Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020170003&lang=en vol. 21 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Predictors of HBeAg seroconversion after long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment for chronic hepatitis B: a multicenter study in real clinical setting]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300213&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Aims: To evaluate the HBeAg seroconversion rate in real clinical setting and explore its predictors in long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: 251 patients were recruited from January 2001 to September 2009 in four hospitals in Hebei province, China, for this retrospective study. Clinical and laboratory data before and after treatment with lamivudine (LAM, 100 mg daily), adefovir (ADV, 10 mg daily), telbivudine (LDT, 600 mg daily), entecavir (ETV, 0.5 mg daily), and LAM/ADV combination were compared among three groups according to treatment outcomes: synchronous HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion, anti-HBe development after treatment, and no anti-HBe. Adherence was also evaluated. Results: In real clinical setting, cumulative HBeAg seroconversion rates were 14.3%, 32.7%, 43.0%, 46.9%, and 50.5% after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years, respectively. 45 patients (17.9%) were non-adherent. Adherence (p &lt; 0.001, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.203), elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p &lt; 0.001, HR = 2.049), and non-vertical transmission (p = 0.006, HR = 1.656) were predictors of HBeAg seroconversion. Conclusion: Adherence, elevated ALT, and non-vertical transmission are predictors of HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients treated with NAs. <![CDATA[Virological suppression in children and adolescents is not influenced by genotyping, but depends on optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300219&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the virological outcomes in children and adolescents infected with HIV-1 in Salvador, Bahia according to genotyping results. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the rates of virological suppression of children and adolescents submitted to HIV-1 genotyping test from January/2008 to December/2012. The participants were followed in the two referral centers for pediatric AIDS care, in Salvador, Brazil. Resistance mutations, drug sensitivity profiles, and viral subtypes were analyzed using the Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance Database. Adherence was estimated by drugs withdrawal at pharmacies of the two sites. Results: 101 subjects were included: 35 (34.6%) were drug-naïve, and the remaining 66 were failing ART. In drug-naïve group, 3 (8.6%), presented with NNRTIs resistance mutations, along with polymorphic mutations to PIs in most (82.8%) of them. Among the failing therapy group, we detected a high frequency (89.4%) of resistance mutations to PIs, NRTI (84.8%), and NNRTI (59.1%). Virological suppression after introduction/modification of genotyping-guided ART was achieved only for patients (53.1%) with drug withdrawal over 95%. Main detected HIV-1 subtypes were B (67.3%), F (7.9), C (1.9%), and recombinant forms (22.9%). Conclusions: Despite the use of genotyping tests in guidance of a more effective antiretroviral regimen, poor adherence to ART seems to be the main determinant of low virological suppression rate for children and adolescents, in Salvador, Brazil. <![CDATA[Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300226&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT HAM/TSP (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) is a slowly progressive disease, characterized by a chronic spastic paraparesis. It is not known if the disease carries an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile related to HAM/TSP and compare it with the general population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, with a control group. HAM/TSP patients were evaluated using cardiovascular risk scores (ASCVD RISK, SCORE and Framingham) and inflammatory markers (ultrasensitive CRP and IL-6), and compared with a control group of healthy individuals. We also evaluated the correlation between cardiovascular risk and the functional status of patients with HAM/TSP evaluated by the FIM scale. Results: Eighty percent of patients in this study were females, mean age of 51 years (11.3). The control group showed an increased cardiovascular event risk in 10 years when ASCVD was analyzed (cardiovascular risk ≥7.5% in 10 years seen in 43% of patients in the control group vs. 23% of patients with HAM/TSP; p = 0.037). There was no difference in ultrasensitive CRP or IL-6 values between the groups, even when groups were stratified into low and high risk. There was no correlation between the functional status of HAM/TSP patients and the cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: In this study, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with HAM/TSP was better than the risk of the control group. <![CDATA[Geolocalization of HIV-1 subtypes and resistance mutations of patients failing antiretroviral therapy in Salvador - Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300234&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Geographical distribution of HIV variants is an important way to understand the circulation and spread of such viral strains. Objectives: To evaluate the spatial distribution of HIV-1 variants in patients failing antiretroviral therapy, in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of HIV resistance test reports of patients who underwent genotyping tests in a referral center in Salvador, Brazil, for the years 2008-2014. The laboratory database contains around 2500 resistance reports of patients failing antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic tests were performed by sequencing of HIV-1 POL region (TrueGene, Siemens). We assessed HIV-1 resistance mutations and subtype, as well as residential address, age, and gender of patients. Results: We evaluated 1300 reports, 772 (59.4%) of them from male patients. As expected, subtype B predominated (79%) followed by subtypes F1 (6.7%) and BF (6.5%). The most frequent mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were 184V (79.1%), 41L (33.5%), 67N (30.4%), 103N (42.4%), and 108I (11.1%). Most frequent mutations in HIV-1 protease were 63P (52.4%), 36I (47.9%), 15 V (33.0%), 62 V (28.1%) and 13 V (25.8%). Some mutations (41L, 215Y, 210W) were significantly more frequent among men. We detected a significantly higher accumulation of 103N mutation in specific areas of Salvador. We identified a more restricted circulation pattern for subtype FB (more frequent in some regions), and F1 (almost absent in a specific region). Conclusion: Our results suggest that specific subtypes/resistance mutations present a distinct frequency rate in specific areas of Salvador, probably due to a restricted circulation pattern. This trend to clustering was observed in regions covered by AIDS referral centers, suggesting that pattern of care for such patients can interfere in virological outcomes. <![CDATA[Asymptomatic and symptomatic embolic events in infective endocarditis: associated factors and clinical impact]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300240&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. Objectives: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. Methods: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. Results: In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (p &lt; 0.01, OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.04-11). Factors associated with embolism to the spleen were positive blood cultures (p = 0.05, OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.45-177) and splenomegaly (p &lt; 0.01, OR 9.28, 95% CI 3.32-29); those associated to the central nervous system were infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p &lt; 0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p &lt; 0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events. <![CDATA[Association between the p53 arginine/arginine homozygous genotype at codon 72 and human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA expression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300248&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between p53 polymorphisms and human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA expression. Methods: We analyzed 175 cervical samples from women aged 16-69 years old who were tested for HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression (NucliSENS® EasyQ® HPV). The samples were divided into three groups: positive (n = 75) those with positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression and positive high-risk HPV Hybrid Capture (HR-HC) test; negative (n = 52) those with negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression and positive HR-HC; and control (n = 48) those with negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression and negative HR-HC. The p53 polymorphisms at codons 11, 72, and 248 were evaluated through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequency of the arginine/arginine homozygous genotype at codon 72 was significantly higher in the positive (49.3%) than in the negative (32.7%) and control groups (20.8%, p = 0.002*). The frequency of the arginine allele was also significantly higher in the positive (67.3%) than in the negative (53.8%) and control groups (38.5%, p &lt; 0.001*). The arginine/arginine homozygous genotype was significantly associated with positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression (positive group) compared with negative and control groups (odds ratio: 2.633; 95% CI, 1.399-4.954, p = 0.003). The frequency of arginine/arginine homozygous genotype at codon 72 remained significantly more frequent in the positive group of women aged ≥30 years than in the other two groups. Conclusion: The presence of the p53 arginine/arginine homozygous genotype at codon 72 was significantly associated with the positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression. <![CDATA[Effects of statins on the development of sepsis and organ dysfunction in hospitalized older patients in China]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300255&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of statins on the development of sepsis and infection-related organ dysfunction and mortality in a hospitalized older Chinese population with bacterial infections. In this retrospective cohort study, 257 older patients with bacterial infection were divided into two groups: a statin group, those who had received statin therapy for ≥1 month before admission and continued receiving statin during hospitalization; and a non-statin group, those who had never received statin or used statin for &lt;1 month prior to admission. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk and protective factors for severe sepsis. A significantly lower incidence of organ dysfunction was found in the statin group, as compared with the non-statin group (13.3% vs 31.1%, respectively; p = 0.002), corresponding to adjusted rates ratio of 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.75; p = 0.009). No significant difference was found between statin and non-statin groups in 30-day sepsis-related mortality (4.4% vs 10.2%, respectively; p = 0.109), incidence of intensive care unit admission (13.3% vs 16.8%, respectively; p = 0.469), or length of hospital stay (20.5 vs 25.9 days, respectively; p = 0.61). Statins significantly reduced the development of sepsis and infection-related organ dysfunction in hospitalized older Chinese patients but did not reduce 30-day mortality, ICU admission incidence, or length of hospital stay. <![CDATA[Metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected middle-aged women on antiretroviral therapy: prevalence and associated factors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300263&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its associated factors in a group of HIV-infected middle-aged women. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 273 HIV-infected climacteric women of 40-60 years of age under care in two HIV outpatient reference centers in Brazil. Metabolic syndrome diagnosis was based on 2006 International Diabetes Federation criteria. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors were evaluated as well as HIV infection-related parameters. Results: Mean age was 47.7 years; 59.1% of women were premenopausal, 91% were on antiretroviral therapy. Current CD4 count was &gt;500 cells/mm3 in 61.7%, current viral load undetectable in 76.9% of women, and a quarter had previous diagnosis of aids. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the subgroup of menopausal women was 46.9%. Univariate analysis showed an association between metabolic syndrome and age ≥50 years (p = 0.002), schooling &lt;8 years (p = 0.003), post-menopause (p &lt; 0.001), body mass index (BMI) &gt;25 kg/m2 (p &lt; 0.001), and FSH ≥40 mIU/mL (p = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis only increased BMI (PR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.13; p &lt; 0.001) and FSH levels ≥40 mIU/mL (PR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14-2.40; p = 0.008) maintained statistical significance. There was no association between PI use or any other factor related to HIV-infection and MetS in any of the analyses performed. Conclusion: High BMI and FSH levels compatible with menopause were the only factors associated with MetS in these middle aged HIV-infected women. In the context of well-controlled, early treated HIV infection, traditional rather than HIV-related factors were associated with MetS. <![CDATA[Bone mineral density and vitamin D concentration: the challenges in taking care of children and adolescents infected with HIV]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300270&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. Methods: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy. Demographic, anthropometric, pubertal stage, viral load, T CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. Biochemical tests and total body (TB) and lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone density evaluations by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. Calcium or vitamin D supplements were prescribed if reduction in BMD or deficiency for vitamin D was detected. Results: 58 patients (ages 5.4-18.3 years; 60.3% girls) were included (T0); 55 patients were reevaluated after 12 (±3) months (T1). Low bone mass for chronological age was found in 6/58 (10.4%) and 6/55(10.9%) patients at T0 and at T1, respectively. There was no statistical relationship between z-scores for BMD (BMD z-score) and the variables sex, fracture history, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity and pubertal stage. There was a relation between BMD z-score alterations for TB and HIV viral load at T1 (p = 0.016). There was no association between duration or classes of antiretroviral therapy and bone density. The mean value of vitamin D in T0 was 23.43 ng/mL ± 2.015 and in T1 22.1 ng/mL ± 0.707 and considered insufficient levels for this population. Conclusion: Patients infected with HIV are at risk for BMD alterations and lower vitamin D serum concentrations; both of these variables should be evaluated at routine examinations in order to improve both prevention and therapeutic planning. <![CDATA[Assessment of the effectiveness of a ventilator associated pneumonia prevention bundle that contains endotracheal tube with subglottic drainage and cuff pressure monitorization]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300276&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The effectiveness of prevention bundles on the occurrence and mortality of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) was evaluated in many studies. However, the effectiveness of endotracheal tube with subglottic secretion drainage (ETT-SD) and cuff pressure monitorization in VAP bundles have not been adequately assessed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of VAP bundle containing ETT-SD and cuff pressure monitorization. This was a prospective, controlled study that was carried out between March 2011 and April 2012 including intubated patients. The study was conducted at the Anesthesiology Intensive Care Unit 1 and 2 (10 beds each) in a 898-bed university hospital. Occurrence of VAP and compliance with the parameters of the VAP prevention bundles were assessed daily. Patients intubated with the standard endotracheal tube were recruited as controls, mainly in the first six months of the study as ETT-SD and cuff pressure monometer had not yet been implemented. In the second term, patients intubated with ETT-SD were included as cases. Occurrence of VAP, mortality, and compliance with VAP prevention bundles were monitored. A total of 133 patients, 37 cases and 96 controls were recruited. VAP incidence declined from 40.82 to 22.16 per 1000 ventilator days among controls and cases, respectively (p &lt; 005). On average, VAP occurred 17.33 ± 21.09 days in the case group and 10.43 ± 7.83 days in the control group (p = 0.04). However, mortality of cases and controls at the 14th and 30th days was not different. VAP prevention bundles including the utilization of ETT-SD, monitoring cuff pressure, and oral care with chlorhexidine were efficient in reducing the rate of VAP. <![CDATA[Virulence genes and genetic relationship of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> isolated from human and food sources in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300282&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The herein presented assay provided a bacteriological and molecular characterization of 100 samples of L. monocytogenes isolated from human (43) and food (57) sources, from several regions of Brazil, and collected between 1975 and 2013. Antigenic characterization defined 49% of serotype 4b samples, followed by 28% of serotype 1/2b, 14% of serotype 1/2c, 8% of serotype 1/2a, and 1% of serotype 3b. Both type of samples from human and food origin express the same serotype distribution. Multiplex PCR analysis showed 13 strains of type 4b with the amplification profile 4b-VI (Variant I). Virulence genes hly, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, plcA, and prfA were detected in all samples, highlighting a deletion of 105pb on the actA gene in 23% of serotype 4b samples. Macrorestriction profile with ApaI at PFGE showed 55 pulsotypes, with the occurrence of the same pulsotype in hospitalized patients in São Paulo in 1992 and 1997, and two other highly related pulsotypes in patients hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro in 2008. Recognized pulsotypes in listeriosis cases have also been detected in food. Thus, the prevalence of a serotype and the persistence of certain pulsotypes herald future problems. <![CDATA[<em>Bartonella</em> species pathogenic for humans infect pets, free-ranging wild mammals and their ectoparasites in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil: a serological and molecular study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300290&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog. <![CDATA[Comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays for detecting human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300297&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays) for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1), n = 1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); G2, n = 1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA) Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 screening; Western blotting (WB), INNO-LIA (LIA), real-time PCR pol (qPCR), and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax) were used to confirm infection. Samples were considered human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 positive when there was reactivity using at least one of the four confirmatory assays. By serological screening, 127/2991 samples were positive or borderline, and human T lymphotropic virus infection was confirmed in 108 samples (three EIA-borderline): 56 human T lymphotropic virus type 1 [G1 (27) + G2 (29)]; 45 human T lymphotropic virus type 2 [G1 (21) + G2 (24)]; one human T lymphotropic virus type 1 + human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (G2); six human T lymphotropic virus [G1 (2) + G2 (4)]. Although there were differences in group characteristics, human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 prevalence was similar [3.1% (G1) and 4.2% (G2), p = 0.113]. The overall sensitivities of LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP were 97.2%, 82.4%, 68.9%, and 68.4%, respectively, with some differences among groups, likely due to the stage of human T lymphotropic virus infection and/or HAART duration. Indeterminate immunoblotting results were detected in G2, possibly due to the seroconversion period. Negative results in molecular assays could be explained by the use of HAART, the occurrence of defective provirus and/or the low circulating proviral load. In conclusion, when determining the human T lymphotropic virus infection, the findings highlight that there is a need to consider the blood samples with borderline results in screening assays. Of all the tested assays, LIA was the assay of choice for detecting human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and human T lymphotropic virus type 2 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. <![CDATA[Danger in the streets: exposures to bloodborne pathogens after community sharp injuries in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300306&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: Exposures to sharps injuries occurring in the community are relatively frequent. We describe characteristics of community sharp exposures reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2010. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of exposure reports to sharps in the community reported to a surveillance system, designed for health care workers, of the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The characteristics of exposed individuals analyzed included types of exposure, the circumstances of the accident, and the prophylaxis offered. Results: 582 exposures were studied. Median age was 30 years and 83 (14%) involved children with less than 10 years of age. Two hundred and seventeen (37%) occurred with sharps found in the streets. The exposure was percutaneous in 515 (89%) and needles where involved in 406 (70%) of them. The sharps were present in the trash in 227 (39%) or in the environment in 167 (29%) of the reports. Professionals who work with frequent contact with domestic or urban waste were 196 (38%). The source was known in 112 (19%) of the exposures and blood was involved in 269 (46%). Only 101 (19%) of the injured subjects reported a complete course of vaccination for hepatitis B. Antiretroviral prophylaxis was prescribed for 392 (68%) of the exposed subjects. Conclusions: Sharps injuries occurring in the community are an important health problem. A great proportion would be avoided if practices on how to dispose needles and sharps used outside health units were implemented. <![CDATA[Protective effect of metformin against tuberculosis infections in diabetic patients: an observational study of south Indian tertiary healthcare facility]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300312&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: World Health Organization estimated that people with diabetes (DM) are at 2-3 times higher risk for tuberculosis (TB). Studies have shown that DM not only increases the risk of active TB, but also puts co-affected persons at increased risk of poor outcomes. Objectives: To determine the protective effect of metformin against TB in DM patients and also, to investigate the relationship between poor glycemic control and TB. Methods: A case-control study was conducted over 8 months, where cases and controls were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. The diabetics diagnosed with TB were selected as study group (SG = 152) and without TB were as control group (CG = 299). Exposure status of metformin in both groups were analyzed. Results: The mean (SD) age of both CG and SG were 55.54 ± 11.82 and 52.80 ± 11.75, respectively. Majority of the subjects in the study were males. The mean hospital stay of SG and CG were 7 days and 6 days, respectively. Poor glycemic control (HbA1c &gt; 8) observed in SG (51.7%) vs CG (31.4%). HbA1c value &lt;7 is associated protective factor for TB occurrence [OR = 0.52 (95% CI 0.29-0.93)]. The protective effect of metformin against TB was 3.9-fold in diabetics (OR = 0.256, 0.16-0.40). Conclusion: Poor glycemic control among diabetics is a risk factor for TB occurrence. The result shows metformin use is a protective agent against TB infection in diabetics. Hence, incorporation of metformin into standard clinical care would offer a therapeutic option for the prevention of TB. <![CDATA[A systematic review of East African-Indian family of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300317&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African-Indian (EAI) spoligotyping family (belonging to lineage 1, Indo-Oceanic, defined by the region of deletion RD239) is distributed worldwide, but is more prevalent in Southeast Asia, India, and East Africa. Studies in Latin America have rarely identified EAI. In this study, we describe the occurrence of the EAI family in Brazil. Methods: EAI was identified in a systematic literature review of genetic diversity studies pertaining to M. tuberculosis in Brazil, as well as in a survey conducted in Salvador, Bahia, located in the northeastern region of this country. Results: The EAI6-BGD1 spoligotyping family and the EAI5 Spoligotype International Type (SIT) 1983 clade were the most frequently reported, with wide distribution of this particular clade described in Brazil. The distribution of other EAI spoligotyping patterns with broader worldwide distribution was restricted to the southeastern region of the country. Conclusions: EAI may be endemic at a low frequency in Brazil, with some clades indicating increased fitness with respect to this population. <![CDATA[Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection among Chinese ethnic women in southern of Yunnan, China]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300325&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Dai is a major Chinese ethnic minority group residing in rural areas of the southern part of Yunnan. However, no data exist on the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution among Dai women. Method: A total of 793 participants (Dai = 324, Han = 251, other ethnic = 218) were included in this study. PCR was performed to detect the HPV-positive samples, and genotyping was performed with an HPV Geno-Array. Result: The overall HPV prevalence was very low among Dai women compared to the others. The prevalence of high-risk-HPV infections was significantly higher (p = 0.001) among other ethnic women (22.0%) than that among Han (13.1%) and Dai women (7.1%). The overall HPV, high-risk-HPV, single and multiple infection prevalence among rural women were 12.9%, 12.1%, 12.3%, and 0.5%, respectively. HPV-16 (5.5%) was shown to be the most prevalent genotype, followed by HPV-52 (2.6%) and HPV-58 (2.4%). Urban women had relatively higher rates of overall HPV (16.0%), high-risk-HPV (14.1%), single genotype (11.9%), and multiple genotype (4.1%) infections. In urban women, HPV-52 (3.6%) was the most prevalent genotype, followed by HPV-39 (2.7%) and HPV-16 (1.2%). In the urban area, HPV prevalence was highest in women aged &lt;29 years, but declined with increasing age. However, in rural women, the highest HPV prevalence was observed among women at older age (&gt;50 years). Education and smoking habit were significantly associated with HPV infection among both rural and urban area women (p &lt; 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV varied among ethnic women in urban and rural area of Yunnan Province. <![CDATA[Fluconazole prophylaxis in preterm infants: a systematic review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300333&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objective: This article aims to review the use of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous fluconazole in premature newborns and the occurrence of Invasive Candidiasis. Methods: This is a systematic review with search at databases: PubMed, Capes Portal, Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde)/Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The keywords used were: "Antifungal", "Candida" "Fluconazole prophylaxis" and "Preterm infants". Results: Invasive Candidiasis was evaluated in all the twelve items. In eleven of them, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups receiving prophylactic fluconazole, with lower frequency of Invasive Candidiasis, compared to placebo or no prophylaxis group. Colonization by Candida species was also evaluated in five studies; four of them presented statistically lower proportion of colonization in patients with Fluconazole prophylaxis, compared to placebo or no drugs. In one study, there was a significant difference, favoring the use of fluconazole, and reduction of death. Conclusion: Studies indicate the effectiveness of prophylaxis with fluconazole, with reduction in the incidence of colonization and invasive fungal disease. The benefits of prophylaxis should be evaluated considering the incidence of candidiasis in the unit, the mortality associated with candidiasis, the safety and toxicity of short and long-term medication, and the potential for development of resistant pathogens. <![CDATA[Direct identification from positive blood broth culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300339&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the most concerning bacterial infections. They are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, and occur in 30-70% of critical care patients. The prompt identification of the causative microorganism can help choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy that will lead to better clinical outcomes. Blood culture is one of the most relevant tests for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infections. The introduction of the MALDI-TOF microbiological diagnosis significantly decreased the time of identifying microorganisms. However, it depends on the growth on solid culture medium. In this study, 538 bottles of positive blood cultures were evaluated to test the accuracy of an in house modified protocol. The study sample consisted of 198 Gram-negative and 350 Gram-positive bacteria. In all, 460 (83.94%) species were identified based on the direct plate findings. The protocol allowed the identification of 185/198 (93.43%) of the Gram-negative bacteria, including aerobes, anaerobes, and non-fermenters, and 275/350 (78.85%) of the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed method has the potential to provide accurate results in comparison to the traditional method with the potential to reduce the turnaround time for the results and optimize antimicrobial therapy in BSI. <![CDATA[Resistance among Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Latin American countries: SMART 2013-2015]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300343&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI) and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI) were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (%) for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3), Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1), and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2) isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6) and imipenem (79.2, 75.9) showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (%) than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4) against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed. <![CDATA[Aneurysm and dissection in a patient with syphilitic aortitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300349&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[Cutaneous loxoscelism: extensive nonulcerated livedoid plaque]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300353&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[An unusual imported case of diphyllobothriosis in Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300355&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[Superantigens: procession of frets]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300357&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[First case of infection by metallo-β-lactamase-producing <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300359&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[Ureteral stent infections: a prospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300361&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[Serological survey of Chikungunya virus in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300365&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis. <![CDATA[Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with B and C virus hepatitis without cirrhosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300367&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT In the antibiotic era, aortic aneurysm is a rare complication of syphilis, what makes the diagnostic assumption even more difficult. Nonetheless, this condition should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. Reports of aortic dissection complicating syphilitic aortitis have been distinctly rare in the literature, and their cause-effect relationship has not been definitely established. In this case report, we present a 62-year-old woman with aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with an unexpected diagnosis of syphilitic aortitis.