Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Ortop├ędica Brasileira]]> vol. 22 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[EDITORIAL]]> <![CDATA[The use of spect/ct in the evaluation of heterotopic ossification in para/tetraplegics]]> Objective: To evaluate the stage of maturation and the metabolism of neurogenic heterotopic ossification by using SPECT/CT. Methods: A total of 12 medical records of patients with spinal cord injury, all of them classified according to the ASIA protocol (disability scale from the American Spinal Injury Association) in complete lesion (A) and partial lesions (B, C and D) and registered at the Laboratory of Biomechanics and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, were submitted to SPECT/CT evaluation. Results: Sixteen hips with heterotopic ossification observed in X-ray were studied and only two (12.5%) had high osteoblastic activity. Five hips showed medium activity, three (18.75%) low activity and six (37.5%) did not present any activity detected by SPECT/CT. Conclusion: SPECT/CT helps to determinate which patients have a greater risk of relapse after surgical resection, proving to be a useful imaging study in preoperative evaluation that can be used to determinate the postoperative prognosis of these patients. Level of Evidence III, Investigating a Diagnostic Test. <![CDATA[Analysis of stress induced by screws in the vertebral fixation system]]> Objective: To compare, using photoelasticity, internal stress produced by USS II type screw with 5.2 and 6.2 mm external diameters, when submitted to three different pullout strengths. Methods: Two photoelastic models were especially made. The simulation was performed using loads of 1.8, 2.4 e 3.3 kgf.The fringe orders were evaluated around the screws. In all the models analyzed the shear stress were calculated. Results: Independently of the applied load, the smaller screw showed higher values of shear stress. Conclusion: According to the analysis performed, we observed that the place of highest stress was in the first thread of the lead, close to the head of the screws. Experimental study. <![CDATA[Isokinetic evaluation after two-stage bicruciate reconstruction]]> Objective: To assess the functional balance of the knee after bicruciate reconstruction and its correlation with clinical score. Methods: 14 patients (11 men and three women), mean age 29.9±7.65 years, mean BMI 26.2±2.51 kg/m2 underwent surgical reconstruction of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) in two stages, with a mean interval of 3 months between procedures. With a mean follow-up period of 27.33 months, the isokinetic knee analysis was performed at 60°/s and 180°/s and the Lysholm and Tegner scores were applied. Results: The Lysholm score was 86.8±11.1 points and the Tegner score showed a deficit of 30% compared to pre-injury level. In isokinetic evaluation, the deficit of the operated quadriceps average torque was 17.05% at 60°/s and 12.16% at 180°/s, while the average flexor torque deficit was 3.43% at 60°/s and 5.82% at 180°/s. Although it was observed torque deficit between members, there were no statistical differences regarding the functional balance between hamstrings and quadriceps. Conclusion: Although the results of isokinetic evaluation has shown a functional balance of the knee (flexor-extensor), which may have contributed to the good subjective Lysholm score in the bicruciate two-stage reconstruction, two-stage reconstruction did not restore the pre-injury functional level. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. <![CDATA[Effect of watergym in knee osteoarthritis]]> Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of watergym to alleviate knee osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms and improve locomotor function. Methods: Forty-two volunteers, 38 women and four men with OA, practicing watergym, divided into the following groups: beginners, intermediate, advanced, and advanced level with other physical activities in addition to watergym were included in the study. Individuals were assessed at times zero, 8 and 12 weeks, with classes lasting 45 minutes, twice a week. Function was assessed by the Aggregate Locomotor Function (ALF) score, and pain and other symptoms by the visual analogical scale (VAS) and by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out by the variance analysis for repeated measurements, followed by Tukey's method for comparison of time point means whenever required. Results: None of the tests showed a significant improvement of pain or locomotion. Conclusion: Watergym was not effective in improving symptoms and did not affect the locomotor capacity of individuals with knee OA. Level of evidence IV, Case series. <![CDATA[Evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome treated by endoscopic technique]]> Objective: To evaluate the postoperative results of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome by the endoscopic release technique with single portal. Methods: 78 patients (80 wrists) were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3 and 6 months by the Boston questionnaire, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, monofilament test sensitivity, grip strength, lateral pinch, pulp to pulp pinch and tripod pinch. Results: Statistical analysis was significant (p &lt;0.05) in the progressive decline of pain and improved function (Boston) during follow-up. The sensitivity significantly improved comparing the data pre and postoperatively. The grip strength, lateral pinch, pulp to pulp pinch and tripod pinch decreased in the first month after surgery, returning to preoperative values around the third month postoperatively. Conclusion: The technique proved to be safe and effective in improving pain, function, and return sensitivity and strength. Level of Evidence II, Prospective study <![CDATA[Anatomical study of sensory anastomoses in the hand]]> Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, topography and morphometry of sensitive nervous anastomoses in the hand. Methods: Thirty anatomic parts irrespective of race, gender and age have been dissected. Measurements of anastomoses' length, origin and terminus regarding the transverse carpal ligament were noted. The anastomoses were classified according to the scheme proposed by Meals &amp; Shaner and modified by Bas &amp; Kleinert. Results: Type 1 anastomosis was the most prevalent. The distance between the origin of the anastomosis to the distal limit of the transverse carpal ligament was 0.7 cm in average. Conclusion: This study showed that Berretini anastomosis is high prevalent, usually beginning in the ulnar and distal nerve until the transverse carpal ligament. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. <![CDATA[Comparison of total hip arthroplasty in osteoarthritis of mechanical and rheumatologic causes]]> Objective: To compare the use of uncemented implants in total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumathologic diseases and mechanical osteoarthrosis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 196 patients who were operated by the Hip and Arthroplasty Surgery Group of the IOT-HCFMUSP between 2005 and 2009. Patients were divided into two groups: mechanical causes (165 patients) and rheumathologic causes (31 patients). Groups were compared between each other in age, gender and follow-up time. Osseointegration rate and percentage of failure in arthroplasty were evaluated. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in osseointegration rates (in both femoral and acetabular components) in both groups. The rates of revision surgery and implant survival also did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusion: The use of uncemented total hip arthroplasty did not show worse results in rheumathologic patients. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Case Control Study. <![CDATA[Cannulated screw and hexapodal fixator reconstruction for compound upper tibial fractures]]> Objectives: The aim of the treatment of tibial plateau fractures is to obtain a pain-free and fully functional knee with closed reduction, percutaneous cannulated screw fixation and hexapodal external fixator reconstruction for high energy compound upper tibial fractures. Methods: Patients with comminuted tibial plateau fractures underwent closed reduction, percutaneous fixation with cannulated screws, and reconstruction with hexapodal external fixator. The follow-up period was 24 months. Results: The clinical and radiological results were good or excellent. The average knee flexion was 125°. Conclusion: Our results are successful in the initial stage, however, it should be pointed out that during the long term follow-up osteoarthritis may develop leading to worsening of the condition. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. <![CDATA[Open reduction and internal fixation of posterior pilon fractures with buttress plate]]> Objective: Posterior pilon fractures are rare injuries and have not yet gained well recognition. The purpose of this study was to present the treatment outcome for patients with posterior pilon fractures treated with buttress plate. Method: In this retrospective study we identified patients with posterior pilon fractures of the distal tibia who had undergone open reduction and internal fixation at our institute. Between January 2007 and December 2009, 10 patients (mean age, 46.5 years) who had undergone buttress plating via either a posterolateral approach or a dual posterolateral-posteromedial approach, were selected. All 10 patients were available for follow-up. The clinical outcome was evaluated with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score and the visual analogue scale (VAS). The radiological evaluation was performed using the osteoarthritis-score (OA-score). Results: Satisfactory reduction and stable fixation were accomplished in all patients. At a mean follow-up of 36.2 months, all patients had good radiological results and showed satisfactory clinical recovery. The mean AOFAS sore was 87.8, the mean OA-score was 0.6, and the mean VAS scores during rest, active motion, and weight-bearing walking were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.4, respectively. Conclusion: Buttress plating for posterior pilon fractures gave satisfactory clinical outcomes. It also ensured rigid fixation which in turn enabled earlier postoperative mobilization. Level of Evidence IV, Retrospective Study. <![CDATA[Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis]]> Objective: To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. Method: 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). Conclusion: pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients