Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy]]> vol. 20 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Research productivity grants: Physical Education, Physical Therapy, Speech Pathology, and Occupational Therapy]]> <![CDATA[The effects of whole body vibration in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials]]> Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) has been used to increase physical activity levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the effects of WBV on the glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity of patients with T2DM. Method: MEDLINE, LILACS, PEDro, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to June 1st, 2015. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV, compared to control or other intervention, on blood glucose levels, blood and physical cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity in adult individuals with T2DM. Two independent reviewers extracted the data regarding authors, year of publication, number of participants, gender, age, WBV parameters and description of intervention, type of comparison, and mean and standard deviation of pre and post assessments. Results: Out of 585 potentially eligible articles, two studies (reported in four manuscripts) were considered eligible. WBV interventions provided a significant reduction of 25.7 ml/dl (95% CI:-45.3 to -6.1; I2: 19%) in 12 hours fasting blood glucose compared with no intervention. Improvements in glycated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity were found only at 12 weeks after WBV intervention in comparison with no intervention. Conclusion: WBV combined with exercise seems to improve glycemic control slightly in patients with T2DM in an exposure-dependent way. Large and well-designed trials are still needed to establish the efficacy and understand whether the effects were attributed to vibration, exercise, or a combination of both. <![CDATA[Health professionals identify components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in questionnaires for the upper limb]]> BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian studies have addressed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), but few have analyzed the knowledge of the health professionals with regards to the ICF. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the classification of the items in the Brazilian-Portuguese versions of The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and The Disabilities Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, obtained from health professionals who worked with patients having upper limb injuries, could be related to ICF components as defined by others studies. METHOD: There were 4 participants for the group "professionals with high familiarity of the ICF (PHF)" and 19 for the group of "professionals with some or no familiarity of the ICF (PSNF)". The participants judged whether the items on the two questionnaires belonged to the ICF body function, body structure or activity-participation component, and marked a confidence level for each trial using a numerical scale ranging from zero to 10. The items were classified by the discriminant content validity method using the Student'st-test and the Hochberg correction. The ratings were compared to the literature by the percentage of agreement and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement of the rating from the PSNF and the PHF groups with the literature was equal to or greater than 77%. For the DASH, the agreement of the PSNF and PHF groups with the literature were, respectively, moderate (Kappa=0.46 to 0.48) and substantial (Kappa=0.62 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals were able to correlate the three components of the ICF for most items on the 2 questionnaires, demonstrating some ease of understanding the ICF components. However, the relation of concept of pain with body function component is not clear for professional and deserves a more attentive approach. <![CDATA[Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists]]> BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP. <![CDATA[Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication]]> BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC) is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6) and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5), which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG) and control group (CG). Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) during the sensory organization test (SOT) and the motor control test (MCT). Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027) and speed (p =0.033) of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap) during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004). There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects. <![CDATA[Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial]]> BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings. <![CDATA[Performance in the 6-minute walk test and postoperative pulmonary complications in pulmonary surgery: an observational study]]> OBJECTIVES: To assess functional capacity in the preoperative phase of pulmonary surgery by comparing predicted and obtained values for the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with and without postoperative pulmonary complication (PPC) METHOD: Twenty-one patients in the preoperative phase of open thoracotomy were evaluated using the 6MWT, followed by monitoring of the postoperative evolution of each participant who underwent the routine treatment. Participants were then divided into two groups: the group with PPC and the group without PPC. The results were also compared with the predicted values using reference equations for the 6MWT RESULTS: Over half (57.14%) of patients developed PPC. The 6MWT was associated with the odds for PPC (odds ratio=22, p=0.01); the group without PPC in the postoperative period walked 422.38 (SD=72.18) meters during the 6MWT, while the group with PPC walked an average of 340.89 (SD=100.93) meters (p=0.02). The distance traveled by the group without PPC was 80% of the predicted value, whereas the group with PPC averaged less than 70% (p=0.03), with more appropriate predicted values for the reference equations CONCLUSIONS: The 6MWT is an easy, safe, and feasible test for routine preoperative evaluation in pulmonary surgery and may indicate patients with a higher chance of developing PPC. <![CDATA[Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy]]> OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. <![CDATA[The Brief Kinesthesia test is feasible and sensitive: a study in stroke]]> BACKGROUND: Clinicians lack a quantitative measure of kinesthetic sense, an important contributor to sensorimotor control of the hand and arm. OBJECTIVES: The objective here was to determine the feasibility of administering the Brief Kinesthesia Test (BKT) and begin to validate it by 1) reporting BKT scores from persons with chronic stroke and a healthy comparison group and 2) examining the relationship between the BKT scores and other valid sensory and motor measures. METHOD: Adults with stroke and mild to moderate hemiparesis (N=12) and an age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy comparison group (N=12) completed the BKT by reproducing three targeted reaching movements per hand with vision occluded. OTHER MEASURES: the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe), Touch-Test(tm) monofilament aesthesiometer, 6-item Wolf Motor Function Test (Wolf), the Motor Activity Log (MAL), and the Box and Blocks Test (BBT). A paired t-test compared BKT scores between groups. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between BKT scores and other measures. RESULTS: Post-stroke participants performed more poorly on the BKT than comparison participants with their contralesional and ipsilesional upper extremity. The mean difference for the contralesional upper extremity was 3.7 cm (SE=1.1, t=3.34; p&lt;0.008). The BKT score for the contralesional limb was strongly correlated with the MAL-how much (r=0.84, p=0.001), the MAL-how well (r=0.76, p=0.007), Wolf (r=0.69, p=0.02), and the BBT (r=0.77, p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The BKT was feasible to administer and sensitive to differences in reaching accuracy between persons with stroke and a comparison group. With further refinement, The BKT may become a valuable clinical measure of post-stroke kinesthetic impairment. <![CDATA[Relationships between static foot alignment and dynamic plantar loads in runners with acute and chronic stages of plantar fasciitis: a cross-sectional study]]> BACKGROUND: The risk factors for the development of plantar fasciitis (PF) have been associated with the medial longitudinal arch (MLA), rearfoot alignment and calcaneal overload. However, the relationships between the biomechanical variables have yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between the MLA, rearfoot alignment, and dynamic plantar loads in runners with unilateral PF in acute and chronic phases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study which thirty-five runners with unilateral PF were evaluated: 20 in the acute phase (with pain) and 15 with previous chronic PF (without pain). The MLA index and rearfoot alignment were calculated using digital images. The contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, and force-time integral over three plantar areas were acquired with Pedar X insoles while running at 12 km/h, and the loading rates were calculated from the vertical forces. RESULTS: The multiple regression analyses indicated that both the force-time integral (R2=0.15 for acute phase PF; R2=0.17 for chronic PF) and maximum force (R2=0.35 for chronic PF) over the forefoot were predicted by an elevated MLA index. The rearfoot valgus alignment predicted the maximum force over the rearfoot in both PF groups: acute (R2=0.18) and chronic (R2=0.45). The rearfoot valgus alignment also predicted higher loading rates in the PF groups: acute (R2=0.19) and chronic (R2=0.40). CONCLUSION: The MLA index and the rearfoot alignment were good predictors of plantar loads over the forefoot and rearfoot areas in runners with PF. However, rearfoot valgus was demonstrated to be an important clinical measure, since it was able to predict the maximum force and both loading rates over the rearfoot. <![CDATA[Effects of diaphragmatic control on the assessment of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure and maximum relaxation rate]]> OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of diaphragmatic activation control (diaphC) on Sniff Nasal-Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) and Maximum Relaxation Rate of inspiratory muscles (MRR) in healthy subjects. METHOD: Twenty subjects (9 male; age: 23 (SD=2.9) years; BMI: 23.8 (SD=3) kg/m2; FEV1/FVC: 0.9 (SD=0.1)] performed 5 sniff maneuvers in two different moments: with or without instruction on diaphC. Before the first maneuver, a brief explanation was given to the subjects on how to perform the sniff test. For sniff test with diaphC, subjects were instructed to perform intense diaphragm activation. The best SNIP and MRR values were used for analysis. MRR was calculated as the ratio of first derivative of pressure over time (dP/dtmax) and were normalized by dividing it by peak pressure (SNIP) from the same maneuver. RESULTS: SNIP values were significantly different in maneuvers with and without diaphC [without diaphC: -100 (SD=27.1) cmH2O/ with diaphC: -72.8 (SD=22.3) cmH2O; p&lt;0.0001], normalized MRR values were not statistically different [without diaphC: -9.7 (SD=2.6); with diaphC: -8.9 (SD=1.5); p=0.19]. Without diaphC, 40% of the sample did not reach the appropriate sniff criteria found in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic control performed during SNIP test influences obtained inspiratory pressure, being lower when diaphC is performed. However, there was no influence on normalized MRR.