Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020140003&lang=en vol. 18 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300239&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward. <![CDATA[Ecology of blood stream infection and antibiotic resistance in intensive care unit at a tertiary care hospital in North India]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300245&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalent microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance among intensive care unit patients in a tertiary care centre in New Delhi. METHODS: A retrospective study of all consecutive blood cultures from various intensive care unit patients in the hospital during four years (January 2008 to December 2011). Antibiotic consumption data in the intensive care units were also analysed during the same period. RESULTS: Out of the total 22,491 blood cultures processed, 2846 samples were positive and 3771 microorganisms were isolated. The blood culture positivity was estimated as 12.7% of which 67.5% were monomicrobial and 32.5% polymicrobial infections. Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive cocci, and fungi were isolated in 49%, 33%, and 18% cases, respectively. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the commonest single isolate followed by Candida spp. A drastic shift in the distribution of Candida spp. towards nonalbicans along with high resistance to azole group of antifungals suggest echinocandins for the empiric therapy of candidemia. High penicillin resistance in Gram positive isolates suggest vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline as the options for empiric therapy, whereas tigecycline and colistin are the only options remaining for highly resistant Gram negative isolates. Aminoglycosides were observed to have better sensitivity and reduced usage when compared with cephalosporins and ß-lactam + ß-lactam inhibitor combinations. CONCLUSIONS: High frequencies of multidrug resistant organisms were observed in intensive care units which is a warning as to use the only few effective antimicrobials wisely to reduce selective pressure on sensitive strains. <![CDATA[Cascade of access to interventions to prevent HIV mother to child transmission in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300252&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To describe the access to the interventions for the prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) mother to child transmission and mother to child transmission rates in the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, from 1999 to 2009. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Prevention of HIV mother to child transmission interventions were accessed and mother to child transmission rates were calculated. RESULTS: The study population is young (median: 26 years; interquartile range: 22.0-31.0), with low monthly family income (40.4% up to one Brazilian minimum wage) and schooling (62.1% less than 8 years). Only 47.1% (n = 469) knew the HIV status of their partner; of these women, 39.9% had an HIV-seronegative partner. Among the 1259 newborns evaluated, access to the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum prevention of HIV mother to child transmission components occurred in 59.2%, 74.2%, and 97.5% respectively; 91.0% of the newborns were not breastfed. Overall 52.7% of the newborns have benefited from all the recommended interventions. In subsequent pregnancies (n = 289), 67.8% of the newborns received the full package of interventions. The overall rate of HIV vertical transmission was 4.7% and the highest annual rate occurred in 2005 (7.4%), with no definite trend in the period. CONCLUSIONS: Access to the full package of interventions for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission was low, with no significant trend of improvement over the years. The vertical transmission rates observed were higher than those found in reference services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro and in the richest regions of the country. <![CDATA[Detection of hepatitis B virus A1762T/G1764A mutant by amplification refractory mutation system]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300261&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To study the role of hepatitis B virus with A1762T/G1764A double mutation in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and create a sensitive, fast, accurate assay for detection of A1762T/G1764A double mutation. METHODS: We developed an accurate and fast real-time amplification refractory mutation system to detect A1762T/G1764A double mutation. Cloned hepatitis B virus genome was used as a control. Assay sensitivity was determined by serial dilution and mixed template experiments. Specificity was determined by cross experiments with wild and mutant hepatitis B virus. Fifty clinical samples were tested by the real-time amplification refractory mutation system and the results were compared with sequencing. RESULTS: The real-time amplification refractory mutation system had a sensitivity of 100 copies of virus with these mutations, and 0.1% weak population virus with double mutation could be found in mixtures. A total of 50 randomly collected clinical samples were detected by real-time amplification refractory mutation system, and the results were consistent with those by DNA sequencing. Hepatitis B virus genotype C was more prevalent in 39 of 50 samples than genotype B (11 samples), and about 75% of genotype C carried a double mutation compared to 45% of genotype B. However, the percentage of A1762T/G1764A double mutation in hepatitis B e antigen-negative (58.3%) samples was almost the same as in hepatitis B e antigen-positive (61%) samples. CONCLUSION: The real-time amplification refractory mutation system is sensitive and specific for detection of hepatitis B virus double mutation. <![CDATA[Presence of highly oncogenic human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300266&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify highly oncogenic forms of human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed samples of exfoliated cells from the oral cavity of 559 asymptomatic men. DNA-human papillomavirus was detected using the consensus primers PGMY09/11; viral genotyping was performed using