Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-355520140004&lang=en vol. 18 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB) is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB) method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group) and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group) performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB), DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis) and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs. <![CDATA[Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p &lt;0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. <hr/> Contextualização: Os déficits de controle postural em crianças com PC podem comprometer suas atividades na rotina diária. Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre o controle postural em ortostatismo de crianças com PC e suas habilidades funcionais. Método: O controle postural de dez crianças PC (GMFCS I e II) foi avaliado em ortostatismo na plataforma de força por 30 segundos. Variáveis analisadas: deslocamento ântero-posterior e médio-lateral do centro de pressão (CoP), área e velocidade de oscilação do CoP. As habilidades funcionais foram avaliadas por meio do Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), considerando-se escores de autocuidado, mobilidade e função social nos domínios habilidades funcionais e assistência do cuidador. Resultados: O teste de correlação de Spearman verificou a relação entre controle postural e funcionalidade. Constatou-se correlação negativa forte entre as variáveis amplitude ML de deslocamento do CoP, área de oscilação do CoP e entre a variável de velocidade média de oscilação do CoP e os escores do domínio de autocuidado. Observou-se também correlação negativa moderada entre área de oscilação do CoP e mobilidade. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p&lt;0,05). Conclusões: Crianças com maiores oscilações do CoP em ortostatismo apresentam maiores escores de assistência do cuidador para a realização de AVDs, indicando maiores níveis de dependência. Isso demonstra as repercussões dos componentes de estrutura e função do corpo sobre o nível de atividade em crianças com PC, uma vez que o comprometimento do controle postural pode levar a uma maior dependência das crianças em relação a seus cuidadores. <![CDATA[Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. <hr/> CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O macrófago tem papel de destaque dentre as células inflamatórias que invadem o músculo após as lesões. Por outro lado, o laser em baixa intensidade (LBI) tem sido muito utilizado na clínica para acelerar o reparo muscular, e pouco se conhece sobre seu efeito nos macrófagos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do LBI sobre a atividade mitocondrial (AM) de macrófagos ativados para simular um processo inflamatório. MÉTODO: Macrófagos J774 foram tratados com lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) e IFN-gamma (ativação) por 24 horas para simular um processo inflamatório e então foram irradiados com LBI (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm(2) e 660 nm; 15mW; 7,5 J/cm(2)). A AM foi avaliada pela técnica MTT após um, três e cinco dias das irradiações. Foram realizados três experimentos independentes, e os dados, submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Após um dia de cultivo, os macrófagos ativados e irradiados com o laser de 780 nm mostraram AM menor que os somente ativados, já os macrófagos ativados e irradiados com o laser de 660 mostraram AM semelhante aos somente ativados. Após três dias, os macrófagos ativados e irradiados (660 e 780 nm) mostraram AM maior que os macrófagos ativados; já após cinco dias, os grupos ativados e irradiados (660 e 780 nm) mostraram AM semelhante aos macrófagos somente ativados. CONCLUSÕES: Esses resultados mostram que tanto o LBI de 660 nm como o de 780 nm são capazes de modular a ativação celular de macrófagos em situação de inflamação, ressaltando a importância desse recurso e da determinação de seus parâmetros dosimétricos no processo de reparo do músculo esquelético. <![CDATA[Gait profile score and movement analysis profile in patients with Parkinson's disease during concurrent cognitive load]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Gait disorders are common in individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can have marked effects on gait. The Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Movement Analysis Profile (MAP) were developed in order to summarize the data of kinematics and facilitate understanding of the results of gait analysis. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the GPS and MAP in the quantification of changes in gait during a concurrent cognitive load while walking in adults with and without PD. Method: Fourteen patients with idiopathic PD and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects performed single and dual walking tasks. The GPS/MAP was computed from three-dimensional gait analysis data. Results: Differences were found between tasks for GPS (P&lt;0.05) and Gait Variable Score (GVS) (pelvic rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion) (P&lt;0.05) in the PD group. An interaction between task and group was observed for GPS (P&lt;0.01) for the right side (Cohen's ¯d=0.99), left side (Cohen's ¯d=0.91), and overall (Cohen's ¯d=0.88). No interaction was observed only for hip internal-external rotation and foot internal-external progression GVS variables in the PD group. Conclusions: The results showed gait impairment during the dual task and suggest that GPS/MAP may be used to evaluate the effects of concurrent cognitive load while walking in patients with PD. <![CDATA[Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) (response rate 95%) associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%), shoulder (52%), and neck (48%) were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5) and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1). Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8) and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40). Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77). Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5) and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7). Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals. <![CDATA[Balance and muscle power of children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In certain diseases, functional constraints establish a greater relationship with muscle power than muscle strength. However, in hereditary peripheral polyneuropathies, no such relationship was found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), to identify the impact of muscle strength and range of movement on the static/dynamic balance and standing long jump based on quantitative and functional variables. METHOD: The study analyzed 19 participants aged between 6 and 16 years, of both genders and with clinical diagnoses of CMT of different subtypes. Anthropometric data, muscle strength of the lower limbs (hand-held dynamometer), ankle and knee range of movement, balance (Pediatric Balance Scale) and standing long jump distance were obtained by standardized procedures. For the statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between balance and the muscle strength of the right plantar flexors (r=0.61) and dorsiflexors (r=0.59) and a moderate correlation between balance and the muscle strength of inversion (r=0.41) and eversion of the right foot (r=0.44). For the long jump and range of movement, there was a weak positive correlation with right and left plantar flexion (r=0.20 and r=0.12, respectively) and left popliteal angle (r=0.25), and a poor negative correlation with left dorsiflexion (r=-0.15). CONCLUSIONS: The data on the patients analyzed suggests that the maintenance of distal muscle strength favors performance during balance tasks, while limitations in the range of movement of the legs seem not to be enough to influence the performance of the horizontal long jump. <hr/> CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Em algumas doenças, limitações funcionais têm maior relação com a potência do que com a força muscular, porém, nas polineuropatias periféricas hereditárias, tal relação não foi relatada na literatura. OBJETIVO: Identificar, a partir da análise de variáveis quantitativas e funcionais, o impacto da força dos músculos dos membros inferiores e das amplitudes de movimento (ADM) sobre o equilíbrio estático/dinâmico e o salto horizontal de crianças com doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT). MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 19 participantes de seis a 16 anos, de ambos os sexos, com diagnóstico clínico de CMT de subtipos variados. Foram obtidos, de forma padronizada, dados antropométricos, força muscular dos membros inferiores (Hand-Held Dynamometer), ADM de tornozelos e joelhos, equilíbrio (Escala de Equilíbrio Pediátrica) e distância de salto horizontal (Long Jump). Para a análise estatística, utilizaram-se os Coeficientes de Correlação de Pearson e Spearman. RESULTADOS: Houve forte correlação positiva entre equilíbrio e força muscular de flexores plantares direito (r=0,61) e dorsiflexores (r=0,59) e correlação moderada com inversores dos pés (r=0,41) e eversores do pé direito (r=0,44). Considerando o Long Jump e as ADM, houve fraca correlação positiva para ADM de flexão plantar direita (r=0,20), esquerda (r=0,12) e ângulo poplíteo esquerdo (r=0,25) e fraca correlação negativa para dorsiflexão esquerda (r=-0,15). CONCLUSÕES: Os dados dos pacientes analisados sugerem que a manutenção de força muscular distal favorece o desempenho em tarefas de equilíbrio. E as restrições nas ADM passivas de membros inferiores parecem não ter sido suficientes para influenciar a potência muscular no salto horizontal. <![CDATA[Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. <![CDATA[Content validation of a clinical assessment instrument for stair ascent and descent in individuals with hemiparesis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: Among the current instruments used to assess stair ambulation, none were observed that specifically evaluated the quality of movement or biomechanical strategies adopted by stroke patients. Objective: To evaluate the content validity of a clinical instrument designed to identify the qualitative and kinematic characteristics and strategies adopted by stroke patients during stair ascent and descent. Method: The first developed version, which comprised 80 items, had its content evaluated by an expert panel, which was composed of 9 well-known national and international professionals who are involved in stroke rehabilitation. The content validity index (CVI) and modified Kappa coefficients were employed for the statistical analyses. The items that demonstrated a CVI≥0.80 and Kappa≥0.75 were considered valid. Results: The content validation was performed in three stages. The final version of the instrument consisted of 38 items, which were divided into descriptive (8 items), a General Characteristics Domain (16 items) and adopted strategies (14 items) during stair ascent and descent. The total scores ranged from zero to 70 and zero to 74 for ascent and descent, respectively. Lower scores corresponded with better performance. Conclusion: Despite the satisfactory results obtained during the process of content validation, other psychometric properties of the instrument are necessary and must be evaluated. <hr/> Contextualização: Dentre os instrumentos existentes que avaliam a subida e descida de escadas, não foi encontrado nenhum específico sobre a qualidade de movimento e as estratégias biomecânicas adotadas por indivíduos com hemiparesia devido ao Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE). Objetivo: Avaliar a validade de conteúdo do instrumento de avaliação das características cinemáticas qualitativas e das estratégias adotadas na subida e descida de escadas por indivíduos com hemiparesia devido ao AVE. Metódo: A primeira versão do instrumento foi desenvolvida com um total de 80 itens e foi submetida a um comitê constituído por oito especialistas nacionais e internacionais para validação de conteúdo. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) e do Coeficiente Kappa Modificado, sendo considerados válidos os itens que apresentaram IVC≥0,80 e Kappa≥0,75. Resultados: Foram realizadas três etapas de validação de conteúdo, e a versão final do instrumento apresenta 38 itens divididos em Itens Descritivos (oito itens), Domínio de Características Gerais da Subida e Descida de Escadas (16 itens) e Domínio de Estratégias Adotadas para Subida e Descida de Escadas (14 itens). O escore total para a subida de escada pode variar entre 0 e 70 pontos e, para a descida, entre 0 e 74 pontos. A pontuação mínima corresponde ao melhor desempenho, e a máxima, ao pior desempenho no teste. Conclusão: Apesar dos resultados satisfatórios obtidos no processo de validação de conteúdo, as demais propriedades psicométricas devem e serão mensuradas futuramente. <![CDATA[Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. <![CDATA[Assessment of the measurement properties of quality of life questionnaires in Brazilian women with breast cancer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552014000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: There are several questionnaires available to assess quality of life in breast cancer, however the choice of the best questionnaire often does not take into account the adequacy of these questionnaires' measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To test the measurement properties of two generic quality of life questionnaires and one quality of life questionnaire specific for women with breast cancer. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after surgery for breast cancer. The assessment included application of the SF-36, WHOQOL-bref, and FACT-B+4 questionnaires as well as the Global Perceived Effect and Pain Numerical Rating scales. The participants were interviewed on three occasions to investigate internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness. RESULTS: Most of the instruments' domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.66 to 0.91). Reliability varied from poor to substantial (ICC2,1 between 0.39 and 0.87) and agreement varied from negative to very good. The SF-36 presented doubtful agreement and showed floor and ceiling effects in three domains. The domains of the generic questionnaires presented moderate to good correlation with the FACT-B+4 (Pearson varying from 0.31 to 0.69). The internal responsiveness varied from small to large (ES varying from -0.26 to 0.98) and external responsiveness was found in only some of the instruments' domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the measurement properties tested for the WHOQOL-bref and FACT-B+4 were adequate as was their ability to assess quality of life in women with breast cancer. The SF-36 showed inadequacy in agreement and floor and ceiling effects and should not be used in women with breast cancer.