Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 21 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Risk factors for mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae]]> Abstract Background: The ideal therapeutic option for ventilator associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is not defined. The aim of this study was to assess mortality-associated risk factors in patients with VAP by CRE and determine the outcome of several treatment options. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed in two tertiary hospitals involving patients with VAP caused by CRE between January 2010 and August 2014. The outcomes were mortality within 30 days of VAP diagnosis and overall mortality during hospital admission. Risk factors for mortality were assessed by comparing variables of survivors and non-survivors. Results: One hundred and twelve patients with CRE-VAP were included, 73 (65%) male, median age 56 years. The 30-day mortality was 57.1% and the overall hospital mortality was 67%. In the binary logistic regression analysis, only age &gt;50 years was independently associated to increased mortality. Polymyxin was the most used drug (47.5%), followed by tigecycline (29.2%) and aminoglycosides (2.4%). Combined therapy with two active drugs was used by 17 patients (20.8%). No therapeutic option was independently associated to survival. However, combined therapy with two active drugs was superior to the therapy with a single active drug when inappropriate therapy was the comparator (p = 0.044). The addition of carbapenem was not associated with increased survival. Conclusion: The best therapeutic option for VAP by CRE is still not completely defined, but the therapy with at least two active drugs was superior in this study. <![CDATA[Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis: a systematic review on the performance of non-culture-based diagnostic tests]]> Abstract The diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is often a challenge to clinicians, especially due to the low sensitivity and long turnaround time of the classic diagnostic methods. In recent years, studies involving a variety of non-culture-based diagnostic tests have been published in the literature. We performed a systematic review by selecting studies evaluating non-culture-based diagnostic methods for progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. We searched for articles evaluating detection of antibody, antigens, as well as DNA-based diagnostic methods. A comprehensive PUBMED, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library search was performed between the years 1956 and 2016. Case reports, review articles, non-human models and series involving less than 10 patients were excluded. We found 278 articles and after initial review 18 articles were included: (12) involved antigen detection methods, (4) molecular methods, and (2) antibody detection methods. Here we demonstrate that the pursuit of new technologies is ultimately required for the early and accurate diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis. In particular, urinary antigen detection was the most accurate tool when compared with other diagnostic techniques. <![CDATA[Cardiac complications associated with the influenza viruses A subtype H7N9 or pandemic H1N1 in critically ill patients under intensive care]]> Abstract Background and objective: The clinical presentations and disease courses of patients hospitalized with either influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (H7N9) or 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were compared in a recent report, but associated cardiac complications remain unclear. The present retrospective study investigated whether cardiac complications in critically ill patients with H7N9 infections differed from those infected with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strain. Methods: Suspect cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays with specific confirmation of the pandemic H1N1 strain at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Comparisons were conducted at the individual-level data of critically ill patients hospitalized with H7N9 (n = 24) or pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (n = 22) infections in Suzhou, China. Changes in cardiac biochemical markers, echocardiography, and electrocardiography during hospitalization in the intensive care unit were considered signs of cardiac complications. Results: The following findings were more common among the H7N9 group relative to the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus group: greater tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, sinus tachycardia (heartbeat ≥ 130 bpm), ST segment depression, right ventricular dysfunction, and elevated cardiac biochemical markers. Pericardial effusion was more often found among pandemic H1N1 influenza virus patients than in the H7N9 group. In both groups, most of the cardiac complications were detected from day 6 to 14 after the onset of influenza symptoms. Those who developed cardiac complications were especially vulnerable during the first four days after initiation of mechanical ventilation. Cardiac complications were reversible in the vast majority of discharged H7N9 patients. Conclusions: Critically ill hospitalized H7N9 patients experienced a higher rate of cardiac complications than did patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections, with the exception of pericardial effusion. This study may help in the prevention, identification, and treatment of influenza-induced cardiac complications in both pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and H7N9 infections. <![CDATA[Oxidative stress in sepsis. Possible production of free radicals through an erythrocyte-mediated positive feedback mechanism]]> Abstract Background: Sepsis is an illness with a high morbidity for which no effective treatment exists. Its treatment has a high cost because it usually requires an intensive care unit and expensive antibiotics. The present study focus in the production of reactive oxygen species in the early stages of sepsis. This study aimed at investigating the production of reactive oxygen specie during the inflammatory response in patients with sepsis. Methods: Reactive oxygen specie production and insoluble myeloperoxidase obtained from fresh whole blood were measured by photon counting chemiluminescence in the blood of 18 septic patients and 12 healthy individuals. Modified red blood cells were evaluated by staining of blood smears. The production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes put into contact with modified red blood cells were also assessed by photon counting chemiluminescence. Results: The appearance of oxidatively modified erythrocytes, which is an evidence of oxidative stress, was supported by the detection of reactive oxygen species and insoluble myeloperoxidase in the whole blood of all septic patients. Peroxynitrite was the main reactive oxygen species found in the whole blood. Oxidatively modified erythrocytes activated phagocytic cells in vitro, leading to the considerable production of free radicals. Conclusion: It was found that sepsis led to a high oxidative stress and to extensive modification of erythrocytes. It is proposed that a positive feedback mechanism, involving the activation of circulating leukocytes by these modified erythrocytes would maintain the pro-oxidative state even after the disappearance of bacteria. <![CDATA[Modulation of drug resistance and biofilm formation of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from the oral cavity of Tunisian children]]> Abstract Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus plantarum extract (LPE) against a panel of oral Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9) and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The in vitro ability of LPE to modulate bacterial resistance to tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride, and chlorhexidine were tested also. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations of Lactobacillus plantarum extract, tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride and clohrhexidine were determined in absence and in presence of a sub-MIC doses of LPE (1/2 MIC). In addition, the LPE potential to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed by microtiter plate and atomic force microscopy assays. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS v. 17.0 software using Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. These tests were used to assess inter-group difference (p &lt; 0.05). Results: Our results revealed that LPE exhibited a significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against the tested strains. A synergistic effect of LPEs and drug susceptibility was observed with a 2–8-fold reduction. Conclusion: LPE may be considered to have resistance-modifying activity. A more detailed investigation is necessary to determine the active compound responsible for therapeutic and disinfectant modulation. <![CDATA[Protein carbonyl content: a novel biomarker for aging in HIV/AIDS patients]]> Abstract Background: The major complications of “treated” Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal disease, liver disease, bone disease, and perhaps neurological complications, which are phenomena of the normal aging process occurring at an earlier age in the HIV-infected population. The present study is aimed to explore protein carbonyl content as a biomarker for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced ART toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients. Objective: To investigate the potential of carbonyl content as a biomarker for detecting oxidative Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage induced Antiretroviral Theraphy (ART) toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: In this case–control study a total 600 subjects were included. All subjects were randomly selected and grouped as HIV-negative (control group) (n = 300), HIV-infected ART naive (n = 100), HIV-infected on first line ART (n = 100), and HIV-infected on second line ART (n = 100). Seronegative control subjects were age- and sex-matched with the ART naive patients and the two other groups. Carbonyl protein was determined by the method described in Levine et al. DNA damage marker 8-OH-dG was determined using 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine StressXpress ELA Kit by StressMarq Biosciences. Results: Protein carbonyl content levels and oxidative DNA damage were significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) in HIV-infected patients on second line ART and HIV-infected patients on first line ART than ART naive patients and controls. In a linear regression analysis, increased protein carbonyl content was positively associated with increased DNA damage (OR: 0.356; 95% CI: 0.287–0.426) p &lt; 0.05. Conclusions: Carbonyl content may has a role as a biomarker for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced ART toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients. Larger studies are warranted to elucidate the role of carbonyl content as a biomarker for premature aging in HIV/AIDS patients. <![CDATA[Classical and alternative macrophages have impaired function during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection]]> Abstract Objectives: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged – especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. Methods: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified. Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs) were activated on classical (MGM-CSF+IFN-γ) or alternative (MIL-4+IL13) patterns using human recombinant cytokines for six days. After this period, Monocyte-Derived Macrophages were stimulated with TLR2/Dectin-1 or TLR4 agonists and we evaluated the influence of HIV-1 infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages. Results: The data were obtained using Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV naïve or from patients on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Classically Monocyte-Derived Macrophages obtained from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released higher levels of IL-6 and IL-12 even without PAMPs stimuli when compared to control group. On the other hand, alternative Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IP-10 and RANTES after LPS stimuli when compared to control group. Furthermore, healthy individuals have a complex network of cytokines/chemokines released by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after PAMP stimuli, which was deeply affected in MDMs obtained from naïve HIV-1 infected patients and only partially restored in MDMs derived from HIV-1 infected patients even on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Conclusion: Our therapy protocols were not effective in restoring the functional alterations induced by HIV, especially those found on macrophages. These findings indicate that we still need to develop new approaches and improve the current therapy protocols, focusing on the reestablishment of cellular functions and prevention/treatment of opportunistic infections. <![CDATA[Clinical correlates of pp65 antigenemia monitoring in the first months of post kidney transplant in patients undergoing universal prophylaxis or preemptive therapy]]> Abstract Introduction: Human cytomegalovirus is a major cause of morbidity in kidney transplant patients. Objectives: We aimed to study viral replication and serological response in the first months post kidney transplant in patients undergoing universal prophylaxis or preemptive therapy and correlate the findings with the clinical course of Human cytomegalovirus infection. Patients and methods: Independent from the clinical strategy adopted for managing Human cytomegalovirus infection, prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy, the pp65 antigenemia assay and serological response were assessed on the day of transplantation, and then weekly during the first three months of post-transplant. Results: From the 32 transplant recipients, 16 were positive for pp65 antigenemia, with a similar incidence rate in each group. There were no positive results in the first three weeks of monitoring; the positivity rate peaked at week eight. There was a trend for a higher and earlier frequency of positivity in the universal prophylaxis group in which the course of the Human cytomegalovirus infection was also more severe. Despite the differences in clinical picture and in the initial immunosuppressant schedule, the serological response was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Routine monitoring during the first three post-transplant months has a positive impact on the early detection of Human cytomegalovirus viral replication allowing for timely treatment in order to reduce morbidity of the disease. The strategy of universal therapy employing intravenous ganciclovir was associated to a worse clinical course of the Human cytomegalovirus infection suggesting that the use of &gt;10 cells/2 × 105 leukocytes as a cut-off in this setting may be inappropriate. <![CDATA[Carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible: a worrisome phenotype among <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> clinical isolates in Brazil]]> Abstract The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility, were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays. The mRNA transcription level of oprD was assessed by qRT-PCR and the outer membrane proteins profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by PFGE. Carbapenems hydrolysis was not detected by carbapenemase assay in the carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible P. aueruginosa clinical isolates. OprD decreased expression was observed in all P. aeruginosa isolates by qRT-PCR. The outer membrane protein profile by SDS-PAGE suggested a change in the expression of the 46 kDa porin that could correspond to OprD porin. The isolates were clustered into 17 genotypes without predominance of a specific PFGE pattern. These results emphasize the involvement of multiple chromosomal mechanisms in carbapenem-resistance among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, alert for adaptation of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates under antimicrobial selective pressure and make aware of the emergence of an uncommon phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. <![CDATA[Immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a Phase III, open-label study of adults in Brazil]]> Abstract The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines.In this Phase III, open-label study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix™ Tetra) in Brazilian adults (NCT02369341). The primary objective was to assess hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 days after vaccination in adults (aged ≥18–60 years) and older adults (aged &gt;60 years). Solicited adverse events for four days post-vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events for 21 days post-vaccination were also assessed.A total of 63 adults and 57 older adults received one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine at the beginning of the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza season. After vaccination, in adults and older adults, the hemagglutination-inhibition titers fulfilled the European licensure criteria for immunogenicity. In adults, the seroprotection rates with HI titer ≥1:40 were 100% (A/H1N1), 98.4% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria); in older adults were 94.7% (A/H1N1), 96.5% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria). Pain was the most common solicited local adverse events in adults (27/62) and in older adults (13/57), and the most common solicited general adverse events in adults was myalgia (9/62), and in older adults were myalgia and arthralgia (both 2/57). Unsolicited adverse events were reported by 11/63 adults and 10/57 older adults.The study showed that inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Brazilian adults and older adults. <![CDATA[qPCR detection of <em>Mycobacterium leprae</em> in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms]]> Abstract Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy) and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA) and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H), the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease. <![CDATA[Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective]]> Abstract The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. <![CDATA[Papillomavirus infections in the oral and genital mucosa of asymptomatic women]]> Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program. <![CDATA[Early-onset neonatal sepsis and the implementation of group B streptococcus prophylaxis in a Brazilian maternity hospital: a descriptive study]]> Abstract Objectives: To describe early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) epidemiology in a public maternity hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. Methods: We defined EOS as a positive blood culture result obtained from infants aged ≤72 hours of life plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Incidence was calculated based on the number of cases and total live births (LB). This is a descriptive study comparing the period of 2012–2013 with the period of 2014–September 2015, before and after implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis during labor for group B streptococcus (GBS) prevention, respectively. Results: Overall, 36 infants developed EOS among 21,219 LB (1.7 cases per 1000 LB) and 16 died (case fatality rate of 44%). From 2014, 305 vaginal-rectal swabs were collected from high-risk women and 74 (24%) turned out positive for GBS. After implementation of GBS prevention guidelines, no new cases of GBS were detected, and the EOS incidence was reduced from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3–2.8) to 1.3 (95% CI 0.7–2.3) cases per 1000 LB from 2012–2013 to 2014–September 2015 (p = 0.32). Conclusions: Although the reduction of EOS incidence was not significant, GBS colonization among pregnant women was high, no cases of neonatal GBS have occurred after implementation of prevention guidelines. <![CDATA[Emergence of colistin resistance in the largest university hospital complex of São Paulo, Brazil, over five years]]> Abstract Colistin resistance involving Gram-negative bacilli infections is a challenge for health institutions around of the world. Carbapenem-resistance among these isolates makes colistin the last therapeutic option for this treatment. Colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp. was evaluated between 2010 and 2014 years, at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Over five years 1346 (4.0%) colistin resistant Gram-negative bacilli were evaluated. Enterobacteriaceae was the most frequent (86.1%) pathogen isolated, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (7.