Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy]]> vol. 18 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Tutorial para elaboração de revisões sistemáticas para o Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT)]]> Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help authors of systematic reviews as well as journal editors and reviewers on how to conduct, report, critically appraise and interpret this type of study design. <hr/>Revisões sistemáticas têm como objetivo sumarizar toda a evidência disponível, através de métodos rigorosos, para responder a uma pergunta de pesquisa específica com o mínimo de viés possível. Revisões sistemáticas são amplamente utilizadas na fisioterapia, porém nem todas as revisões possuem boa qualidade. Esse tutorial tem como objetivo guiar os autores do Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy sobre como revisões sistemáticas deveriam ser conduzidas e descritas para que sejam aceitas para publicação. Espera-se que esse tutorial irá auxiliar autores de revisões sistemáticas, assim como editores e revisores de periódicos em como conduzir, descrever, fazer análise crítica e interpretar esse tipo de delineamento de pesquisa. <![CDATA[Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review]]> BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. <![CDATA[Treino direcionado à marcha associado ao uso de realidade virtual aumenta a velocidade de marcha de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica: revisão sistemática com metanálise]]> OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available evidence on the efficacy of walking training associated with virtual reality-based training in patients with stroke. The specific questions were: Is walking training associated with virtual reality-based training effective in increasing walking speed after stroke? Is this type of intervention more effective in increasing walking speed, than non-virtual reality-based walking interventions? METHOD: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials was conducted. Participants were adults with chronic stroke and the experimental intervention was walking training associated with virtual reality-based training to increase walking speed. The outcome data regarding walking speed were extracted from the eligible trials and were combined using a meta-analysis approach. RESULTS: Seven trials representing eight comparisons were included in this systematic review. Overall, the virtual reality-based training increased walking speed by 0.17 m/s (IC 95% 0.08 to 0.26), compared with placebo/nothing or non-walking interventions. In addition, the virtual reality-based training increased walking speed by 0.15 m/s (IC 95% 0.05 to 0.24), compared with non-virtual reality walking interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This review provided evidence that walking training associated with virtual reality-based training was effective in increasing walking speed after stroke, and resulted in better results than non-virtual reality interventions. <hr/> OBJETIVO: Revisar estudos sobre a eficácia do treino direcionado à marcha associado à realidade virtual em pacientes pós-acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). As perguntas clínicas foram: o treino direcionado à marcha associado à realidade virtual é eficaz para promover aumento em velocidade de marcha de indivíduos com hemiparesia? Essa modalidade de intervenção promove maior aumento em velocidade de marcha comparada a outras intervenções sem uso de realidade virtual? MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com metanálise de ensaios clínicos aleatorizados. Os participantes eram adultos pós-AVE, e a intervenção experimental considerada foi o treino direcionado à marcha associado ao uso de realidade virtual com o objetivo de melhorar a velocidade de marcha. Os dados referentes à velocidade de marcha foram extraídos para combinação por metanálise. RESULTADOS: Sete estudos representando oito comparações foram incluídos nesta revisão sistemática. O treino de marcha associado à realidade virtual aumentou a velocidade de marcha dos participantes, em média, 0,17 m/s (IC 95% 0,08 a 0,26) comparado à intervenção placebo, não intervenção ou intervenção não específica para os membros inferiores. Adicionalmente, o treino associado à realidade virtual aumentou a velocidade de marcha dos participantes, em média, 0,15 m/s (IC 95% 0,05 a 0,24) comparado a diferentes intervenções destinadas aos membros inferiores sem uso de realidade virtual associada. CONCLUSÕES: Esta revisão sistemática apresentou evidência clínica de que a adição da realidade virtual ao treino de marcha demonstrou ser eficaz para aumentar a velocidade de marcha de indivíduos com hemiparesia e apresentou melhores resultados, quando se compara a outras intervenções sem uso de realidade virtual. <![CDATA[Relação entre escore FES-DMD-subir e descer escada com escore Escala Vignos, idade e tempo de realização das atividades em meninos com Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne]]> BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p&lt;0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. <hr/> CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Conhecer as potencialidades e limitações das informações geradas por diferentes instrumentos de avaliação favorece o desenvolvimento mais preciso do diagnóstico funcional e da tomada de decisão terapêutica. OBJETIVO : Investigar a relação entre o número de movimentos compensatórios ao subir e descer escadas, idade, classificação funcional e tempo de realização de atividade (TA) em meninos com Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD). MÉTODO : Foi utilizado banco de filmes de 30 meninos com DMD realizando atividades funcionais. Os movimentos compensatórios foram avaliados pela Escala de Avaliação Funcional para Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (FES-DMD), domínio subir e descer escada; a idade, mensurada em anos; a classificação funcional foi pesquisada pela Escala de Vignos (EV), e o TA foi cronometrado. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS : Existe moderada relação entre a FES-DMD-subir escada e a idade (r=0,53, p=0,004) e forte relação com a EV (r=0,72, p=0,001) e TA dessa tarefa (r=0,83, p&lt;0,001). Houve fraca relação entre a FES-DMD-descer escada e a idade (r=0,40, p=0,032), EV (r=0,65, p=0,002) e o TA dessa tarefa (r=0,40, p=0,034). CONCLUSÃO : Esses achados indicam que a avaliação da tarefa de subir escada pode trazer informações mais relevantes sobre a evolução da doença, embora a atividade de descer escada deva ser pesquisada visando à orientação e prevenção de acidentes. A utilização conjunta de dados provenientes da FES-DMD, da idade e do TA pode se complementar para formulação do diagnóstico funcional. Estudos longitudinais e com outras faixas etárias mais amplas podem complementar tal informação. <![CDATA[Muscular performance characterization in athletes: a new perspective on isokinetic variables]]> Background: Isokinetic dynamometry allows the measurement of several variables related to muscular performance, many of which are seldom used, while others are redundantly applied to the characterization of muscle function. Objectives: The present study aimed to establish the particular features of muscle function that are captured by the variables currently included in isokinetic assessment and to determine which variables best represent these features in order to achieve a more objective interpretation of muscular performance. Method: This study included 235 male athletes. They performed isokinetic tests of concentric knee flexion and extension of the dominant leg at a velocity of 60º/s. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results: The findings demonstrated that isokinetic variables can characterize more than muscle torque production and pointed to the presence of 5 factors that enabled the characterization of muscular performance according to 5 different domains or constructs. Conclusions: The constructs can be described by torque generation capacity; variation of the torque generation capacity along repetitions; movement deceleration capacity; mechanical/physiological factors of torque generation; and acceleration capacity (torque development). Fewer than eight out of sixteen variables are enough to characterize these five constructs. Our results suggest that these variables and these 5 domains may lead to a more systematic and optimized interpretation of isokinetic assessments. <![CDATA[Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents]]> BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice. <![CDATA[Can the adapted arcometer be used to assess the vertebral column in children?]]> BACKGROUND: The adapted arcometer has been validated for use in adults. However, its suitability for use in children can be questioned given the structural differences present in these populations. OBJECTIVE: To verify the concurrent validity, repeatability, and intra- and inter-reproducibility of the adapted arcometer for the measurement of the angles of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in children. METHOD: Forty children were evaluated using both sagittal radiography of the spine and the adapted arcometer. The evaluations using the arcometer were carried out by two trained evaluators on two different days. In the statistical treatment, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's product moment correlation, Spearman's rho, the paired t test, and Wilcoxon's test were used (α=.05). RESULTS: A moderate and significant correlation was found between the x-ray and the adapted arcometer regarding thoracic kyphosis, but no correlation was found regarding lumbar lordosis. Repeatability and intra-evaluator reproducibility of the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were confirmed, which was not the case of inter-evaluator reproducibility. CONCLUSION: The adapted arcometer can be used to accompany postural alterations in children made by the same evaluator, while its use for diagnostic purposes and continued evaluation by different evaluators cannot be recommended. Further studies with the aim of adapting this instrument for use in children are recommended. <![CDATA[Exercícios respiratórios: influência sobre o padrão respiratório e o movimento toracoabdominal em indivíduos saudáveis]]> BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p&lt;0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. <hr/> CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na execução dos exercícios respiratórios não foram completamente elucidados. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o impacto de quatro exercícios respiratórios(diafragmático, suspiros inspiratórios, inspiração máxima sustentada e intercostal) sobre o padrão respiratório e o movimento toracoabdominal em indivíduos saudáveis. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo15 indivíduos de ambos os sexos (23±1,5 anos com prova de função pulmonar normal). Os indivíduos foram avaliados por meio da pletismografia optoeletrônica na posição supina com inclinação de tronco de 45° durante a respiração tranquila e durante a realização dos exercícios respiratórios. A ordem dos exercícios foi randomizada. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Friedman e ANOVA para medidas repetidas com um fator (exercícios respiratórios) seguidos de contrastes pré-planejados e correção de Bonferroni, sendo p&lt;0,005 considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Todos os exercícios respiratórios promoveram aumento significativo do volume corrente da parede torácica (VCpt) e redução da frequência respiratória (f) quando comparados à respiração tranquila. O exercício diafragmático foi responsável pelo menor VCpt, menor contribuição da caixa torácica e maior contribuição do abdômen. A inspiração máxima sustentada promoveu redução significativamente maior da f comparada aos exercícios diafragmático e intercostal. Os exercícios suspiros inspiratórios e intercostal foram responsáveis pelos maiores valores de ventilação minuto. Os índices de assincronia toracoabdominal aumentaram significativamente durante o exercício respiratório diafragmático. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstraram que os exercícios estudados promoveram alterações do padrão respiratório (por exemplo, aumento do volume corrente e diminuição da f), assim como do movimento toracoabdominal (por exemplo, maior deslocamento abdominal com o exercício diafragmático); dentre outras. <![CDATA[Aplicação de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas na restauração da função pulmonar e da mobilidade torácica no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica: um ensaio clínico randomizado]]> Objective: To evaluate whether the application of bilevel positive airway pressure in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery might be more effective in restoring lung volume and capacity and thoracic mobility than the separate application of expiratory and inspiratory positive pressure. Method: Sixty morbidly obese adult subjects who were hospitalized for bariatric surgery and met the predefined inclusion criteria were evaluated. The pulmonary function and thoracic mobility were preoperatively assessed by spirometry and cirtometry and reevaluated on the 1st postoperative day. After preoperative evaluation, the subjects were randomized and allocated into groups: EPAP Group (n=20), IPPB Group (n=20) and BIPAP Group (n=20), then received the corresponding intervention: positive expiratory pressure (EPAP), inspiratory positive pressure breathing (IPPB) or bilevel inspiratory positive airway pressure (BIPAP), in 6 sets of 15 breaths or 30 minutes twice a day in the immediate postoperative period and on the 1st postoperative day, in addition to conventional physical therapy. Results: There was a significant postoperative reduction in spirometric variables (p&lt;0.05), regardless of the technique used, with no significant difference among the techniques (p&gt;0.05). Thoracic mobility was preserved only in group BIPAP (p&gt;0.05), but no significant difference was found in the comparison among groups (p&gt;0.05). Conclusion: The application of positive pressure does not seem to be effective in restoring lung function after bariatric surgery, but the use of bilevel positive pressure can preserve thoracic mobility, although this technique was not superior to the other techniques. <hr/> Objetivo: Avaliar se a aplicação de dois níveis de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica pode ser mais efetiva do que quando aplicadas pressões positivas expiratória e inspiratória separadamente na restauração dos volumes e capacidades pulmonares e na mobilidade torácica. Método: Foram avaliadas 60 voluntárias adultas, obesas mórbidas, internadas para realização da cirurgia bariátrica. Afunção pulmonar e a mobilidade torácica foram avaliadas por meio da espirometria e da cirtometria no pré-operatório e reavaliadas no primeiro pós-operatório. Após a avaliação pré-operatória, as voluntárias foram randomizadas e alocadas nos grupos G EPAP (n=20), G RPPI (n=20) e G BIPAP (n=20) e então receberam a intervenção proposta, pressão positiva expiratória nas vias aéreas (EPAP), respiração por pressão positiva inspiratória (RPPI) ou pressão positiva binível nas vias aéreas (BIPAP), em sessões de seis séries de 15 respirações ou de 30 minutos, duas vezes ao dia no pós-operatório imediato e no primeiro pós-operatório, além do tratamento fisioterapêutico convencional. Resultados: Houve redução significativa das variáveis espirométricas no pós-operatório (p&lt;0,05), independente do recurso utilizado, não havendo diferença significativa entre as técnicas (p&gt;0,05), e preservação da mobilidade torácica somente nas voluntárias do grupo BIPAP (p&gt;0,05), porém sem diferença nas comparações entre os grupos (p&gt;0,05). Conclusão: A aplicação de pressão positiva parece não ser efetiva na restauração da função pulmonar no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, porém a aplicação de dois níveis de pressão positiva pode preservar a mobilidade torácica, embora não tenha demonstrado superioridade em relação às outras técnicas. <![CDATA[Prioridades funcionais identificadas por pais de crianças com paralisia cerebral:contribuições para o processo de reabilitação infantil]]> Background: Collaborative actions between family and therapist are essential to the rehabilitation process, and they can be a catalyst mechanism to the positive outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Objectives: To describe functional priorities established by caregivers of CP children by level of severity and age, and to assess changes on performance and satisfaction on functional priorities reported by caregivers, in 6-month interval. Method: 75 CP children, weekly assisted at Associação Mineira de Reabilitação, on physical and occupational therapy services. The following information was collected: gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System-GMFCS) and functional priorities established by caregivers (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-COPM). Data were collected in two moments, with a 6-month interval. Results: The main functional demands presented by caregivers were related to self-care activities (48.2%). Parents of children with severe motor impairment (GMFCS V) pointed higher number of demands related to play (p=0.0036), compared to the other severity levels. Parents of younger children reported higher number of demands in mobility (p=0.025) and play (p=0.007), compared to other age groups. After 6 months, there were significant increase on COPM performance (p=0.0001) and satisfaction scores (p=0.0001). Conclusions: Parents of CP children identified functional priorities in similar performance domains, by level of severity and age. Orienting the pediatric rehabilitation process to promote changes in functional priorities indentified by caregivers can contribute to the reinforcement of the parent-therapist collaboration. <hr/> Contextualização: Ações colaborativas entre família e terapeuta são essenciais para o processo de reabilitação, podendo constituir mecanismo catalisador de desfechos funcionais positivos para crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC). Objetivos: Descrever prioridades funcionais identificadas por cuidadores de crianças com PC por nível de gravidade e idade e avaliar mudanças no desempenho e satisfação reportadas pelos cuidadores nas prioridades identificadas no intervalo de seis meses. Método: De 75 crianças com PC, atendidas semanalmente naAssociação Mineira de Reabilitação, nos serviços de fisioterapia e de terapia ocupacional, foram coletadas informações referentes à função motora grossa (Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa-GMFCS) e às prioridades funcionais estabelecidas pelos cuidadores (Medida Canadense de Desempenho Ocupacional-COPM). Os dados foram coletados em dois períodos, com intervalo de seis meses. Resultados: As principais demandas apontadas pelos cuidadores referiram-se às atividades de cuidados pessoais (48,2%). Pais de crianças com comprometimento motor grave (GMFCS V) apresentaram maior número de demandas relacionadas ao brincar (p=0,036), comparadas com outros níveis de comprometimento. Pais de crianças mais jovens reportaram maior número de demandas em mobilidade (p=0,025) e brincar (p=0,007) em relação aos outros grupos etários. Após seis meses, observou-se aumento significativo dos escores de desempenho (p=0,0001) e de satisfação (p=0,0001) da COPM. Conclusões: Pais de crianças com PC identificaram prioridades funcionais em áreas de desempenho semelhantes por nível de gravidade da função motora grossa e por grupo etário. Direcionar o processo de reabilitação infantil, visando a promover mudanças nas prioridades funcionais definidas como relevantes pelos pais, pode contribuir para o fortalecimento da colaboração família-terapeuta. <![CDATA[Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading]]> Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.