmentation with a few short projections extending into the surrounding dermis. We diagnosed multiple Winer's dilated pores based on late-onset lesions and pathological features. This patient may represent the first case of multiple vulvar Winer's dilated pores. We suggest that electrocautery may be effective for treating this type of superficial entity. <![CDATA[Synchronous conjunctival melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400565&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Lentigo maligna has an extensive and neoplastic character. It typically progresses slowly and may eventually develop into an invasive melanoma, which is called lentigo maligna melanoma. Ocular melanoma is the second most common type of melanoma. The uvea is the most common site of origin of ocular melanomas, while conjunctival melanoma accounts for about 1-5% of cases. In this article, we describe a rare case of synchronic conjunctival melanoma and lentigo maligna on the face. <![CDATA[Reflectance confocal microscopy of tinea nigra: comparing images with dermoscopy and mycological examination results]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400568&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results. <![CDATA[Do you know this syndrome? Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400571&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome is a rare subacute variant of sarcoidosis, characterized by enlargement of the parotid or salivary glands, facial nerve paralysis and anterior uveitis. Granulomas with a peripheral lymphocyte deficit are found in the anatomic pathology of affected organs. It is normally self-limiting, with cure achieved between 12 and 36 months, but some prolonged cases have been reported. Diagnosis of the syndrome is clinical, and treatment depends on the degree of systemic impairment. Oral corticosteroids represent the first line treatment option. The mortality rate ranges between 1 and 5% of cases. <![CDATA[Case for diagnosis. Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1: differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400573&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood. <![CDATA[Etanercept in erythema nodosum leprosum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400575&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: One of the biggest challenges in treating leprosy is the control of reaction events. Patients with lepromatous leprosy may present reaction type II, or erythema nodosum leprosum, during treatment, and this reaction can remain in a recurrent form after being released from the hospital, requiring the use of thalidomide and/or prednisone for long periods of time, in turn increasing the risk of side effects. Two reports of the use of antiTNF to treat erythema nodosum leprosum were found in the literature. A good response was found after an assay with infliximab and etanercept. This study reports on a patient with lepromatous leprosy and recurrent reaction, controlled by using etanercept and a 10-month follow-up, with the interruption of thalidomide and the maintenance of prednisone at 10 mg/day. <![CDATA[Pencil-core granuloma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400578&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Pencil core granulomas are still infrequently reported in the literature. A 67-year-old woman presented with a 4mm hard blue subcutaneous nodule on the forehead. She remembered being injured with a pencil tip about 60 years before. The subcutaneous nodule was excised, which microscopically revealed a foreign body reaction with histiocytes containing fragmented coarse black particles. We diagnosed pencil-core granuloma based on the patient’s history of pencil tip injury and histological examination findings. <![CDATA[Profile of leprosy in children under 15 years of age monitored in a Brazilian referral center (2004-2012)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400580&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Comment on <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> seroprevalence and the occurrence and severity of psoriasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400584&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Comment on <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> seroprevalence and the occurrence and severity of psoriasis - Reply]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400585&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Coexistence of lichen planus follicularis tumidus and Hashimoto's thyroiditis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400586&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema induced by clarithromycin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400587&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Superficial acral fibromyxoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400588&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Grade III hand-foot skin reaction induced by sorafenib]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400589&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Biologic therapy-induced pemphigus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400590&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Trigeminal trophic syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400591&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability. <![CDATA[Cutaneous vasculitis: a presentation with endocarditis to keep in mind]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962017000400592&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability.