Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020160002&lang=en vol. 20 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Toxoplasmic encephalitis: role of Human Leucocyte Antigens/alleles associated with rapid progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background/aims The frequency of Human Leucocyte Antigens/alleles associated with rapid progression from Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was evaluated in Brazilian patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome with and without Toxoplasmic Encephalitis. Methods 114 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (41 with Toxoplasmic Encephalitis, 43 with anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, without Toxoplasmic Eencephalitis, and 30 without anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies circulating and without Toxoplasmic Encephalitis) were studied. Results Human Leucocyte Antigens/alleles associated with rapid progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, particularly HLA-B35, -DR3, and -DR1 allele group, were significantly less represented in patients with Toxoplasmic Encephalitis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Conclusion The presence of these Human Leucocyte Antigens/Alleles that predispose to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome progression was associated with resistance to Toxoplasmic Encephalitis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 carriers. <![CDATA[Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic <em>Leishmania</em> infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect®) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87–36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies. <![CDATA[Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecium</em> isolates collected in Bulgaria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200127&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients). Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA), collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm)); invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE)); cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA) in E. faecalis); and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep) in E. faecalis) were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1) and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA) had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an important reservoir for opportunistic enterococcal pathogens and allows them to access infectious sites through different virulence factors, demonstrated in outpatient isolates in this study. <![CDATA[Carbapenem-resistant <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> colonization in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units: risk factors for progression to infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200134&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background Little is known about factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients, who are initally colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materials and methods A retrospective case–control study was conducted involving pediatric and neonatal intensive care units throughout a five-year period (January 2010–December 2014). Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from Hospital Infection Control Committee reports and patients’ medical records. Risk factors were assessed in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who developed subsequent systemic infection (cases) and compared to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who did not develop infection (controls). Results Throughout the study period, 2.6% of patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units and 3.6% of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units had become colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. After a mean of 10.6 ± 1.9 days (median: 7 days, range: 2–38 days) following detection of colonization, 39.0% of the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in pediatric intensive care units and 18.1% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in neonatal intensive care units developed systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Types of systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections included bacteremia (n = 15, 62.5%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (n = 4, 16.6%), ventriculitis (n = 2, 8.3%), intraabdominal infections (n = 2, 8.3%), and urinary tract infection (n = 1, 4.1%). A logistic regression model including parameters found significant in univariate analysis of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization and carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection groups revealed underlying metabolic disease (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.7–37.2), previous carbapenem use (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.2–40.1), neutropenia (OR: 13.8; 95% CI: 3.1–61.0) and previous surgical procedure (OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 1.9–28.5) as independent risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Out of 24 patients with carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, 4 (16.6%) died of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis. Conclusion Asymptomatic colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in intensive care units of pediatric departments should alert health care providers about forthcoming carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Those carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients at risk of developing infection due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae may be targeted for interventions to reduce subsequent infection occurence and also for timely initiation of empirical carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae active treatment, when necessary. <![CDATA[Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200141&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. Objectives The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. Results A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3–58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7 yrs; 95% CI 7.9–9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6 yrs: 95% CI 11.8–15.5). Conclusion Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas. <![CDATA[Georeferencing of deaths from sepsis in the city of São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200149&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to obtain information about deaths due to sepsis in São Paulo from 2004 to 2009 and their relationship with geographical distribution. Methods Causes of death, both main and secondary, were defined according to the codes of the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) contained in the database. Sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ failure, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, peritonitis and other intraabdominal infections, skin and soft tissue infections (including surgical wound infection) and meningitis were considered as immediate cause of death or as the condition leading to the immediate cause of death related or associated to sepsis. Results In the analyzed period, there was a 15.3% increase in the absolute number of deaths from sepsis in São Paulo. The mean number of deaths during this period was 28,472 ± 1566. Most deaths due to sepsis and sepsis-related diseases over the studied period occurred in a hospital or health care facility, showing that most of the patients received medical care during the event that led to death. We observed a significant concentration of deaths in the most populous regions, tending more toward the center of the city. Conclusions Georeferencing data from death certificates or other sources can be a powerful tool to uncover regional epidemiological differences between populations. Our study revealed an even distribution of sepsis all over the inhabited areas of São Paulo. <![CDATA[Antiretroviral drugs saquinavir and ritonavir reduce inhibitory concentration values