Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Ortop├ędica Brasileira]]> vol. 22 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Laser therapy in bone repair in rats: analysis of bone optical density]]> OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by digital radiology, the bone regeneration process in rats submitted to femoral osteotomy and treated with low power laser therapy. METHODS: Forty-five Wistar rats were subjected to transverse osteotomy of the right femur and divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 15): animals not treated with laser therapy G (C), animals that received laser therapy with λ: 660nm G (660nm) and animals that received laser therapy with λ: 830nm G (830nm). Animals were sacrificed after 7, 14 and 21 days. The bone calluses were evaluated by digital X-ray at 65 kVp, 7mA and 0.032 s exposures. RESULTS: The values obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. The significance level adopted was 5%. The groups G (C), G (660nm), and G (830nm) at the 7th day showed a significant bone development, with p &lt;0.0116; the groups G (C), G (660nm), and G (830nm) at the 14th day showed values of p &lt;0.0001; at the 21st day,a higher degree of bone repair were observed in group G (830nm), and G (660nm), with p &lt;0.0169. CONCLUSION: Based on the radiographic findings, G (830nm) showed more complete bone regeneration, as shown in the gray shades of the images. Level of Evidence II, Individual Study With Experimental Design. <![CDATA[A manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma]]> OBJECTIVE: This study is to report a manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP). METHODS: For this study 61 ml of peripheral blood was obtained and submitted to centrifugation at 541g for 5 min. The centrifugation separates the blood into three components: red blood cells, buffy coat and platelet rich plasma. Blood and platelet rich plasma samples were sent to the Hospital's Laboratory and platelets and leukocytes were measured. RESULTS: A sample of 637 blood donors was evaluated. The platelet yield efficiency was 86.77% and the increase in platelet concentration factor was 2.89 times. The increase in leukocyte concentration factor was 1.97 times. CONCLUSION: The method described here produces leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich plasma with a high platelet and leukocyte increased factor. Level of Evidence IV, Controlled Laboratory Study. <![CDATA[Comparison between different radiographic methods for evaluating the flexibility of scoliosis curves]]> OBJECTIVE: To compare different radiographic methods of spine evaluation to estimate the reducibility and flexibility of the scoliosis curves. METHODS: Twenty one patients with Lenke types I and III adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) were included. Radiographic evaluations were made preoperatively on the orthostatic, supine decubitus with lateral inclination to the right and left and supine positions with manual reduction, with support in the apex of each curve on the X-ray table. On the day of surgery, when the patient was anesthetized, radiography was taken with longitudinal traction through divergent forces, holding under the arms and ankles, and with translational force at the apex of the deformity for curve correction. After one week, a post-operative radiography was performed in orthostatic position. RESULTS: The correction and flexibility of the main thoracic and thoracic/lumbar curves were statistically different between the supine radiographs, manual reduction, modified traction under general anesthesia, lateral inclination and postoperatively. The modified maneuver for traction under general anesthesia is the one which showed greater flexibility, besides presenting higher radiographic similarity to postoperative aspects. CONCLUSION: Among the radiographic modalities evaluated the study under anesthesia with traction and reduction showed better correlation with postoperative radiographic appearance. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. <![CDATA[Influence of exercises on patellar height in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the patellar height of volunteers with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PPS) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy women, and nineteen women with patellofemoral pain syndrome were evaluated and subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging during rest and MVIC in OKC and CKC at 15°, 30°, and 45° knee flexion. The patellar height was assessed by the K-Pacs program,using the Insall-Salvati index. For each exercise and knee position, patellar height was measured three times and the procedure was repeated after seven days. RESULTS: These data did not confirm our hypothesis that OKC exercises promote increased patellar height. CONCLUSION: Patellar height is not associated with PPS and suggests that CKC exercises lead an increased patellar height during knee position at 15º and 45º flexion for the PPS group. Level of Evidence II, Comparative Prospective. <![CDATA[Extensor digitorum brevis flap on the treatment of lower limb injuries]]> OBJECTIVE: To describe our pioneer national experience with 11 patients with soft tissue defects in the distal 1/3 of the leg, ankle and forefoot treated with extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap (EDB). METHODS: Between November 2009 and July 2012 11 patients were operated