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (6.3%). By temporal analysis there was a trend for an increase of colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, but not among non-fermentative isolates. Among 1346 colistin resistant isolates, carbapenem susceptibility was observed in 21.5%. Colistin resistance in our hospital has been alarmingly increased among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in both KPC positive and negative, thus becoming a therapeutic problem. <![CDATA[Molecular diversity of human parvovirus B19 during two outbreaks of erythema infectiosum in Brazil]]> Abstract This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996–2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999–2000 and 2004–2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a) of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b). The phylogenetic tree supported the division of the G1a into two well-defined clades with 1.3% of divergence. The low diversity of the G1a strains may be explained by the fact that all patients had acute B19V infection and 30/32 sera were collected during two distinct outbreaks. The G3b strain was from an HIV-infected patient who seroconverted to anti-B19 IgG antibodies in September/2005. This is the first report of G3b in the state of Rio de Janeiro. <![CDATA[Incidence and treatment of methicillin-resistant <em>S. aureus</em> infection in cystic fibrosis patients: a cohort study]]> Abstract In Brazil the knowledge about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of respiratory tract colonization and the identification rates after a standardized treatment. A retrospective cohort was performed highlighting the history of respiratory colonizations between January 2008 and June 2015. Patients under the age of 21 years with cystic fibrosis confirmed by sweat test or genetic study receiving care at the outpatient clinics of a Teaching Hospital were included. The treatment consisted of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, rifampicin, nasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine 2%. The mean follow-up period was of 22.2 months and those with ≥3 negative cultures were considered free of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-two patients were included. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified in six patients. Most patients had methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolation prior to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Five children used the standardized treatment, none presented side effects. Only one child had a new isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during follow-up (after 20 months). The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was high and occurred in young patients. The therapeutic regimen was effective, safe and being a good option to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. <![CDATA[Snow's case revisited: new tool in geographic profiling of epidemiology]]> Abstract Geographic Profiling technique is used to find the origin of a series of crimes. The method was recently extended to other fields. One of the best renowned data in epidemiology is that by John Snow during an outburst of cholera in London. We wrote Python scripts to perform the analyses to apply the Geographic Profiling for individuating the starting origin of an infection by using the old Snow's data set. We modified the method by applying a weight to each point of the map where cases of cholera were reported. The weight was proportional to the number of cases in a given location.This modification of the Geographic Profiling method allowed to individuate in the map an area of maximum probability of the infection source, which was a few meters wide and including the historically known source of cholera, that is the “classical” water pump at Broad Street.The method appears to be a useful complement in order to individuate the source of epidemics when available data about the cases of the infections can be summarized on a map. <![CDATA[<em>Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare</em> and the unpredictable course of hypercalcemia in an AIDS patient]]> Abstract A 37-year-old man with AIDS presented with altered mental status four weeks after stopping his medications for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). He had low CD4 cell count and severe hypercalcemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed bone marrow infiltration by granulomas positive for acid-fast bacilli and cultures grew MAI. His hypercalcemia continued to worsen with the initiation of MAI therapy but we were able to treat it successfully with pamidronate and calcitonin. <![CDATA[Prolonged lymphocytosis as the first manifestation of Hodgkin-like adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma]]> Abstract Hodgkin-like ATLL is a rare variant of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). At admission, a 46-year-old female presented with lymphadenomegaly, lymphocytosis, slight elevation of LDH blood level, and acid-alcohol resistant bacilli in sputum and was being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb). She had lymphocytosis in the previous 20 months. Serology for HTLV-1 was positive. Lymph node was infiltrated by medium-sized lymphocytes with scattered Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg-like cells CD30+, CS1-4+, and CD79a+. Background cells were CD4+ and CD25+. A clinical diagnosis of favorable chronic ATLL was given. She was treated with chemotherapy but later progressed to acute ATLL and ultimately died. Hodgkin-like ATLL should be considered in the histological differential diagnosis with Hodgkin lymphoma since treatment and prognosis of these diseases are distinct. It is also important to search for HTLV-1 infection in patients with unexplained prolonged lymphocytosis.