Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia]]> vol. 90 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities]]> Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. <![CDATA[Squamous cell cancer – 31-year epidemiological study in a city of south Brazil]]> BACKGROUND: The incidence and morbidity of squamous cell cancers are increasing worldwide. Epidemiological studies with morbidity coefficients about this type of cancer are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To determine morbidity coefficients, analyze and classify the squamous cell cancers diagnosed in the city of Blumenau - SC from 1980 to 2011, according to clinical and histological features. METHODS: The authors revised 4000 histopathological exams with respect to sex, age, anatomic site and histological type. The morbidity coefficients were calculated using the number of squamous cell cancers found and the annual population estimated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics between 1980 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 4000 tumors were identified, 2249 (56.2%) in male and 1751 (43.8%) in female patients. The standard incidence rates varied from 40 cases in 1980 to 120 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2011. The morbidity above 70 years of age reached 1484 cases/100,000 inhabitants in male and 975 in female patients. As to primary anatomic site, we found more tumors on the lips and ears in male and on the face and legs in female patients. As to the degree of involvement, the more frequent were Well Differentiated Squamous cell carcinomas (70%) and Moderate Squamous cell carcinomas (19,1%). The Low Differentiated Squamous cell carcinomas, which represented those with the worst prognosis, were found in 4.5% of the tumors. CONCLUSION: Squamous cell cancers in Blumenau - SC have similar patterns of distribution regarding age, primary anatomic site and histological types as found in the international literature. The morbidity increased by 300% in the last 31 years, which indicates that we need to dedicate special attention to the older population. <![CDATA[Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*]]> BACKGROUND: Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS: Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS: Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION: Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. <![CDATA[Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with mycosis fungoides]]> BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides, the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is more common in patients aged 45-55. OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk factors have been investigated in several skin diseases. However, the relation between cardiovascular diseases and mycosis fungoides remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mycosis fungoides. METHODS: 32 patients with mycosis fungoides and 26 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, homocystein, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein – cholesterol, were measured in the sera of patients. RESULTS: Patients had significantly higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol, total cholesterol (p= 0.032) (p&lt; 0.001) (p= 0.001) (p&lt; 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the levels of homo-cysteine and total cholesterol (p= 0.001, r = +0.431). Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was found between the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol (p= 0.014, r = +0.320) in patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly higher levels of total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein -cholesterol, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than healthy subjects. The present study has demonstrated an increased rate of cardiovascular risk in patients with mycosis fungoides. Even though the etiology of these associations is elusive, dermatologists should be sensitized to investigate metabolic derangements in patients with mycosis fungoides, in order to lessen mortality and comorbidity with a multidisciplinary approach. <![CDATA[T regulatory cells (TREG)(TCD4+CD25+FOXP3+) distribution in the different clinical forms of leprosy and reactional states]]> BACKGROUND: Leprosy is characterized histologically by a spectrum of different granulomatous skin lesions, reflecting patients' immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae. Although CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells are pivotal in the immuneregulation, presence, frequency, and distribution of Tregs in leprosy, its reactional states have been investigated in few studies. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the frequency and distribution of regulatory T cells in different clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy. METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical study on 96 leprosy cases [Indeterminate (I): 9 patients; tuberculoid tuberculoid: 13 patients; borderline tuberculoid: 26 patients; borderline borderline: 3 patients; borderline lepromatous: 8 patients; lepromatous lepromatous: 27 patients; reversal reaction: 8 patients; and erythema nodosum leprosum: 2 patients]. RESULTS: FoxP3-positive cells were present in 100% of the cases with an average density of 2.82% of the infiltrate. Their distribution was not related to granulomatous structures or special locations. There was a statistically significant increment of FoxP3 expression in patients with leprosy reversal reactions when compared with patients presenting with type I leprosy (P= 0.0228); borderline tuberculoid leprosy (P = 0.0351) and lepromatous leprosy (P = 0.0344). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Tregs play a relevant role in the etiopathogenesis of leprosy, mainly in type I leprosy reaction. <![CDATA[Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2]]> BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus have been associated with a number of changes in the oral cavity, such as gingivitis, periodontitis, mucosal diseases, salivary dysfunction, altered taste, and burning mouth. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study between August and October 2012 with a convenience sampling was performed for 51 patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2). The study consisted of two phases: 1) a questionnaire application; 2) intraoral clinical examination. For the analysis of data, we used descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test in bivariate analysis (significance level of 0.05), and Poisson Regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of oral lesions was 78.4%. Traumatic ulcers (16.4%) and actinic cheilitis (12.7%) were the most prevalent lesions. The lips (35.3%) and tongue (23.5%) were the most common location. The bivariate analysis showed an association with the type of diabetes, and two variables (age and comorbidity) were quite close to the significance level. In the Poisson Regression analysis, only diabetes type 2 remained significant after adjusting the model. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in diabetic patients. The oral mucosal lesions are mostly associated with diabetes type 2. <![CDATA[Recipient site preparation for epidermal graft in stable vitiligo by a special fraise]]> BACKGROUND: The only approach used in the refractory lesions of stable vitiligo is the surgical supply of melanocytes. Suction Blistering Epidermal Graft is one of the most common and effective techniques. There are multiple modalities, including the motor-driven diamond fraise, for the preparation of recipient sites in suction blistering epidermal graft with different repigmentation rates and complications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate preparation of recipient site by a motor-driven dental lab finishing carbide bur. METHODS: Sixty-one stable, depigmented lesions were selected in 14 patients (9 women and 5men), aged 16-29 years, of which 9, 3 and 2 had localized, generalized and segmental vitiligo, respectively. Recipient site was prepared by a motor-driven dental lab finishing carbide bur. RESULT: Excellent repigmentation at the recipient site was observed in 53 out of 61 (86.9%) grafted lesions. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and perigraft halo were seen in 11 (18%) and 17 (27.9%) patients at the recipient site, respectively. CONCLUSION: Using a motor-driven dental lab finishing carbide bur to prepare the recipient site of suction blistering epidermal graft technique is reliable and effective, removing only the depigmented epidermis in a simple and safe manner, even on complex-shaped lesions and scar-prone sites. <![CDATA[Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update]]> Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disease that is manifested by cutaneous sclerosis and variable systemic involvement. Two categories of scleroderma are known: systemic sclerosis, characterized by cutaneous sclerosis and visceral involvement, and localized scleroderma or morphea which classically presents benign and self-limited evolution and is confined to the skin and/or underlying tissues. Localized scleroderma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies show that the localized form may affect internal organs and have variable morbidity. Treatment should be started very early, before complications occur due to the high morbidity of localized scleroderma. In this review, we report the most important aspects and particularities in the treatment of patients diagnosed with localized scleroderma. <![CDATA[Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium]]> Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. <![CDATA[Spitz nevi in the classic histopathological pattern - lamb in wolf`s clothing]]> Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion and also one of the main differential diagnosis of melanoma. A descriptive and retrospective study of surgical specimens from patients with a diagnosis of Spitz nevus was conducted at two institutions in Niterói - RJ. 32 cases were analyzed. The most frequent histological subtype was compound (60 %), with a predominance of epithelioid cells (17 cases - 53%). Pagetoid spread was observed in 21 cases (68%). Maturation of melanocytes was present in 13 cases (81%). Kamino bodies were found in eight cases (25%). Atypical melanocytes were present in 18 cases (56%). Mitoses were present in 11 cases (34%). Detailed knowledge of the classical form of Spitz nevi is essential for the differential diagnosis with melanoma. However, no single criterium is definitive in the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and melanoma. <![CDATA[Phototherapy as an effective treatment for Majocchi's disease - Case report]]> Pigmented purpuric dermatoses are chronic and relapsing disorders characterized by a symmetrical rash of petechial and pigmentary macules, mainly confined to the lower limbs. Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi is a less common variant of Pigmented purpuric dermatoses characterized by punctate telangiectatic macules progressing to annular, hyperpigmented patches with central clearing and infrequent atrophy. A 12 year-old girl presented with asymptomatic round to oval reddish brown macules, present symmetrically over her lower and upper limbs for 3 years. Few lesions were annular in shape. Biopsy from the lesion was compatible with Pigmented purpuric dermatoses. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, a diagnosis of Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi was made. The patient began phototherapy thrice a week and showed excellent response. <![CDATA[Aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp- what are the steps to be followed? Case report and review of the literature]]> Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare malformation characterized by localized congenital absence of the skin. It rarely occurs on the trunk and limbs, and can occur in isolation or as part of a heterogeneous group of syndromes. We report a case of a 4-day-old boy with a 5.6-cm- diameter tumor, with a central crust, non-indurate and no inflammatory rim; localized on the scalp and a small, atrophic hairless scar appeared 6 months later (approximately 5cm in length) at the site of the previous tumor. <![CDATA[<em>Mycobacterium chelonae</em> cutaneous infection in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease]]> Around 50 mycobacteria species cause human disease. Immunosuppressive states predispose to non-tuberculous mycobaterium infection, such as Mycobacterium chelonae: AFB, non-tuberculous, fast growth of low virulence and uncommon as a human pathogen. It may compromise the skin and soft tissues, lungs, lymph nodes and there is also a disseminated presentation. The diagnosis involves AFB identification and culture on Agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium base. A 41-year-old female with MCTD (LES predominance) is reported, presenting painless nodules in the right forearm. She denied local trauma. Immunosuppressed with prednisone and cyclophosphamide for 24 months. Lesion biopsy has demonstrated positive bacilloscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and M.chelonae in culture (Lowenstein-Jensen medium base), therefore clarithromycin treatment has been started (best therapy choice in the literature). <![CDATA[Modified Tripier flap in reconstruction of the lower eyelid]]> We describe the use of modified Tripier flap for reconstruction of a surgical defect in the lower eyelid region, after excision of nodular basal cell carcinoma. <![CDATA[Contoured technique for lentigo maligna]]> The surgical approach to lentigo maligna is a challenge to dermatologists, given the difficulty of clinical delimitation of borders. We report here a case of a 69-year-old female patient presenting with brownish macules on her face, since 10 years ago, with histopathological diagnosis of lentigo maligna. The surgical management employed was excision of visible borders with the contoured technique and immediate submission of these borders for histopathological analysis before complete excision of the tumor. This technique is a variant of staged excision, with lower rates of recurrence and acceptable aesthetic results. <![CDATA[Trichoscopy as a diagnostic tool in trichorrhexis <em>invaginata</em> and Netherton syndrome]]> Netherton syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by erythroderma, ichthyosis linearis circumflexa, atopy, failure to thrive and a specific hair shaft abnormality called trichorrhexis invaginata or bamboo hair, considered pathognomonic. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy with erythroderma since birth, growth deficit and chronic diarrhea. Trichoscopy was used to visualize typical bamboo and "golf tee" hair and of key importance to diagnose Netherton syndrome. We suggest the use of this procedure in all children diagnosed with erythroderma. <![CDATA[Treatment of <em>Mycobacterium marinum</em> with lymecycline: new therapeutic alternative?]]> Skin infections by Mycobacterium marinum are quite rare in our environment and, therefore, little studied. The majority of the lesions appear three weeks after traumas in aquariums, beaches and fish tanks. Lymph node drainage and systematization of the disease are rare and most lesions disappear in about three years. This case aims to show the effectiveness of the treatment used (lymecycline 150 mg/orally/day). This medication may be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of Mycobacterium marinum. <![CDATA[Conscious sedation with inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix in photodynamic therapy sessions for vulvar lichen sclerosus treatment]]> Photodynamic therapy has been described as an effective therapeutic option in selected cases of anogenital lichen sclerosus that are refractory to first-line treatments. However, procedure-related pain is a limiting factor in patient adherence to treatment. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old woman with highly symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus, successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. An inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix was administered during sessions, producing a pain-relieving, anxiolytic, and sedative effect without loss of consciousness. This ready-to-use gas mixture may be a well-tolerated and accepted alternative to classical anesthetics in Photodynamic therapy, facilitating patients' adherence to illumination of pain-prone areas. <![CDATA[Use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of temporal triangular alopecia]]> Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prevents invasive diagnostic methods as well as ineffective treatments. <![CDATA[Monilethrix: a typical case report with microscopic and dermatoscopic findings]]> Monilethrix is a rare hereditary condition generally considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance. A case of a 6-year-old girl without a familial background for this disease is reported. The diagnosis was made by optic microscopy and dermoscopy. A therapeutic trial with topical minoxidil was conducted. <![CDATA[Cutaneous tuberculosis with nonreactive PPD skin test: a diagnostic challenge]]> The authors report a case of cutaneous tuberculosis in a 63-year-old female patient, who had an infiltrated, erythematous-ferruginous plaque of indurated aspect on her right leg and a nonreactive PPD skin test. Diagnosis was made by tissue culture and PCR of skin biopsy material. The treatment was performed with pyrazinamide, rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol, with good response. <![CDATA[Syndrome In Question]]> The authors describe a case of Cowden´s syndrome in a female patient with classic cutaneous lesions, plus papillomatous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and a previous history of thyroid carcinoma. Mucocutaneous lesions occur in 90% of Cowden's syndrome cases and are characterized by facial trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomas and benign acral keratoses. Sites of extracutaneous involvement include: the thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, breast and endometrial tissue. There is risk of malignancies in these organs and they need to be monitored with imaging tests. The early diagnosis of the syndrome by a dermatologist through mucocutaneous lesions enables the investigation and diagnosis of extracutaneous involvement. <![CDATA[Use of the inverted “T” incision to approach a plantar nodular lesion]]> Knowledge of the inverted "T" incision - used in plastic, oncologic and orthopedic surgery - has allowed its adaptation for the diagnostic assessment and therapeutical approach of acral, nodular lesions. The authors describe the use of this technique for the surgical approach of a patient with a plantar nodular lesion, further diagnosed as a calcified angioleiomyoma. <![CDATA[Onychomycosis in patients with chronic leg ulcer and toenail abnormalities]]> Nails have a limited number of reactive patterns to disease. Accordingly, toenail changes of different etiologies may mimic onychomycosis. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis among patients with leg ulcer and toenail abnormalities attending a dermatology clinic. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted through the analysis of clinical records and results of mycological examination. RESULTS A total of 81 patients were included, with a median age of 76.0 years. Most ulcers were of venous etiology, followed by those of mixed and arterial pathogenesis. The mycological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of onychomycosis in 27.2% of the patients. The etiologic agent was a dermatophyte in 59.1% of isolates in nail samples, while Trichophyton interdigitale was the most frequent fungal species (40.9%). CONCLUSIONS Most toenail abnormalities in patients with chronic leg ulcer were not onychomycosis. This study highlights the importance of systematic mycological examination in these patients, in order to avoid overtreatment with systemic antifungals, unnecessary costs and side effects. <![CDATA[Clinical and demographic profile of chromoblastomycosis in a referral service in the midwest of São Paulo state (Brazil)]]> Chromoblastomycosis is one of the most frequent deep mycoses found in rural populations. This cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted with cases of chromoblastomycosis diagnosed throughout 20 years. A higher prevalence was observed among White male rural workers, with an average age of 59.69 years. Median time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 156 months. Lesions were predominantly located on the lower limbs; 34% of cases reported previous trauma. The most common associated symptoms were itching, pain and burning sensation. Mycological examination was positive in 91% of cases and Fonsecaea pedrosoi was the most prevalent etiologic agent. <![CDATA[ERRATUM]]> Chromoblastomycosis is one of the most frequent deep mycoses found in rural populations. This cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted with cases of chromoblastomycosis diagnosed throughout 20 years. A higher prevalence was observed among White male rural workers, with an average age of 59.69 years. Median time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 156 months. Lesions were predominantly located on the lower limbs; 34% of cases reported previous trauma. The most common associated symptoms were itching, pain and burning sensation. Mycological examination was positive in 91% of cases and Fonsecaea pedrosoi was the most prevalent etiologic agent.