Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy]]> vol. 18 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA]]> Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. <hr/> Contextualização: Instrumentos observacionais como o Rapid Entire Body Assessment avaliam de forma rápida os riscos biomecânicos presentes no ambiente de trabalho. No entanto, para a utilização desses instrumentos, é necessário realizar tradução, adaptação transcultural e testar propriedades de medida. Objetivos: Realizar a tradução, adaptação transcultural para o português-brasileiro e testar a confiabilidade do instrumento REBA. Método: Foram realizados os procedimentos de tradução e adaptação para o português-brasileiro seguindo as diretrizes propostas, por meio da realização da tradução, síntese das traduções, retrotradução, comitê de revisão, pré-teste da versão pré-final, além do teste de confiabilidade e percentual de concordância intra e interavaliadores calculados pelo Coeficiente Kappa ponderado linear associado ao intervalo de confiança de 95% e pela tabela 2×2, respectivamente. Resultados: Os procedimentos realizados para tradução e adaptação foram apropriados, as adequações necessárias foram realizadas no instrumento. A confiabilidade intra e interavaliadores apresentou valores de 0,104 a 0,504, variando de muito pobre a moderada. Para o percentual de concordância, os valores encontrados variaram de 5,66% a 69,81%. O percentual de concordância apresentou-se mais próximo de 100% no item antebraço (69,81%) do intra-avaliador 1 e no item pernas e antebraço (62,26%) do intra-avaliador 2. Conclusões: Os processos de tradução e adaptação transcultural foram realizados no REBA permitindo obter a versão brasileira do instrumento. Contudo, apesar de a confiabilidade da versão traduzida e adaptada ter sido testada adequadamente, os valores encontrados mostram que esse instrumento não apresenta valores de confiabilidade aceitáveis pelas diretrizes, indicando que deve ser refeita. Portanto, é necessário cautela para interpretar os riscos biomecânicos mensurados por esse instrumento. <![CDATA[Impact of CPAP on physical exercise tolerance and sympathetic-vagal balance in patients with chronic heart failure]]> Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) leads to exercise intolerance. However, non-invasive ventilation is able to improve functional capacity of patients with CHF. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on physical exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Method : Seven men with CHF (62±8 years) and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±8% were submitted to an incremental symptom-limited exercise test (IT) on the cicloergometer. On separate days, patients were randomized to perform four constant work rate exercise tests to maximal tolerance with and without CPAP (5 cmH2O) in the following conditions: i) at 50% of peak work rate of IT; and ii) at 75% of peak work rate of IT. At rest and during these conditions, instantaneous heart rate (HR) was recorded using a cardiofrequencimeter and HRV was analyzed in time domain (SDNN and RMSSD indexes). For statistical procedures, Wilcoxon test or Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc were used accordingly. In addition, categorical variables were analysed through Fischer's test (p&lt;0.05). Results: There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance at 75% of peak work rate of IT with CPAP (405±52 vs. 438±58 s). RMSSD indexes were lower during exercise tests compared to CPAP at rest and with 50% of peak work rate of IT. Conclusion: These data suggest that CPAP appears to be a useful strategy to improve functional capacity in patients with CHF. However, the positive impact of CPAP did not generate significant changes in the HRV during physical exercises. <hr/> Contextualização: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) crônica cursa com intolerância ao exercício físico. A ventilação não invasiva (VNI) tem se mostrado benéfica para a melhora da performance desses pacientes. Objetivos: Avaliar a eficiência da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP) sobre a tolerância ao exercício físico e a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) de pacientes com IC crônica. Método: Sete homens com IC crônica (62±8 anos) e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo de 41±8% foram submetidos ao teste incremental (TI) sintoma-limitado em cicloergômetro. Posteriormente, foram aleatorizados para a realização de exercícios físicos de carga constante até a tolerância máxima com e sem CPAP (5 cmH2O) nas condições: i) 50% da carga pico do TI e ii) 75% da carga pico do TI. Em repouso e durante os testes, a frequência cardíaca (FC) instantânea foi obtida pelo cardiofrequencímetro, e a VFC foi analisada no domínio do tempo. A análise estatística foi realizada pelos testes de Wilcoxon ou Kruskall-Wallis com post-hoc de Dunn e as variáveis categóricas, pelo teste de Fischer (p&lt;0,05). Resultados: Durante a CPAP, houve aumento significativo no tempo de exercício físico (405±52 vs. 438±58 s) e da FC pico (97±3 vs. 105±2 bpm) somente na intensidade de 75%. Em relação à VFC, observou-se que o RMSSD foi significativamente menor em exercício físico quando comparado ao repouso com CPAP na intensidade 50%. Conclusão: Em conclusão, a CPAP com 5 cmH20 mostrou-se um útil na melhora da capacidade funcional dos pacientes estudados com pouco impacto sobre a VFC. <![CDATA[Validity of the six-minute step test of free cadence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> Objectives: to evaluate the concurrent validity of the six-minute step test (6MST) in assessing exercise capacity of COPD patients using the six-minute walk test (6MWT) as a gold-standard. The predictive validity of the 6MST was assessed to determine a cut-off point for identification of low exercise capacity. Method: thirty-two COPD patients (50-87 years old) with mild to very severe obstruction performed the 6MST and 6MWT twice. Results: Concurrent validity: a strong positive correlation (Pearson) between the number of ascents on the first (T1), second (T2) and the best of both (T1 or T2) tests during the 6MWT was observed. Although a moderate negative correlation with BODE index and FEV1 was found, it was considered insufficient to test the validity, therefore ROC curves were not applied. The predictive validity (ROC) of the 6MST to identify low physical capacity (compared with the 6MWT) using the performance of T1 or T2, or solely T1 was considered accurate, and the area under the curve was 0.8 (IC95% 0.62-0.98) and 0.85 (IC95% 0.70-0.99), respectively. To classify patients, the cut-off points of 86 and 78 steps were chosen, with both values showing 90% of sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 68% for T1 or T2, or solely T1, respectively. Conclusion: The number of steps on the 6MST was valid to verify exercise capacity in COPD patients and the cut-off point of 78 steps was able to identify patients with poor exercise tolerance. Values under this cut-off point are considered to identify patients with a poorer prognosis. <hr/> Objetivos: Avaliar a validade concorrente do desempenho no teste de degrau de seis minutos (TD6) em analisar a capacidade física da DPOC, relacionando-o com o teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6), bem como verificar a presença de validade de critério preditiva do TD6, determinando um valor de corte para identificar baixa capacidade física. Método: Trinta e dois pacientes com DPOC estágios leve-muito grave, de ambos os sexos, entre 50-87 anos, realizaram dois TD6 e dois TC6. Resultados: Validade concorrente: observou-se correlação forte positiva (Pearson) entre o número de subidas do primeiro (T1), segundo (T2) e do melhor dos dois (T1 ou T2) TD6 com a distância percorrida no TC6. Embora constatamos correlações negativas entre os desempenhos no TD6 com o índice BODE e VEF1, essas não foram suficientes para caracterizar validade, não sendo traçadas as curvas ROC. A validade preditiva (curvas ROC) do TD6 para identificar baixa capacidade física (comparação com o TC6), utilizando o desempenho do T1 ou T2 ou somente do T1, foi considerada acurada para alguns propósitos, sendo a área abaixo da curva de 0,8 (IC95% 0,62-0,98) e 0,85 (IC95% 0,70-0,99), respectivamente. Para classificar os pacientes, escolhemos o ponto de corte de 86 e 78 degraus, apresentando sensibilidade de 90% e 90% e especificidade de 64% e 68%, para T1 ou T2 e somente T1, respectivamente. Conclusão: O desempenho no TD6 apresentou-se válido para verificar capacidade física na DPOC e identificou pacientes com baixa capacidade física, utilizando como ponto de corte 78 degraus, em que valores abaixo disso representaram pior prognóstico. <![CDATA[Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development]]> BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p&lt;0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p&lt;0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks. <![CDATA[Longitudinal assessment of grip strength using bulb dynamometer in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy]]> BACKGROUND: Grip strength is used to infer functional status in several pathological conditions, and the hand dynamometer has been used to estimate performance in other areas. However, this relationship is controversial in neuromuscular diseases and studies with the bulb dynamometer comparing healthy children and children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are limited. OBJECTIVE: The evolution of grip strength and the magnitude of weakness were examined in boys with DMD compared to healthy boys. The functional data of the DMD boys were correlated with grip strength. METHOD: Grip strength was recorded in 18 ambulant boys with DMD (Duchenne Group, DG) aged 4 to 13 years (mean 7.4±2.1) and 150 healthy volunteers (Control Group, CG) age-matched using a bulb dynamometer (North Coast- NC70154). The follow-up of the DG was 6 to 33 months (3-12 sessions), and functional performance was verified using the Vignos scale. RESULTS: There was no difference between grip strength obtained by the dominant and non-dominant side for both groups. Grip strength increased in the CG with chronological age while the DG remained stable or decreased. The comparison between groups showed significant difference in grip strength, with CG values higher than DG values (confidence interval of 95%). In summary, there was an increment in the differences between the groups with increasing age. Participants with 24 months or more of follow-up showed a progression of weakness as well as maintained Vignos scores. CONCLUSIONS: The amplitude of weakness increased with age in the DG. The bulb dynamometer detected the progression of muscular weakness. Functional performance remained virtually unchanged in spite of the increase in weakness. <![CDATA[Thorax, pelvis and hip pattern in the frontal plane during walking in unilateral transtibial amputees: biomechanical analysis]]> Background: Lower limb amputees exhibit postural control deficits during standing which can affect their walking ability. Objectives: The primary purpose of the present study was to analyze the thorax, pelvis, and hip kinematics and the hip internal moment in the frontal plane during gait in subjects with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation (UTA). Method: The participants included 25 people with UTA and 25 non-amputees as control subjects. Gait analysis was performed using the Vicon(r) Motion System. We analyzed the motion of the thorax, pelvis, and hip (kinematics) as well as the hip internal moment in the frontal plane. Results: The second peak of the hip abductor moment was significantly lower on the prosthetic side than on the sound side (p=.01) and the control side (right: p=.01; left: p=.01). During middle stance, the opposite side of the pelvis was higher on the prosthetic side compared to the control side (right: p=.01: left: p=.01). Conclusions: The joint internal moment at the hip in the frontal plane was lower on the prosthetic side than on the sound side or the control side. Thorax and pelvis kinematics were altered during the stance phase on the prosthetic side, presumably because there are mechanisms which affect postural control during walking. <![CDATA[Brazilian version of the instrument of environmental assessment<em> Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors</em> (<em>CHIEF</em>): translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability]]> Background: Environmental factors are essential for the characterization of human functioning and disability; however, the shortage of standardized instruments to assess environmental factors has limited the design of scientific investigations directed at identifying barriers to and facilitators of social participation of people with disabilities. Objectives : To translate to Brazilian Portuguese, cross-culturally adapt, and verify the reliability of an environmental assessment questionnaire, entitled Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF). Method : The questionnaire was translated to Portuguese, analyzed, translated back to English, and compared with the original version. The final version (CHIEF-BR) was submitted to 47 caregivers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The intra-rater reliability was tested using quadratic kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), through interviews of 23 caregivers drawn from the total sample, on two occasions 10 days apart. Results : During submission of the questionnaires, it was observed that examples were needed in order to facilitate the understanding of the questions related to the politics sub-scale. Quadratic kappa showed that test-retest reliability of each question varied from 0.28 to 1.0 for the frequency score and from 0.30 to 0.98 for the magnitude score. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total scores showed high consistency indices (ICC≥0.92) for test-retest. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the CHIEF was reproducible and applicable to the study sample. It may serve as an instrument to characterize the environmental barriers as well as a way to document the effects of interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of such barriers on the participation of children and adolescents with CP. <hr/> Contextualização: Fatores ambientais são essenciais para a caracterização dos processos de funcionalidade e incapacidade, no entanto a escassez de instrumentação padronizada sobre tais elementos restringe a investigação científica de barreiras e facilitadores associados à participação social de pessoas com deficiência. Objetivos : Traduzir para o Português do Brasil, adaptar culturalmente e verificar a confiabilidade do questionário de avaliação ambiental denominado Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF). Método : O questionário foi traduzido para o Português, analisado, retrotraduzido para o Inglês e comparado com a versão original. A versão final (CHIEF-BR) foi administrada em 47 cuidadores de crianças e adolescentes com paralisa cerebral (PC), e a confiabilidade teste-reteste foi analisada pelo Kappa quadrático e índice de consistência (CCI) a partir de entrevista com 23 cuidadores dessa amostra, em dois momentos, com intervalo de dez dias. Resultados : Durante a administração, foi necessário o fornecimento de exemplos para facilitar a compreensão das questões relacionadas à subescala política. Kappa quadrático evidenciou que a confiabilidade teste-reteste de cada questão variou de 0,28 a 1,0 no escore de frequência e de 0,38 a 0,98 no escore de magnitude. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse dos escores totais apresentaram um alto índice de consistência (CCI≥0,92). Conclusão: O CHIEF-BR mostrou-se reprodutível e aplicável à amostra do estudo, podendo ser utilizado para documentar os efeitos de intervenções que visem a minimizar o impacto das barreiras ambientais na participação de crianças e jovens com PC. <![CDATA[Strength deficits of the shoulder complex during isokinetic testing in people with chronic stroke]]> OBJECTIVES: To examine the strength deficits of the shoulder complex after stroke and to characterize the pattern of weakness according to type of movement and type of isokinetic parameter. METHOD: Twelve chronic stroke survivors and 12 age-matched healthy controls had their shoulder strength measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric measures of peak torque and work during shoulder movements were obtained in random order at speeds of 60°/s for both groups and sides. Type of movement was defined as scapulothoracic (protraction and retraction), glenohumeral (shoulder internal and external rotation) or combined (shoulder flexion and extension). Type of isokinetic parameter was defined as maximum (peak torque) or sustained (work). Strength deficits were calculated using the control group as reference. RESULTS: The average strength deficit for the paretic upper limb was 52% for peak torque and 56% for work. Decreases observed in the non-paretic shoulder were 21% and 22%, respectively. Strength deficit of the scapulothoracic muscles was similar to the glenohumeral muscles, with a mean difference of 6% (95% CI -5 to 17). Ability to sustain torque throughout a given range of motion was decreased as much as the peak torque, with a mean difference of 4% (95% CI -2 to 10). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that people after stroke might benefit from strengthening exercises directed at the paretic scapulothoracic muscles in addition to exercises of arm elevation. Clinicians should also prescribe different exercises to improve the ability to generate force and the ability to sustain the torque during a specific range of motion. <![CDATA[Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis]]> BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated. <![CDATA[Can clinical observation differentiate individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis?]]> Background: Altered scapular rotation and position have been named scapular dyskinesis. Visual dynamic assessment could be applied to classify this alteration based on the clinical observation of the winging of the inferior medial scapular border (Type I) or of the prominence of the entire medial border (Type II), or by the excessive superior translation of the scapula (Type III). Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if there were differences in scapular rotations (Type I and II) and position (Type III) between a group of subjects with scapular dyskinesis, diagnosed by the clinical observation of an expert physical therapist, using a group of healthy individuals (Type IV). Method: Twenty-six asymptomatic subjects volunteered for this study. After a fatigue protocol for the periscapular muscles, the dynamic scapular dyskinesis tests were conducted to visually classify each scapula into one of the four categories (Type IV dyskinesis-free). The kinematic variables studied were the differences between the maximum rotational dysfunctions and the minimum value that represented both normal function and a small dysfunctional movement. Results: Only scapular anterior tilt was significantly greater in the type I dyskinesis group (clinical observation of the posterior projection of the inferior angle of the scapula) when compared to the scapular dyskinesis-free group (p=0.037 scapular and p=0.001 sagittal plane). Conclusions: Clinical observation was considered appropriate only in the diagnoses of dyskinesis type I. Considering the lower prevalence and sample sizes for types II and III, further studies are necessary to validate the clinical observation as a tool to diagnose scapular dyskinesis. <hr/> Contextualização: A movimentação ou posição alterada da escápula é definida como discinese escapular. O exame visual dinâmico pode ser utilizado para classificá-la de acordo com o julgamento clínico de projeção posterior excessiva da borda inferior medial (tipo I), da borda medial (tipo II) ou ainda translação excessiva no sentido cranial (tipo III). Objetivo: Determinar se há diferenças nas rotações escapulares (tipo I e II) e posição (tipo III) entre grupos de discinese e normais (tipo IV), os quais foram diagnosticados visualmente por um fisioterapeuta experiente. Método: Vinte e seis participantes assintomáticos foram voluntários neste estudo. Após um protocolo de fadiga periescapular, a avaliação dinâmica da discinese foi conduzida para classificar visualmente cada uma das escápulas em uma das quatro categorias (tipo IV - sem discinese). As variáveis cinemáticas estudadas foram a diferença entre o valor máximo indicativo da disfunção e o mínimo valor correspondente ao padrão normal esperado para o movimento ou o mínimo do próprio movimento disfuncional. Resultados: Apenas a inclinação anterior da escápula foi significantemente maior no grupo de discinese tipo I (observação visual de projeção posterior do ângulo inferior da escápula) quando comparada com o grupo sem discinese (p=0,037 plano escapular e p=0,001 plano sagital). Conclusões: A avaliação visual foi considerada apropriada apenas para o diagnóstico da discinese do tipo I. Considerando a baixa prevalência e o tamanho amostral dos tipos II e III, mais estudos são necessários para validar completamente a observação clínica como método adequado para o diagnóstico da discinese escapular.