type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: DNA-human papillomavirus was detected in 1.3% of the study participants and of those 42.8% were infected by more than one type of virus. Viral types included HPV6, 11, 89 (low oncogenic risk), and HPV52, 53 (high oncogenic risk). Increased vulnerability to human papillomavirus infection was observed in individuals aged over 26 years, among those who reported oral sex practices, and in those who have had more than 16 sexual partners since first engaging in sexual intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low prevalence of human papillomavirus detection in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus types and infection by more than one viral type was observed. Oral sex practices and a large number of sexual partners may increase the risk of acquiring human papillomavirus infection. <![CDATA[Duplex realtime PCR method for Epstein-Barr virus and human DNA quantification: its application for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders detection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300271&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: The quantification of circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is used to monitor transplant patients as an early marker of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD). So far no standardized methodology exists for such determination. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to develop and validate a real-time PCR assay to quantify EBV DNA in clinical samples from transplant recipients. METHODS: A duplex real-time PCR method was developed to amplify DNA from EBV and from a human gene. The EBV load was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and oropharyngeal tissue from 64 non-transplanted patients with lymphoid-hypertrophy (Non-Tx), 47 transplant recipients without PTLD (Tx), 54 recipients with PTLD (Tx-PTLD), and 66 blood donors (BD). WinPEPI, version 11.14 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Analytical validation: the intra and inter-assays variation coefficients were less than 4.5% (EBV-reaction) and 3% (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase - GAPDH reaction). Linear ranges comprised 107-10 EBV genome equivalents (gEq) (EBV-reaction) and 500,000-32 human gEq (GAPDH-reaction). The detection limit was 2.9 EBV gEq (EBV-reaction). Both reactions showed specificity. Application to clinical samples: higher levels of EBV were found in oropharyngeal tissue from transplanted groups with and without PTLD, compared to Non-Tx (p &lt; 0.05). The EBV load in PBMC from the groups of BD, Non-Tx, Tx and Tx-PTLD exhibited increasing levels (p &lt; 0.05). In BD, PBMC and plasma, EBV loads were undetectable. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the assay was suitable for the required clinical application. The assay may be useful to monitor EBV infection in transplant patients, in particular in laboratories from low-income regions that cannot afford to use commercial assays. <![CDATA[Morbimortality study of infection in patients undergoing different types of dialysis in a renal replacement therapy center]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300281&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Renal replacement therapy is the treatment of end-stage chronic kidney disease and can be performed through dialysis catheters, arteriovenous fistulas/grafts, and peritoneal dialysis. Patients are usually immunocompromised and exposed to invasive procedures, leading to high rates of infection and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of infection and related deaths, as well as the sensitivity profile of the putative bacteria in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis and catheter hemodialysis. METHODS: This is case-control study. Six hundred forty-four patients undergoing renal replacement therapy were selected. Patients were divided into three groups according to the modality of dialysis treatment: peritoneal dialysis (126 patients), arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis (326 patients), and catheter hemodialysis (192 patients). RESULTS: One hundred sixteen patients (18.01%) developed infection. There was a higher incidence of infection in the peritoneal dialysis group (44 patients; 34.92%; OR: 3.32; CI 95% = 2.13-5.17; p = 0.0001). In the catheter hemodialysis group, 48 patients (25%) had infection (OR: 1.88; CI 95%: 1.24-2.85; p = 0.0035). In the arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group, 24 patients (7.36%) developed infection (OR: 0.19; CI 95%: 0.12-0.31; p = 0.0001). Five patients (4.31%) died due to infection (four in the peritoneal dialysis group and one in the catheter hemodialysis group). There were no deaths due to infection in the arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group. CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal dialysis is the treatment with greater risk of infection and mortality, followed by catheter hemodialysis. The lowest risk of infection and mortality was observed in arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis group. <![CDATA[Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in <em>Candida albicans</em> and non-<em>albicans</em> species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300287&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p &lt; 0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in production of prostaglandin from fungal cell itself which was significant (p &lt; 0.05) in case of all the strains tested. <![CDATA[Characteristics of hospitalized children infected with macrolide-resistant <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300294&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to clarify retrospectively the characteristics of children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection caused by macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). METHODS: Children who were hospitalized for respiratory tract infection due to M. pneumoniae were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection was made on the grounds of polymerase chain reaction results. RESULTS: Thirty-three children were hospitalized due to lower respiratory tract infection with M. pneumoniae. Of the 33 children, 31 (median age five years) were identified as being infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (A2063G:30, A2064G:1) by sequence analysis. Of the 31 children infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, 21 (68%) had received 14- or 15-membered macrolide antibiotics and four (13%) had received minocycline before hospitalization. During hospitalization, minocycline was administered to 16 (52%) of the 31 children infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Of the 20 children infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae under eight years of age, six (30%) were treated with minocycline during hospitalization. The difference in total febrile days between children receiving minocycline treatment before hospitalization and children not receiving minocycline treatment was three days. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection due to macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection was of preschool age and had received 14- or 15-membered macrolide antibiotics before hospitalization. Because macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae is widespread in Japan, the administration of minocycline as a second-line antibiotic in children under eight years of age cannot be withheld when clinical symptoms do not improve with macrolide antibiotics. <![CDATA[Association of X4 tropism with disease progression in antiretroviral-treated children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300300&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Management of children with HIV/AIDS is specially challenging. Age-related issues do not allow for direct transposition of adult observations to this population. CXCR4 tropism has been associated with disease progression in adults. The geno2pheno web-base is a friendly tool to predict viral tropism on envelope V3 sequences, generating a false positive rate for a CXCR4 prediction. We evaluated the association of HIV-1 tropism prediction with clinical and laboratory outcome of 73 children with HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. The CXCR4 tropism was strongly associated with a lower (nadir) CD4 documented during follow-up (p &lt; 0.0001) and with disease severity (clinical event and/or CD4 below 200 cells/mm3) at the last observation, using commonly applied clinical cutoffs, such as10%FPRclonal (p = 0.001). When variables obtained during follow-up are included, both treatment adherence and viral tropism show a significant association with disease severity. As for viremia suppression, 30% (22/73) were undetectable at the last observation, with only adherence strongly associated with suppression after adjustment. The study brings further support to the notion that antiretroviral treatment adherence is pivotal to management of HIV disease, but suggests that tropism prediction may provide an additional prognostic marker to monitor HIV disease in children. <![CDATA[A CssA, CssB and LTB chimeric protein induces protection against Enterotoxigenic <em>Escherichia coli</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300308&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of diarrhea in children under 5, is an important agent for traveler's diarrhea. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and colonization factors (CFs) are two main virulence mechanisms in ETEC. CS6 is one of the most prevalent CFs consisting of two structural subunits viz., CssA, CssB, necessary for attachment to the intestinal cells. METHODS: In the present research, a chimeric trivalent protein composed of CssB, CssA and LTB was constructed. The chimeric gene was synthesized with codon bias of E. coli for enhanced expression of the protein. Recombinant proteins were expressed and purified. Mice were immunized with the recombinant protein. The antibody titer and specificity of the immune sera were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Efficiency of the immune sera against ETEC was evaluated. RESULTS: Antibody induction was followed by immunization of mice with the chimeric protein. Pretreatment of the ETEC cells with immunized animal antisera remarkably decreased their adhesion to Caco-2 cells. DISCUSSION: The results indicate efficacy of the recombinant chimeric protein as an effective immunogen, which induces strong humoral response as well as protection against ETEC adherence and toxicity. <![CDATA[Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300315&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal vascular lesion of low-grade potential that is most often present in mucocutaneous sites and usually also affects lymph nodes and visceral organs. The condition may manifest through purplish lesions, flat or raised with an irregular shape, gastrointestinal bleeding due to lesions located in the digestive system, and dyspnea and hemoptysis associated with pulmonary lesions. In the early 1980s, the appearance of several cases of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men was the first alarm about a newly identified epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In 1994, it was finally demonstrated that the presence of a herpes virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma called HHV-8 or Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus and its genetic sequence was rapidly deciphered. The prevalence of this virus is very high (about 50%) in some African populations, but stands between 2% and 8% for the entire world population. Kaposi's sarcoma only develops when the immune system is depressed, as in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which appears to be associated with a specific variant of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections among patients from a hemodialysis unit in southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300327&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Patients submitted to hemodialysis are at a high risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Presently there are scarce data to allow benchmarking of HAI rates in developing countries. Also, most studies focus only on bloodstream infections (BSI) or local access infections (LAI). Our study aimed to provide a wide overview of HAI epidemiology in a hemodialysis unit in southeastern Brazil. We present data from prospective surveillance carried out from March 2010 through May 2012. Rates were compared (mid-p exact test) and temporally analyzed in