Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Ortop├ędica Brasileira]]> vol. 23 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[3D computer tomography for measurement of femoral position in acl reconstruction]]> Objective: To validate intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients of a transparent 3D-TC protocol and investigate relationships between different axial rotations. Methods: Twenty unilateral knee TCs (iSite - Philips) were evaluated by means of a transparent 3D-TC OsiriX Imaging Software (v.3.9.4), 3D MPR protocol. Mathematical model of femoral tunnel projections acquired on vertical and horizontal rotations from -20 to +20 degrees. Height (h'/H) and length (t'/T) of tunnel projections have been analyzed by the Bernard and Hertel's method. Statistics: power of study=80%, ICC, ANOVA, p&lt;0.05 (SPSS-19). Results: Transparent 3D-TC showed high reliability of both intra-observer (h'/H=0.941; t'/T=0.928, p&lt;0.001) and inter-observer (h'/H=0.921; t'/T=0.890, p&lt;0.001) ICC. ACL Length (t'/T) and Height (h'/H) projections were statistically different on vertical and horizontal rotations: p=0.01 and p&lt;0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This new transparent 3D-TC protocol is an accurate and reproducible method that can be applied for ACL femoral tunnel or footprint measurement with high ICC reliability. Level of Evidence II, Descriptive Laboratory Study. <![CDATA[Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation]]> Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p &lt;0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. <![CDATA[Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study]]> Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. <![CDATA[Role of early shoulder tomography on the obstetric brachial plexus palsy]]> Objective: To demonstrate the importance of performing early shoulder tomography in patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Methods: This series of cases retrospective study with level evidence IV was conducted by consulting 76 patient's medical records with OBPP divided into three age groups: ≤12 months, 13 to 24 months and ≥ 25 months. The patients were classified according to gender, affected side, type of paralysis according to Narakas classification, and by computed tomography, according to the Waters scale. Results: The association between the age groups with Waters classification was statistically significant (p=0,006), showing that patients in the group aged less than 12 months and in the group aged between 12 and 24 months had a relevant correlation between the physical examination and Waters &gt; III when compared to patients from groups aged 25 months or older. Conclusion: This study shows a correlation between the findings in the physical examination and severe dysplasia on the shoulder of children under 24 months of age, justifying the early tomographic shoulder exam in order to achieve a better follow-up and a consider a more aggressive approach in the treatment of OBPP affected children. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. <![CDATA[Axillary nerve position in the anterosuperior approach of the shoulder: a cadaveric study]]> Objective: To determine the distance between the axillary nerve and the antero-lateral (AL) edge of the acromion, its anatomical variability and relationship to humeral length and body height. Methods: Twenty-two shoulders were dissected. The anterosuperior (AS) approach was used; the deltoid was detached from the acromion and the distance between the AL portion and the axillary nerve was measured and submitted to statistical analysis. Results: The distance varied from 4.3 to 6.4 cm (average 5.32 ± 0.60 cm). The axillary nerve distance increased as the humeral size (p&lt;0.05) and the height of each cadaver increased. However, the correlation with the specimens height was not significant (p=0.24). Conclusions: The distance between the acromion and the axillary nerve on the AS approach was 5.32 ± 0.60 cm in both shoulders, and increasing the humeral length there is also an increase in the axillary nerve distance. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series - Anatomic Study. <![CDATA[Understanding the ligamentum teres of the hip: a histological study]]> Objective: To perform a histological study describing the microstructure of the ligamentum teres of the hip, with special emphasis on the presence of nerve bundles. Our study aims to correlate the microstructure of the ligamentum teres with its postulated functions, allowing greater understanding of its role within the hip joint. Methods: Fresh specimens excised intra-operatively in 11 patients undergoing open hip procedures were preserved in formalin and sent to the laboratory for histological analysis by our collaborating pathologist. The specimens were sectioned and stained, and examined under the microscope to look at their microstructure. In addition, a novel staining technique was employed to detect neural elements within the individual specimens . Results: The ligamentum teres is composed predominantly of a connective tissue matrix of collagen fibers, fibrous and adipose tissue, with an overlying layer of investing synovium. In addition, there are blood vessels of various sizes surrounded by a layer of encircling fat. In all specimens examined, there were nerve bundles of various shapes and sizes, regardless of the age of the patient. Conclusion: The ligamentum teres has both mechanical and biological functions within the hip joint and should no longer be considered a developmental vestige. Where possible, any surgical procedures around the hip joint should aim to limit damage to this structure to minimize any potential loss of function. Level of Evidence Basic Science Study. <![CDATA[Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty]]> Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty. Method: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with hip osteoarthritis awaiting primary total arthroplasty of the hip answered WOMAC questionnaire, VAS and questions about habits, osteoporosis and related diseases. Bone mineral densitometry of the lumbar spine and hips and laboratory tests (complete blood count and examination of calcium metabolism) were performed. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). The evaluated quantitative characteristics were compared between patients with and without osteoporosis using the Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Thirteen men and 16 women with a mean age of 61.5 years old, WOMAC 51.4; EVA 6.4 and BMI 27.6 were evaluated. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 20.7%, and 37.9% had osteopenia. Patients with osteoporosis were older than patients without osteoporosis (p=0.006). The mean bone mineral density of the femoral neck without hip osteoarthritis was lower than the affected side (p=0.007). Thirty-five percent of patients did not know what osteoporosis is. Of these, 30% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Conclusion: osteoarthritis and osteoporosis may coexist and the population waiting for total hip arthroplasty should be considered at risk for the presence of osteoporosis. Level of Evidence III, Observational Study. <![CDATA[Open fractures and the incidence of infection in the surgical debridement 6 hours after trauma]]> Objectives: To determine whether a time delay greater than 6h from injury to surgical debridement influences the infection rate in open fractures. Methods: During a period of 18 months, from October 2010 to March 2012, 151 open fractures were available for study in 142 patients in our hospital. The data were collected prospectively and the patients were followed up for 6 weeks. The patients were divided into two groups regarding the time delay from injury to surgical debridement (more or less than 6 hours). Results: Surgical debridement was carried out in less than 6h from injury in 90 (59.6%) fractures and after 6 hours from injury in 61 (40.4%) fractures. Infection rates were 12.22% and 13.24%, respectively. The global infection rate was 13.24%. Conclusion: A significantly increased infection rate was not observed in patients whose surgical debridement occurred more than 6h after injury. However, in the fractures of high-energy trauma, a statistically significant increase of the rate of infection was observed in those operated 6 hours after trauma. Level of Evidence II, Study Type Comparative and Prospective. <![CDATA[Epidemiological profile of extremity fractures in victims of motorcycle accidents]]> Objective: Show the epidemiological profile of limb fractures in victim of motorcycle accident seen at the Emergency Department of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC), Curitiba, PR, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013, as well as to compare the results with data from the literature. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study. The information was obtained from the analysis of all the medical records from January 2007 to December 2013 belonging to the hospital archives. Only extremity fractures cases from motorcycle accident victims were analyzed, according to the medical records and radiological reports. The ICD-10 was used as classification criterion, and the fractures were grouped depending on the topography of the injury. The following variables were considered: number of victims, gender, age and fracture site, in order to create a database to contrast with the literature. Results: During seven years, 3,528 motorcycle accident victims have been identified, 88.29% being male, whereas 11.71% being female. The average age of the victims was 29.7 years old, observing a strong inverse correlation between the number of victims and their ages. There has been 4,365 fractures, being 59.66% in lower limbs and 40.34% in upper limbs. From that total, 18.14% were leg fractures, 11.57% were hand fractures and 10.65% were wrist fractures. Conclusion: This study has met its objectives and the results were similar to the national literature. Level of Evidence II, Retropective Study. <![CDATA[The effects of laser treatment in tendinopathy: a systematic review]]> Tendons have as main function transmit forces from the muscle to the bones. Tendinopathy is an inflammatory process that occurs in and around the tendon, when these are affected by some injury. Low level laser therapy consists in a local application of a monochromatic, coherent and short wavelength light. Its use began in 60's and since then several benefits for tendon injuries have been reported. The objective of this study is to collect the most recent studies about the use of laser on the tendinopathy treatment. We performed searches on the following electronic databases PubMed, Medline, CAPES journals portal and LILACS. After the analysis, we selected three articles that showed that the use of low-level laser therapy, compared to placebo, is effective in treatment of tendinopathy. Despite the need for more studies about this theme, the low-level laser therapy demonstrates consistent results in the treatment of tendinopathy.