Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta OrtopĂ©dica Brasileira]]> vol. 22 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and physical exam in assessment of injuries to posterolateral corner of the knee]]> OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging, clinical examination and intraoperative identification of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. METHODS: We compared the findings of physical examination under anesthesia and intraoperative findings as the gold standard for the posterolateral corner injury with the reports of the MRIs of patients who underwent reconstruction of the posterolateral corner. Thus, we evaluated the use of MRI for the diagnosis of lesions. RESULTS: We found a sensitivity of 100% in lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), 86.96% in lesions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), 57.58% in lesions of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and 24.24 % in tendon injuries of the popliteal muscle (PMT). CONCLUSION: Posterolateral corner injury is difficult to visualize and interpret; therefore, MRI imaging should not be used alone for diagnosis. Level of Evidence II. Diagnostic Studies. <![CDATA[Common injuries in athletes' knee: experience of a specialized center]]> OBJECTIVE: The present cross-sectional study aims to identify the most common knee injuries in athletes cared at a Specialized Outpatient Clinics. METHOD: Analysis of patients cared at the Knee Outpatient Clinics of a Sports Trauma Center, divided by gender, age and diagnosed injury. RESULTS: Initially 440 patients were divided into 33 types of sports; after excluding the less statistically significant practices, nine sports remained. The most frequently performed sports were football with almost 50% of total patients presenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and road runs with great frequency of meniscal injury. There was no correlation of the disorder with the type of sports performed but a correlation was found with patient's age/gender. CONCLUSION: The complete ACL rupture was the most common injury found in football, basketball and volleyball players, followed by meniscal injury in street runners. Level of Evidence IV, Study Transversal. <![CDATA[Effectiveness of histology and cytology on musculoskeletal tumor diagnosis]]> OBJECTIVE: To compare cytology and histology on the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHOD: Fifty eight cases available to evaluation were analyzed both by cytology and histology. The results of the biopsies studied by histology and cytology were compared to the results obtained on the surgical specimen or immunohistochemistry. We determined the percentage of correct results, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Twelve per cent of biopsies were inconclusive by cytology. The percentage of correct diagnosis was 70.7% and 81% (p=.179), the ability to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones was 84.5% and 93.1% (p=0.18) respectively, for cytology and histology. Cytology showed sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 72% and accuracy 84.5%. Histology showed sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 81% and accuracy of 93.1%. The Youden index for cytology was 64.3% and for histology it was 90.2%. CONCLUSION: Despite promising, cytology obtained by thin needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than the histological evaluation on musculoskeletal tumors diagnosis. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies. <![CDATA[Obesity, ostearthritis and clinical treatment]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between BMI and pain and function in patients with OA undergoing medical treatment following OARSI recommendations. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were classified according to their arthritis degree by X-ray and body mass index (BMI). All patients completed the WOMAC, Lequesne, and visual analogue pain scale (VAS) questionnaires at baseline and after six months treatment. All patients were treated with diacerhein and analgesics (according to pain), orthotics (when indicated), and an educational program on osteoarthritis. They were instructed on balanced diet and exercise at least three times a week. RESULTS: There was no significant BMI variation in this study. The higher the initial BMI, the lower the improvement in pain (p = 0.03). Pain did not improve significantly (p = 0.2). Function improved (p &lt;0.001) in inverse ratio to the initial BMI. CONCLUSION: BMI determines how patients will improve pain and function. <![CDATA[Flexor hallux tendon transfer: comparative study through double or single approach]]> OBJECTIVE: To quantify the FHL length difference obtained through a single approach and by a double combined approach. METHODS: 16 fresh cadavers, a total of 32 feet, were used to measure the FHL graft length. With the cadaver positioned in ventral decubitus, a posteromedial incision in the ankle and a second incision in the plantar cavus were performed. RESULTS: The average gain of tendon's length (GTL) was of 42.43 mm, the lowest value being 32 mm and the largest 48 mm. The comparative analysis of the GTL on the right and left sides through the paired "t" Test does not show statistical differences, with a p-value = 0.463 and a statistical power of 0.1443. The height analysis of the sample and the right and left GTL performed through linear regression do not show statistically significant differences, with a p-value of 0.38311 and 0.82640, respectively. CONCLUSION: Harvesting the FHL graft using a double combined approach yields a 42.43 mm length gain in comparison to harvesting using the single approach. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. <![CDATA[Arthroscopic study of injuries in articular fractures of distal radius extremity]]> OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of wrist ligament and cartilage associated fractures of the distal radius, through arthroscopy, correlating with AO/ASIF classification. METHODS: Thirty patients aged between 20 and 50 years old, with closed fracture from groups B and C according to AO/ASIF classification were selected. All of them were submitted to wrist arthroscopy to address intra-articular injuries and reduction and osteosynthesis of the fracture. RESULTS: A high incidence of intra-articular injuries was noticed, and 76.6% of them presented injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, 36.6% of the intrinsic scapholunate ligament, 6.6% of the intrinsic triquetrolunate ligament, and 33% articular cartilage injury larger than three millimeters. Patients with fractures from type C according to AO/ASIF classification presented a higher incidence of ligament injuries. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between the presence of chondral injury and the AO/ASIF classification of the fractures in the cases reported in this study. Level of Evidence III, Non Randomized Controlled Trial. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of traumatic hip dislocation in patients treated in Ceará, Brazil]]> OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients with traumatic hip dislocation treated in our Institute from November/2012 to July/2013. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study based on interviews and involving 43 patients who suffered traumatic hip dislocation was conducted. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 34.4 years old and 90.7% were male. Regarding the mechanism of injury, 95% involved traffic accidents. The posterior dislocation of the hip was the most common injury (93%). Associated lesions were observed in 74.4% of patients, hip fractures being the most frequent. The time span between accident and dislocation reduction was less than 6 hours in 37.2% of patients, between 6 and 12 hours in 32.5% and over 12 hours in 30.3%, ranging from 1 hour to 15 days. A fraction of 90.7% of patients was submitted to closed reduction. CONCLUSION: Traumatic hip dislocation affected mostly young adults, victims of traffic accidents. The posterior dislocation of the hip was the most frequent injury and closed reduction was performed in 90.7% of patients. The time span between accident and dislocation reduction was less than 12 hours in most patients. Level of Evidence III, Study of Nonconsecutive Patients. <![CDATA[Mechanical analysis of femoral neck fracture fixation in synthetic bone]]> OBJECTIVE: To analyze statistically results obtained between biomechanical assays on fixation of femoral neck fracture type Pauwels III, on synthetic bone, using 7.5 mm non parallel cannulated screws and control group. METHODS: Ten synthetic bones from a national brand were used. Test group: fixation of 70(o) tilt femoral neck osteotomy was performed using three 7.5 mm non parallel cannulated screws. We analyzed the resistance of this fixation with 5 mm of displacement, and rotational deviation (phase 1) and with 10 mm offset (phase 2). Control group: the models were tested in their integrity until the femoral neck fracture occurred. RESULTS: the values of the test group in phase 1, in sample 1-5 had a mean of 517N and SD = 96N. Rotational deviations showed a mean of 3.79° e SD = 2. 03°. In phase 2, mean was 649N and SD = 94N. The values of the maximum load in the control group were: 1544N, 1110N, 1359N, 1194N, 1437N; respectively. Statistical analysis between the groups showed a statistically significant lower value in the test group. CONCLUSION: the analysis of mechanical resistance between the groups has determined statistically significant value for the test group. Level of Evidence III, Case-control Study. <![CDATA[Internal fixators: a safe option for managing distal femur fractures?]]> OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and reliability of internal fixator for the treatment of intra-articular and periarticular distal femur fractures. METHODS: Retrospective data evaluation of 28 patients with 29 fractures fixed with internal fixator was performed. There was a predominance of male patients (53.5%), with 52% of open wound fractures, 76% of AO33C type fractures, and a mean follow up of 21.3 months. Time of fracture healing, mechanical axis deviation, rate of infection and postoperative complications were registered. RESULTS: Healing rate was 93% in this sample, with an average time of 5.5 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ended up with mechanical axis deviation, mostly resulting from poor primary intra-operative reduction. There were two cases of implant loosening; two implant breakage, and three patients presented stiff knee. No case of infection was observed. Healing rate in this study was comparable with current literature; there was a high degree of angular deviation, especially in the coronal plane. CONCLUSION: Internal fixators are a breakthrough in the treatment of knee fractures, but its use does not preclude application of principles of anatomical articular reduction and mechanical axis restoration. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. <![CDATA[Prevalence of falls in fibromyalgia patients]]> OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of falls in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal controls. METHODS: We studied 60 FM, 60 RA patients and 60 controls for fall frequency in one week, one month, six months and one year. Patients were submitted to body mass index determination and balance evaluation through the Berg scale. Data on disease impact and depression were collected in FM patients through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Beck Questionnaire. RESULTS: FM patients had a higher frequency of falls than RA patients and control individuals in one month (p&lt;0.0001), in six months (p&lt;0.0001) and in one year (p&lt;0.0001). No relationship was found between falls and body mass index, pain or depression scores. Falls in 12 months were associated with higher FIQ values. CONCLUSION: FM patients fall more often than RA patients and control individuals. Level of Evidence II, Investigation of the effect of a patient characteristic on the disease outcome.