Shewhart control charts for Poisson distributions. The overall incidence of BSI was 1.12 per 1000 access-days. The rate was higher for patients performing dialysis through central venous catheters (CVC), either temporary (RR = 13.35, 95% CI = 6.68-26.95) or permanent (RR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.09-4.13), as compared to those with arteriovenous fistula. Control charts identified a BSI outbreak caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in April 2010. LAI incidence was 3.80 per 1000 access-days. Incidence rates for other HAI (per 1000 patients-day) were as follows: upper respiratory infections, 1.72; pneumonia, 1.35; urinary tract infections, 1.25; skin/soft tissues infections, 0.93. The data point out to the usefulness of applying methods commonly used in hospital-based surveillance for hemodialysis units. <![CDATA[Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from a Brazilian university hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300331&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to perform SCCmec typing in Staphylococcus aureus isolates and to characterize the clonal profile of these isolates. Forty-six mecA gene-positive strains isolated between 2002 and 2006 were submitted to antimicrobial resistance testing by the E-test, SCCmec typing by multiplex PCR, and clonal profile analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Forty-one (89.1%) isolates were typed as SCCmec III and five (10.9%) as SCCmec IV. Four circulating clones were detected, one of them comprising isolates related to the Brazilian epidemic clone. This clone was detected throughout the study period. The SCCmec III isolates were associated with a high rate of multidrug resistance and clonal dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in the wards of the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista. <![CDATA[Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>, <em>in vitro</em>: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300336&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 µg/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p &lt; 0.001) concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method. <![CDATA[Success stories about severe pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300341&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We describe three cases of community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia which were caused by Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus (one of them methicillin sensitive). All cases were successfully treated without any sequelae for the patients due to the prompt initiation of adequate antimicrobial therapy. High suspicion toward this fatal pathogen was the key to the successful outcome of the patients. <![CDATA[Tumoural form of Whipple's disease simulating carcinomatosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300346&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Whipple's disease is a rare disease caused by the actinomycete bacteria Tropheryma whipplei, which cause intestinal infection. The most common symptoms are chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthritis and neurological abnormalities, which can be fatal. This paper reports a case of a 57-year-old Brazilian woman with diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite loss, intermittent fever, malaise, weight loss and malnutrition. Migratory polyarthralgia and recurrent visual scotomas preceded the symptoms. The retroperitoneal pseudotumour formation finding was associated with prolonged wasting syndrome, which did not respond to usual therapies, thus leading to the investigation of carcinomatosis disease. After laparotomy, biopsy and histochemical study of the lesions with negative results for malignancy, we proceeded to the investigation of Whipple's disease, which was then confirmed. The patient improved clinically and started gaining weight after using ceftriaxone (IV). <![CDATA[Bacterial biofilm in chronic venous ulcer]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300350&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Whipple's disease is a rare disease caused by the actinomycete bacteria Tropheryma whipplei, which cause intestinal infection. The most common symptoms are chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthritis and neurological abnormalities, which can be fatal. This paper reports a case of a 57-year-old Brazilian woman with diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite loss, intermittent fever, malaise, weight loss and malnutrition. Migratory polyarthralgia and recurrent visual scotomas preceded the symptoms. The retroperitoneal pseudotumour formation finding was associated with prolonged wasting syndrome, which did not respond to usual therapies, thus leading to the investigation of carcinomatosis disease. After laparotomy, biopsy and histochemical study of the lesions with negative results for malignancy, we proceeded to the investigation of Whipple's disease, which was then confirmed. The patient improved clinically and started gaining weight after using ceftriaxone (IV). <![CDATA[Detection of GB virus C/hepatitis G markers in Chinese voluntary blood donors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000300352&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Whipple's disease is a rare disease caused by the actinomycete bacteria Tropheryma whipplei, which cause intestinal infection. The most common symptoms are chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthritis and neurological abnormalities, which can be fatal. This paper reports a case of a 57-year-old Brazilian woman with diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite loss, intermittent fever, malaise, weight loss and malnutrition. Migratory polyarthralgia and recurrent visual scotomas preceded the symptoms. The retroperitoneal pseudotumour formation finding was associated with prolonged wasting syndrome, which did not respond to usual therapies, thus leading to the investigation of carcinomatosis disease. After laparotomy, biopsy and histochemical study of the lesions with negative results for malignancy, we proceeded to the investigation of Whipple's disease, which was then confirmed. The patient improved clinically and started gaining weight after using ceftriaxone (IV).