with the flap technique. We operated nine men and two women aged between 10 and 66 years. The surgical indications were acute trauma in four patients and post-traumatic osteomyelitis in seven patients. The small defects were covered ranging from 3x3 to 6x3 cm. The patch was applied with proximal stalk in most cases. RESULTS: Complete healing and infectious cure were obtained in all cases, despite one loss. CONCLUSION: The EDB flap is a feasible and safe technique to repair foot, ankle and distal leg losses. Suffering, dehiscence and delayed healing of the EDB end flap donor area may, however, occur. L-shaped incisions should be avoided for muscle lifting. Level of Evidence IV, Case series. <![CDATA[Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital]]> OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo &amp; Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series. <![CDATA[Minimal invasive ostheosintesis for treatment of diaphiseal transverse humeral shaft fractures]]> OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients with transverse fractures of the shaft of the humerus treated with indirect reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws through minimally invasive technique. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were adult patients with transverse diaphyseal fractures of the humerus closed, isolated or not occurring within 15 days of the initial trauma. Exclusion criteria were patients with compound fractures. RESULTS: In two patients, proximal screw loosening occurred, however, the fractures consolidated in the same mean time as the rest of the series. Consolidation with up to 5 degrees of varus occurred in five cases and extension deficit was observed in the patient with olecranon fracture treated with tension band, which was not considered as a complication. There was no recurrence of infection or iatrogenic radial nerve injury. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate can be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of transverse fractures of the humeral shaft. Level of Evidence III, Therapeutic Study. <![CDATA[Prevalence of acute diseases in the elderly assisted in emergency department of orthopedics]]> OBJECTIVE: To make an analysis of the care of elderly in an Emergency Department of Orthopedics with the primary objective to know the percentage of elderly treated, their conditions of origin and level of accidental conditions, and examine possible comorbidities, evolution and mortality rate. METHODS: Retrospective observational epidemiological study based on survey records of a tertiary hospital during one year (January to December 2006) RESULTS: In the year 2006 (January to December) 12,916 calls to patients older than 60 were performed. CONCLUSION: Massive attendance of the elderly population was observed, however, the vast majority related to chronic problems that do not require urgent attention. Patients requiring urgent attention suffer from trauma related to falls and are between the seventh and ninth decades of life, mostly female and requiring hospitalization for longer periods. Level of Evidence VI, Cases Series. <![CDATA[Health economics and health preference concepts to orthopedics practitioners]]> The aim of this study was to describe concepts of health economics in order to update and provide the orthopedic practitioner decision making parameters based on preferences. Four basic types of studies of economical evaluation were presented (cost minimization analysis, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), as well as the origin, the concept, advantages and disadvantages of using QALY and utility. It was discussed the importance of costs and of SF-6D, an instrument able to get through the utility data from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Physicians, especially orthopedic practitioners, are increasingly using technologies which are progressively expensive, thus, they should be able to understand health economics concepts, the importance of utility in clinical decision making process and economic analysis in health.09+ <![CDATA[Neoplasm seeding in biopsy tract of the musculoskeletal system. A systematic review]]> To identify, through a systematic literature review, the characteristics of neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. We performed a search on PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO from August to October 2010. We included articles that addressed the neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. The search was limited to English, Spanish and Portuguese as publication languages, but it was not limited by year of publication. We retrieved 2858 articles, but only seven were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other four papers were found in the references of selected articles, totalizing 11 articles that were used to perform this systematic review. Issues may be raised in the literature: age and gender don't seem to influence the occurrence of neoplasm seeding; without resection of the biopsy tract, the possibility of local recurrence is very real; the influence of the type of tumor in the occurrence of neoplasm seeding is uncertain; it is impossible to conclude whether the closed biopsy technique has a lower chance of neoplasm seeding; it is likely that adjuvant chemotherapy has a protective effect against neoplasm seeding; an unfavorable prognosis is expected according to neoplasm seeding results.