Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Ortopédica Brasileira]]> vol. 23 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[A computerized system for the application of Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale in Wistar rats]]> OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a computer program to assist researchers in assigning scores in the application of the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and to compare these scores when doing so in free, targeted and automated computer-assisted modes. METHOD: To test the program, the participants used the Impactor methodology recommended by the New York University (USA), in which 12 Wistar rats submitted to spinal cord injury were filmed on the 28th day after the injury. Eight researchers from the Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil took part in the study. The two heads of the laboratory, with 15 years of experience in the application of the scale, were considered the gold standard. RESULTS: The results of the scale application were not significantly different in relation to the gold standard, considering the mean of the evaluators in each method: free, targeted and automated form (with the help of the computer). CONCLUSIONS: The application of the BBB scale in the automated mode, using the computer program, did not present any difference in relation to the gold standard for all the evaluators. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies. <![CDATA[Reliability of the 50-foot walk test and 30-sec chair stand test in total knee arthroplasty]]> OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability of the 50-Foot Walk Test (50 FWT) and 30-second Chair Stand Test (30 CST) in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: The study was designed as a test-retest research. Thirty-three patients who would undergo bilateral TKA were recruited. The tests 30 CST and 50 FWT were performed twice on the same day with 5-minute intervals, respectively. Between the first and second tests, patients waited for an hour on sitting position in order to prevent fatigue. In addition to these tests, we registered the knee pain experienced by the patients using a 100 mm VAS scale. RESULTS: The 50 FWT and 30 CST showed excellent reliability. ICC for 50 FWT and 30 CST were 0.97 and 0.92, respectively. SRD95 was 1.07 for 50 FWT and 0.96 for 30 CST. CONCLUSIONS: According to results of this study, both 50 FWT and 30 CST have excellent reliability in patients with TKA. These tests are simple, no time consuming and constitute sensitive methods to measure the functional performance in patients with TKA in the clinical settings. Clinicians and researchers may use these tests to quantify even small changes in functional performance for patients with TKA. Level of Evidence III, Diagnostic Study. <![CDATA[Ibuprofen timing for hand surgery in ambulatory care]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative administration of ibuprofen on post-operative pain control vs. early post-operative administration for hand surgery procedures performed under local anaesthesia in ambulatory care. METHODS: Candidates to trigger finger release by De Quervain tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel operation under local anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Group A received 400 mg ibuprofen before the operation and placebo after the procedure; group B received placebo before the operation and ibuprofen 400 mg at the end of the procedure; both groups received ibuprofen 400 mg every 6h thereafter. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was measured at fixed times before and every 6h after surgery, for a total follow-up of 18h. RESULTS: Groups were similar according to age, gender and type of surgery. Median VAS values did not produce any statistical significance, while there was a statistically significant difference on pre-operative and early post-operative VAS values between groups (A -8.53 mm vs. B 3.36 mm, p=0.0085). CONCLUSION: Average pain levels were well controlled by local anesthesia and post-operative ibuprofen analgesia. Pre-operative ibuprofen administration can contribute to improve early pain management. Level of Evidence II, Therapeutic Studies. <![CDATA[Glenoumeral dislocation: a prospective randomized study comparing spazo and kocher maneuvers]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare the Spaso and Kocher reduction maneuvers in terms of efficiency, time of reduction, facileness, pain, discomfort to the patient, complications and risks, besides promoting the comparison between the two maneuvers, aiming to ground the emergency conduct. METHODS: A prospective study with 105 patients with acute shoulder dislocations were enrolled in the study between February 2011 and September 2012. The patients were randomized into two groups and they were submitted to the reduction of dislocation using the Spaso maneuver (group A) or the Kocher technique (group B) by first, second or third-year orthopedic surgery residents from our service. The results were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, timing of reduction, number of precedent episodes and complications after reduction. However, reduction was achieved in more cases using the Spaso method than it was among the Kocher group, as well as the mean duration of the reduction maneuver and discomfort were shorter in the group A patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods presented good results in terms of dislocation reduction and low complications rates. Nevertheless, the Spaso maneuver was more efficient, fast and easily applicable in comparison with Kocher's method. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic. <![CDATA[Physical and mechanical characterization of a porous cement for metaphyseal bone repair]]> OBJECTIVE: Macroporous cement with mechanical properties similar to cancellous bone may improve the treatment of large bone defects in relation to solid acrylic cement. The aim of this study was to compare physical and mechanical characteristics of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based porous cement with cancellous bone. METHODS: Compressive strength and pore size, interconnectivity, and distribution of cylindrical porous PMMA cement samples containing 10% (G1), 20% (G2) or 30% (G3) effervescent components were analyzed. Results were compared to bovine cancellous bone (G4) and solid PMMA (G5) samples. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of all experimental samples (G1 - G3) revealed a random distribution and a wide size variation of pores ranging from 50 µm to 3 mm. Micro-CT showed that G2 have high porosity and lower interconnectivity of pores. No significant differences in yield strength and Young's modulus were observed among G1, G2 and G3. G4 samples were slightly stronger and less elastic than the other groups. Solid PMMA is extremely strong and inelastic. CONCLUSIONS: PMMA based porous cement met the expected characteristics. High porosity with large and interconnected pores may allow for bone ingrowth. Strength and elasticity similar to cancellous bone may enhance mechanical stimuli to bone remodeling. Observational Descriptive Study. <![CDATA[Bioactive glass in cavitary bone defects: a comparative experimental study in rabbits]]> OBJECTIVES: To compare bioactive glass and autograft regarding their histomorphometric characteristics. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective case-control experimental study on animals in order to compare the histomorphometric characteristics of bioactive glass versus autograft. Eight rabbits underwent surgery in which a cavitary defect was created in both proximal femurs. One side was filled with bioactive glass granules and the other, with autograft grafted from the contralateral side. The sides were randomized. Fourteen days after surgery, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed that bone neoformation was equivalent among the two groups and the osteoblasts cell-count was higher in the femurs treated with bioactive glass. The osteocytes cell-count, however, was lower. The similarity in bone formation between both groups was consistent to literature findings. CONCLUSION: Bioactive glass is similar to autograft regarding bone neoformation in this animal model of cavitary bone defects. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study. <![CDATA[Unfractionated heparin and mechanical thromboprophylaxis in hip arthroplasty]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of unfractionated heparin associated with mechanical prophylaxis as a method for preventing venous thromboembolism in hip arthroplasty. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 181 hip arthroplasties out of 216 consecutive cases performed over a period of 39 months in our hospital. We excluded 35 cases due to non-adherence to the standardized method of thromboprophylaxis or loss to follow-up. All arthroplasties evaluated completed one-year follow-up after surgery with five consultations at predefined periods. Efficacy of the proposed method was evaluated by the occurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism confirmed by specific tests and safety was determined by the lack of occurrence of major bleeding according to criteria established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. RESULTS: There were four cases of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (2.2%), with three cases of deep vein thrombosis (1.65%) and one case of pulmonary embolism (0.55%). We found one case of severe bleeding (0.55%). CONCLUSION: Unfractionated heparin associated with mechanical prophylaxis proved to be an effective and safe method for preventing venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, presenting rates of thromboembolic complications and major bleeding within the range reported with other methods currently used of thromboprophylaxis. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series <![CDATA[Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city]]> OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. <![CDATA[Knowledge assessment instrument on basic support of hip fractures in the elderly]]> OBJECTIVE: To validate an instrument to determine the graduate students' knowledge level of health care on the basic support of life procedures, risk factors, damage and disorders in elderly patients with hip fractures. METHOD: A group of experts was asked to analyze the instrument in two steps. Firstly, the procedure was done subjectively and according to objective analysis using the Likert scale proposed by the Delphi method. After adjustment according to the suggestions, the version of the instrument was applied to 179 undergraduate students in the health area. RESULT: The instrument has achieved in its entirety and in parts (risk factors), the minimum criteria established for the Cronbach's alpha (i.e., ≥0.70). There was no change in the Cronbach's alpha (0.551) for the maintenance of initial items of the instrument, as well as the deletion of seven assessment items. CONCLUSION: The instrument developed has sufficient internal validity to determine the level of knowledge of undergraduate students in the health area on basic life support, damage, injuries and risk factors in elderly patients with hip fractures from falls. Level of Evidence III, Diagnostic Study, <![CDATA[SHUEE on the evaluation of upper limb in cerebral palsy]]> OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of the tool for evaluation of spastic upper limb SHUEE (Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation) in the evaluation of upper limb in cerebral palsy (CP) and its ability to detect changes after surgical treatment of identified deformities. METHODS: 19 patients with spastic hemiplegic CP had their upper limb evaluated by SHUEE. Five patients underwent surgical treatment of deformities detected and performed the test at one year postoperatively. RESULTS: The mean age was 9.02 years old; 18 patients were classified as level I GMFCS and one patient as level II. At baseline, the mean spontaneous functional analysis was 59.01; dynamic positional analysis was 58.05 and grasp-and-release function, was 91.21. In the postoperative period the scores were, respectively, 65.73, 69.62 and 100, showing an improvement of 3.5% in the spontaneous functional analysis and of 44.8% in dynamic positional analysis. CONCLUSIONS: SHUEE is a tool for evaluation of spastic upper limb in cerebral palsy that helps in the specific diagnosis of deformities, indication of treatment and objective detection of results after surgical treatment. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.