Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy]]> vol. 18 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Respiratory muscle endurance is limited by lower ventilatory efficiency in post-myocardial infarction patients]]> Background: Reduced respiratory muscle endurance (RME) contributes to increased dyspnea upon exertion in patients with cardiovascular disease. Objective: The objective was to characterize ventilatory and metabolic responses during RME tests in post-myocardial infarction patients without respiratory muscle weakness. Method: Twenty-nine subjects were allocated into three groups: recent myocardial infarction group (RG, n=9), less-recent myocardial infarction group (LRG, n=10), and control group (CG, n=10). They underwent two RME tests (incremental and constant pressure) with ventilatory and metabolic analyses. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures one-way ANOVA, both with Tukey post-hoc, were used between groups and within subjects, respectively. Results: Patients from the RG and LRG presented lower metabolic equivalent and ventilatory efficiency than the CG on the second (50± 06, 50± 5 vs. 42± 4) and third part (50± 11, 51± 10 vs. 43± 3) of the constant pressure RME test and lower metabolic equivalent during the incremental pressure RME test. Additionally, at the peak of the incremental RME test, RG patients had lower oxygen uptake than the CG. Conclusions : Post-myocardial infarction patients present lower ventilatory efficiency during respiratory muscle endurance tests, which appears to explain their inferior performance in these tests even in the presence of lower pressure overload and lower metabolic equivalent. <![CDATA[Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men]]> Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population. <![CDATA[Alterações da postura corporal estática de mulheres com migrânea com e sem disfunção temporomandibular]]> Background: Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives : To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method: Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results: Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES&gt;0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES&gt;0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES&gt;0.48). Conclusion : The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD. <hr/> Contextualização: Há relatos na literatura sobre associações entre migrânea e disfunção temporomandibular (DTM). Entretanto, não há relatos sobre a associação entre migrânea, DTM e alterações da postura corporal. Objetivos: Avaliar a presença de alterações da postura corporal em mulheres com migrânea com e sem DTM em relação a um grupo controle. Método: Foram avaliados três grupos de 22 integrantes cada, na faixa etária de 18 a 50 anos, sexo feminino, compostos de voluntárias com migrânea e DTM (GMDTM), migranosas sem DTM (GM) e grupo controle (GC). As voluntárias foram submetidas à avaliação da postura estática por meio da fotogrametria, e foram mensurados 19 ângulos. Resultados: Foram observadas assimetrias posturais em quatro ângulos mensurados no plano frontal na face no GM e em quatro ângulos do tronco no GM e no GMDTM em relação ao GC. Entretanto, foi verificada relevância clínica para dois ângulos posturais no plano sagital (GM vs. GMDTM - lordose cervical e lombar, Effect size - ES moderados: 0,53 e 0,60) e, para comparação entre o GM e o GC, foi observada relevância clínica/potencial para três ângulos (ES&gt;0,42). Foi verificada relevância clínica para quatro ângulos de simetria facial/inclinação da cabeça na comparação GMDTM e GM (ES&gt;0,54) e para dois ângulos entre o GM e o GC (ES&gt;0,48). Conclusão: Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram a presença de alterações de postura corporal em mulheres com migrânea com e sem DTM em relação ao grupo controle, e as alterações de postura foram similares entre os GM e GMDTM na análise de relevância clínica. <![CDATA[Influência de exercício resistido com ênfase em contrações específicas (concêntrica <em>vs</em> excêntrica) sobre a força muscular e a modulação autonômica pós-esforço: ensaio clínico randomizado]]> Background: Compared to eccentric contractions, concentric contractions result in higher cardiovascular stress. However, we do not know how these two types of contractions influence cardiac autonomic modulation during the post-exercise recovery period. Objective: to compare the effect of resistance training that is performed with concentric vs. eccentric emphasis on muscle strength and on post-exercise recovery which was assessed by examining heart rate variability (HRV), for the knee extensor muscle group in young healthy adults. Methods: For this study, 105 men between 18 and 30 years of age were randomized into 4 groups: concentric control (CONCC), eccentric control (ECCC), concentric training (CONCT) and eccentric training (ECCT). The CONCC and ECCC groups underwent one session of resistance exercise (RE) using the knee extensor muscle group (3 sets of 1 repetition at 100% of the maximal repetition [1MR]) and the CONCT and ECCT groups performed 10 training sessions. The HRV was analyzed at baseline and across four recovery periods (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Results: The ECCT group exhibited increased muscle strength at the end of the study. Regarding cardiac autonomic modulation, the CONCC and ECCC groups exhibited increases in overall variability (SDNN and SD2) at T1 compared to baseline, and the ECCT group demonstrated increases in variables reflecting vagal modulation and the recovery process (RMSSD, SD1 and HF [ms2]) at T1, T2 and T4 compared to baseline. Conclusions: Resistance training with emphasis on eccentric contractions promoted strength gain and an increase in cardiac vagal modulation during recovery compared to baseline. <hr/> Contextualização: Ações concêntricas apresentam maior estresse cardiovascular quando comparadas às excêntricas. Entretanto, não se sabe a influência desses tipos de ações no comportamento da modulação autonômica cardíaca durante o processo de recuperação pós-esforço. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito de um treinamento resistido para o grupo extensor do joelho realizado com ênfase concêntrica vs excêntrica sobre a força muscular e a recuperação pós-exercício considerando índices de variabilidade de frequência cardíaca (VFC) em jovens saudáveis. Método: Cento e cinco homens, com idades entre 18 e 30 anos, foram randomizados em quatro grupos: controle concêntrico (CCONC), controle excêntrico (CEXC), treinamento concêntrico (TCONC) e treinamento excêntrico (TEXC). Os grupos CCONC e CEXC realizaram uma sessão de exercício reduzido (ER) para o grupo extensor do joelho [três séries de uma repetição a 100% de uma repetição máxima (1RM)], e os grupos TCONC e TEXC realizaram dez sessões de treinamento. A VFC foi analisada no momento basal e na recuperação após as sessões (T1, T2, T3 e T4). Resultados: Observou-se aumento da força muscular para o grupo TEXC. Em relação à modulação autonômica cardíaca, observou-se, em comparação ao momento basal, aumento dos índices SDNN e SD2 no momento T1 nos grupos CCONC e CEXC e aumento dos índices RMSSD, SD1 e AF (ms2) nos momentos T1, T2 e T4 no grupo TEXC. Conclusões: Conclui-se que o treinamento resistido realizado com ênfase em contrações excêntricas promoveu ganho de força e aumento da modulação vagal cardíaca durante o processo de recuperação em relação à condição basal. <![CDATA[Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults]]> Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP) responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat) were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR) was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg) and DBP (2-5 mmHg) in relation to pre-session rest (p&lt;0.01), while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p&lt;0.01) was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders. <![CDATA[Endothelial wall thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese adolescents]]> Background: Increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it has been found in obese children and adolescents, but the risk factors associated with this population remain to be elucidated. Objective : To compare and verify the relationship between c-IMT, metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Method : Thirty-five obese subjects (19 boys) and 18 non-obese subjects (9 boys), aged 10-16 years, were included. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and basal metabolic rate were evaluated. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin were assessed. c-IMT was measured by ultrasound. Results: The results showed that c-IMT, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP values were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), adiponectin, and VO2max values were significantly lower in the obese group than in the non-obese group. The c-IMT was directly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, % body fat, and HOMA-IR and inversely correlated with % free fat mass, HDL-c, and VO2max. Conclusions : Our findings show that c-IMT correlates not only with body composition, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation but also with low VO2max values in children and adolescents. <![CDATA[Description of research design of articles published in four Brazilian physical therapy journals]]> Background : While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method : We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal), and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages). Results : A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%), followed by level III (29%) and level I (10%). The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%), single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions : Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice. <![CDATA[Functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multivariate analysis]]> Background: Multiple factors can influence the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the functioning of patients with COPD, such as personal characteristics and systemic manifestations. Objective: To evaluate the different factors that can influence the activity and psychosocial impact domains of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in COPD patients. Method: Participants, recruited in a university-based hospital, responded to the SGRQ, and in addition, personal, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models, with the SGRQ activity and psychosocial impact scores as outcome variables, and 10 explanatory variables (age, gender, forced expiratory volume in the first second - FEV1, smoking load, body mass index, oxygen therapy, associated diseases, regular physical activity, participation in a formal rehabilitation program, and SGRQ symptoms score) were considered. Results: The best regression model for predicting the SGRQ activity score (r2=0.477) included gender, FEV1, and SGRQ symptoms. In contrast, the predictive model with the highest proportion of explained variance in psychosocial impact score (r2=0.426) included the variables gender, oxygen therapy, and SGRQ symptoms. Conclusions: The results indicate that the outcomes, while based on functioning parameters in COPD patients, could be partly explained by the personal and clinical factors analyzed, especially by the symptoms assessed by the SGRQ. Thus, it appears that the health conditions of these patients cannot be described by isolated variables, including pulmonary function parameters. <![CDATA[Low and high-frequency TENS in post-episiotomy pain relief: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial]]> Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of low-frequency TENS (LFT) and high-frequency TENS (HFT) in post-episiotomy pain relief. Method: A randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial with placebo composed of 33 puerperae with post-episiotomy pain. TENS was applied for 30 minutes to groups: HFT(100 Hz; 100 µs), LFT (5 Hz; 100 µs), and placebo (PT). Four electrodes were placed in parallel near the episiotomy and four pain evaluations were performed with the numeric rating scale. The first and the second evaluation took place before TENS application and immediately after its removal and were done in the resting position and in the activities of sitting and ambulating. The third and fourth evaluation took place 30 and 60 minutes after TENS removal, only in the resting position. Intragroup differences were verified using the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, and the intergroup analysis employed the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: In the intragroup analysis, there was no significant difference in the PT during rest, sitting, and ambulation (P&gt;0.05). In the HFT and LFT, a significant difference was observed in all activities (P&lt;0.001). In the intergroup analysis, there was a significant difference in the resting position in the HFT and LFT (P&lt;0.001). In the sitting activity, a significant difference was verified in the second evaluation in the HFT and LFT (P&lt;0.008). No significant difference was verified among the groups in ambulation (P&lt;0.20). Conclusions: LFT and HFT are an effective resource that may be included in the routine of maternity wards. <![CDATA[Função pulmonar e teste de caminhada de seis minutos em indivíduos com doença falciforme]]> Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective : To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method: We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry), respiratory (manovacuometer), peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS) and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test) parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years). Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p&lt;0.05. Results : A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP) and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP). The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O), and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively) and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046); MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003); and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001), MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002), MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015), distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038) and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004). Conclusions : SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed. <hr/> Contextualização: A doença falciforme (DF) caracteriza-se por mutação genética na cadeia Beta da hemoglobina, gerando disfunções no organismo, como comprometimento da função pulmonar e da capacidade funcional. Objetivo : Avaliar as alterações da função pulmonar e da capacidade funcional de indivíduos com DF assim como identificar a relação entre essas variáveis. Método : Foram avaliados 21 indivíduos com DF, (29±6 anos), segundo aspectos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, função pulmonar (espirometria), força muscular respiratória (manovacuometria) e periférica (força de preensão palmar - FPP) e capacidade funcional (teste de caminhada de seis minutos - TC6). Procedeu-se à análise estatística com os testes Shapiro-Wilk, t de Student pareado, Wilcoxon, Correlação de Pearson e Spearman (p&lt;0,05). Resultados : 47,6% dos indivíduos apresentaram alteração da função pulmonar, sendo 42,8% com padrão ventilatório restritivo (PVR) e 4,8% com padrão ventilatório misto (PRM). A PImáx apresentou valor abaixo do previsto somente para as mulheres (64 cmH2O), enquanto a PEmáx, a FPP e a distância percorrida no TC6 apresentaram valores abaixo do previsto tanto para os homens (103 cmH2O; 39 Kgf; 447 m) quanto para as mulheres (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m). Observaram-se correlações positivas da ventilação voluntária máxima (VVM) com a PEmáx (r=0,4; p=0,046) e IMC (r=0,6; p=0,003) e da FPP com a PImáx (r=0,7; p=0,001), PEmáx (r=0,6; p=0,002), VVM (r=0,5; p=0,015), distância percorrida no TC6 (r=0,4; p=0,038) e IMC (r=0,6; p=0,004). Conclusões: A DF promoveu alterações na função pulmonar e na capacidade funcional, havendo predominância do PVR, e a distância percorrida no TC6 apresentou valores inferiores ao previsto. Além disso, as variáveis apresentaram correlação entre si. <![CDATA[Citação de periódicos de fisioterapia brasileiros em publicações nacionais]]> Background: Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective: This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method: All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results: A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion: On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. <hr/> Contextualização: A principal fonte das citações dos periódicos brasileiros provém de artigos nacionais, sendo fundamental conhecer o quanto eles referenciam artigos de periódicos brasileiros. Objetivo: Verificar a frequência com que artigos nacionais são citados nas referências de artigos de três periódicos brasileiros de fisioterapia. Método: Avaliaram-se todas as referências dos artigos publicados nos periódicos: Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa e Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia nos anos de 2010 a 2012, verificando a quantidade de artigos provenientes de revistas nacionais e internacionais. Resultados: Foram analisadas 13.009 referências, dispostas em 456 artigos nas três revistas. Desse total, 2.924 (22,47%) foram de periódicos nacionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os períodos analisados. Trinta e seis (7,89%) dos artigos não citaram artigo de periódico nacional, e 65 (14,25%) citaram mais artigos nacionais que estrangeiros. Conclusão: O valor médio da porcentagem de artigos nacionais citados nos artigos estudados foi de 22,47%. Não houve diferença entre os períodos estudados. <![CDATA[Cold water immersion of the ankle decreases neuromuscular response of lower limb after inversion movement]]> BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy has been associated with a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and muscle contraction with possible effects on exercise and physical training. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the electromyographic response of the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, rectus femoris and gluteus medius to ankle inversion following cold water immersion. METHOD: The peak values of the root mean square (RMS) were obtained from 35 healthy and active university subjects after the use of a tilt platform to force the ankle into 30° of inversion before, immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after water immersion at 4±2°C, for 20 minutes. The Shapiro-Wilk test, repeated measures analysis, Bonferroni's post-hoc, and linear regression analysis provided the results. RESULTS: Peak RMS was significantly lower at all times after cold water immersion, with residual effect of up to 30 minutes, when compared to pre-immersion for all muscles, except for immediate post-immersion for the gluteus medius. CONCLUSIONS: After cold water immersion of the ankle, special care should be taken in activities that require greater neuromuscular control.