of itraconazole against <em>Histoplasma capsulatum</em> strains <em>in vitro</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200155&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Recent studies have shown that some drugs that are not routinely used to treat fungal infections have antifungal activity, such as protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum to saquinavir and ritonavir, and its combination with the antifungal itraconazole. The susceptibility assay was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All strains were inhibited by the protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs. Saquinavir showed minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 1 μg mL−1 for both phases, and ritonavir presented minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0312 to 4 μg mL−1and from 0.0625 to 1 μg mL−1 for filamentous and yeast phase, respectively. Concerning the antifungal itraconazole, the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.0019 to 0.125 μg mL−1 and from 0.0039 to 0.0312 μg mL−1 for the filamentous and yeast phase, respectively. The combination of saquinavir or ritonavir with itraconazole was synergistic against H. capsulatum, with a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations of both drugs against the strains (p &lt; 0.05). These data show an important in vitro synergy between protease inhibitors and itraconazole against the fungus H. capsulatum. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the role of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer of epithelial cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200160&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study was undertaken in order to assess the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer in the M. tuberculosis-epithelial cell interaction. A MTP-deficient strain of M. tuberculosis demonstrated a significant reduction of 69.39% (p = 0.047) and 56.20% (p = 0.033) in its ability to adhere to and invade A549 pulmonary epithelial cells, respectively, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the MTP-deficient mutant restored its adhesion and invasion capacity back to the wild-type levels. Overall, it was found that similar concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were induced in A549 cells infected with the MTP-proficient and MTP-deficient strains. However, at 48 h post-infection, the MTP-deficient mutant induced significantly lower levels of TNF-α than the wild-type strain (p = 0.033). Furthermore, at 72 h post-infection, the mutant induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the wild-type (p = 0.005). We conclude that MTP is an adhesin/invasin of epithelial cells and, while playing a role in M. tuberculosis entry, they do not appear to largely influence the epithelial cell cytokine response. <![CDATA[Detection of multidrug-resistant <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> strains isolated in Brazil using a multimarker genetic assay for <em>katG</em> and <em>rpoB</em> genes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200166&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) is a serious world health problem that limits public actions to control tuberculosis, because the most used anti-tuberculosis first-line drugs fail to stop mycobacterium spread. Consequently, a quick detection through molecular diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and medical costs. Despite the availability of several molecular-based commercial-kits to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, their diagnostic value might diverge worldwide since Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic variability differs according to geographic location. Here, we studied the predictive value of four common mycobacterial mutations in strains isolated from endemic areas of Brazil. Mutations were found at the frequency of 41.9% for katG, 25.6% for inhA, and 69.8% for rpoB genes in multidrug-resistant strains. Multimarker analysis revealed that combination of only two mutations (“katG/S315T + rpoB/S531L”) was a better surrogate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis than single-marker analysis (86% sensitivity vs. 62.8%). Prediction of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was not improved by adding a third or fourth mutation in the model. Therefore, rather than using diagnostic kits detecting several mutations, we propose a simple dual-marker panel to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, this approach (previous genetic study + analysis of only prevalent markers) would considerably decrease the processing costs while retaining diagnostic accuracy. <![CDATA[Prevalence of mutations in HBV DNA polymerase gene associated with nucleos(t)ide resistance in treatment-naive patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Central China]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200173&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Objective There are a lot of disagreements in the studies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase mutation rate associated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This is the first study aimed to investigate the prevalence of spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in Central China. Methods This study included treatment-naive patients with CHB from June 2012 to May 2015 receiving care at the Institute of Liver Disease in Central China. All patients completed a questionnaire covering different aspects, such as family medical history, course of liver disease, medication history, alcohol use, among others. Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase associated with NAs resistance were detected using INNO-LiPA assay. Results 269 patients were infected with HBV genotype B (81.4%), C (17.9%), and both B and C (0.7%). Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were detected in 24 patients (8.9%) including rtM204I/V (n = 6), rtN236T (n = 5), rtM250V (n = 2), rtL180M (n = 2), rtT184G (n = 1), rtM207I (n = 1), rtS202I (n = 1), rtM204V/I &amp; rtL180M (n = 5), and rtM204I &amp; rtM250V (n = 1). Conclusion Spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were found in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China. These findings suggest that we should analyze HBV DNA polymerase resistance mutation associated with NAs before giving antiviral therapy such as lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), and telbivudine (LdT). <![CDATA[Prevalence of rhinovirus in wheezing children: a comparison with respiratory syncytial virus wheezing]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200179&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Objective To explore the distribution and clinical manifestations of rhinovirus infection in wheezing children, and compare the clinical differences between rhinovirus- and respiratory syncytial virus-induced wheezing. Materials and methods This prospective cohort study was carried out in Children's Hospital of Soochow University from Dec 2012 to Nov 2014. We enrolled consecutive hospitalized children &lt;60 months of age presented with wheezing. Clinical data including cough, fever, dyspnea, crackles were recorded by pediatricians on the first day of admission. Meanwhile, nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained to test for respiratory viruses, by using polymerase chain reaction method for rhinovirus, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus, and direct immunofluorescence assay to test for respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1–3, and influenza virus types A and B. Results Rhinovirus was a main causative agent isolated in 14.7% of the hospitalized wheezing children in Suzhou, China, being second to respiratory syncytial virus (21.0%). Different from respiratory syncytial virus infection, which peaked in winter months, rhinovirus could be detected all year round, peaked between July and September, and in November. Children with rhinovirus infection were older and presented with more often allergic sensitizations, blood eosinophilia, and leukocytosis than those of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Logistic regression analysis revealed that rhinovirus-infected children experienced earlier wheezing more often than respiratory syncytial virus children (odds ratio, 3.441; 95% confidence interval, 1.187–9.979; p = 0.023). Conclusion Rhinovirus was a main viral pathogen in wheezing children, especially in summer time. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing was different from respiratory syncytial virus, apart from seasonal epidemics; these two groups differed with regard to age, allergic sensitizations, laboratory test, and history of wheezing episodes. <![CDATA[Efficacy, safety, tolerability and population pharmacokinetics of tedizolid, a novel antibiotic, in Latino patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200184&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections are caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria which are often treated with intravenous vancomycin, daptomycin, or linezolid, with potential step down to oral linezolid for outpatients. Tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily treatment for six days demonstrated non-inferior efficacy, with a favourable safety profile, compared with linezolid 600 mg twice daily treatment for 10 days in the Phase 3 ESTABLISH-1 and -2 trials. The objective of the current post-hoc analysis of the integrated dataset of ESTABLISH-1 and -2 was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tedizolid (N = 182) vs linezolid (N = 171) in patients of Latino origin enrolled into these trials. The baseline demographic characteristics of Latino patients were similar between the two treatment groups. Tedizolid demonstrated comparable efficacy to linezolid at 48–72 h in the intent-to-treat population (tedizolid: 80.2% vs linezolid: 81.9%). Sustained clinical success rates were comparable between tedizolid- and linezolid-treated Latino patients at end-of-therapy (tedizolid: 86.8% vs linezolid: 88.9%). Tedizolid phosphate treatment was well tolerated by Latino patients in the safety population with lower abnormal platelet counts at end-of-therapy (tedizolid: 3.4% vs linezolid: 11.3%, p = 0.0120) and lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (tedizolid: 16.5% vs linezolid: 23.5%). Population pharmacokinetic analysis suggested that estimated tedizolid exposure measures in Latino patients vs non-Latino patients were similar. These findings demonstrate that tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, once daily treatment for six days was efficacious and well tolerated by patients of Latino origin, without warranting dose adjustment. <![CDATA[TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host immune responses in major infectious diseases: a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200193&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract During the course of evolution, multicellular organisms have been orchestrated with an efficient and versatile immune system to counteract diverse group of pathogenic organisms. Pathogen recognition is considered as the most critical step behind eliciting adequate immune response during an infection. Hitherto Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially the surface ones viz. TLR2 and TLR4 have gained immense importance due to their extreme ability of identifying distinct molecular patterns from invading pathogens. These pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) not only act as innate sensor but also shape and bridge innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, they also play a pivotal role in regulating the balance between Th1 and Th2 type of response essential for the survivability of the host. In this work, major achievements rather findings made on the typical signalling and immunopathological attributes of TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host response against the major infectious diseases have been reviewed. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, malaria, and filariasis are still posing myriad threat to mankind. Furthermore, increasing resistance of the causative organisms against available therapeutics is also an emerging problem. Thus, stimulation of host immune response with TLR2 and TLR4 agonist can be the option of choice to treat such diseases in future. <![CDATA[High incidence of tuberculosis in patients treated for hepatitis C chronic infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Brazil is one of the 22 countries that concentrates 80% of global tuberculosis cases concomitantly to a large number of hepatitis C carriers and some epidemiological risk scenarios are coincident for both diseases. We analyzed tuberculosis cases that occurred during α-interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C in reference centers in Brazil between 2001 and 2012 and reviewed their medical records. Eighteen tuberculosis cases were observed in patients submitted to hepatitis C α-interferon-based therapy. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus-negative. Nine patients (50%) had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; 15 (83%) showed significant liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C treatment was discontinued in 12 patients (67%) due to tuberculosis reactivation and six (33%) had sustained virological response. The majority of patients had a favorable outcome but one died. Considering the evidences of α-IFN interference over the containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune impairment of cirrhotic patients, the increase of tuberculosis case reports during hepatitis C treatment with atypical and severe presentations and the negative impact on sustained virological response, we think these are strong arguments for latent tuberculosis infection screening before starting α-interferon-based therapy for any indication and even to consider IFN-free regimens against hepatitis C when a patient tests positive for latent tuberculosis infection. <![CDATA[Oral manifestation of tuberculosis: a case-report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200210&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[A strange infiltrative plaque on the face]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200214&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Monitoring the emergence of HBV resistance mutations by HBV-RNA pyrosequencing]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200216&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Carriage of methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and awareness of infection control among health care workers working in intensive care unit of a hospital in Nepal]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200218&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Inconsistent use of condoms in non-injecting illicit drug users]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200220&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Ribavirin use in pediatric patients with Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: is it really necessary?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200222&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> clinical isolates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200224&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease. <![CDATA[Erratum to “Barriers to treatment of hepatitis C in HIV/HCV coinfected adults in Brazil” [Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 14 (3) (2010) 237–241]]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000200226&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present case-report describes tuberculosis on the oral mucosa, in a rare manifestation of the disease. The importance of appropriate diagnosis and awareness of the clinical manifestations is highlighted. Oral lesions seem to occur as chronic ulcers, nodular or granular areas, and rare, firm leukoplakia regions. Most extra-pulmonary lesions represent secondary infections of a primary lung infectious focus; therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is required for planning of the best treatment and strategies to control the disease.