Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020170005&lang=es vol. 21 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> susceptibility of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates from skin and soft tissue infections to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tedizolid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500493&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Material and methods Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were collected in three tertiary-care hospitals of Medellin, Colombia, from February 2008 to June 2010 as part of a previous study. Clinical characteristics were assessed by medical records and MIC values were determined by Epsilometer test. Genotypic analysis included spa typing, MLST, and SCCmec typing. Results A total of 150 MRSA isolates were evaluated and tedizolid MIC values obtained showed higher in vitro activity than other antimicrobials, with MIC values ranging from 0.13 µg/mL to 0.75 µg/mL and lower values of MIC50 and MIC90 (0.38 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL). In contrast, vancomycin and linezolid had higher MIC values, which ranged from 0.5 µg/mL to 2.0 µg/mL and from 0.38 µg/mL to 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Tedizolid MICs were 2- to 5-fold lower than those of linezolid. Clinical characteristics showed high previous antimicrobial use and hospitalization history. The majority of the strains belong to the CC8 harboring the SCCmec IVc and were associated with the spa t1610 (29.33%, n = 44). Conclusion In vitro effectiveness of tedizolid was superior for isolates from skin and soft tissue infections in comparison with the other antibiotics evaluated. The above added to its less toxicity, good bioavailability, daily dose and unnecessity of dosage adjustment, make tedizolid in a promising alternative for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. <![CDATA[Development of a prototype immunochromatographic test for rapid diagnosis of respiratory adenovirus infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500500&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Human adenoviruses comprise an important group of etiologic agents that are responsible for various diseases in adults and children, such as respiratory, ocular, gastroenteric, and urinary infections. In immunocompromised and organ-transplanted individuals, these agents can cause generalized infections. Rapid diagnostic methods for detecting these infectious agents are not widely available.The aim of this work was to produce monoclonal and polyclonal anti-adenovirus antibodies to be used in a rapid diagnostic test for respiratory infections.Adenovirus hexons were satisfactorily purified by ultracentrifugation and chromatography. After virus purification, anti-hexon monoclonal antibodies were produced and characterized, following classical methods. Antibodies were specific for adenoviruses 2, 3, 5, and 41. The proposed immunochromatographic test was standardized using colloidal gold.The standardization of the rapid test was sufficient to detect adenovirus antigens (in nasopharyngeal lavage samples) with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85% when compared to direct immunofluorescence.The immunochromatographic assay prototype was sufficiently sensitive to detect B (3), C (2 and 5), and F (41) adenovirus samples. Although based on preliminary data, the test demonstrated the same performance as direct immunofluorescence, but with the advantage of being a point-of-care test. Further studies are still needed to confirm its effectiveness in clinical practice. <![CDATA[Quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500507&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. Objective To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. To be included in the study patients had to be 18 through 65 years old, diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, having the two previous viral loads above 500 copies, a surrogate for poor adherence to antiretrovirals. The following instruments were applied to all eligible patients: the sociodemographic questionnaire “Adherence Follow-up Questionnaire”, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey. Results 47 patients were evaluated, 70.2% were female, mean age of 41.9 years (±10.5), 46.8% were single, 51.1% self-reported adherence ≥95%, 46.8% mentioned depression as the main reason for not taking the medication, 59.5% presented symptoms of moderate to severe depression, and 44.7% presented symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety. Finally, regarding health-related quality of life these patients obtained low scores in all dimensions, physical component summary of 43.96 (±9.64) and mental component summary of 33.19 (±13.35). Conclusion The psychological component is considered to be fundamental in the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Psychoeducation should be conducted at the initial evaluation to reduce negative beliefs regarding antiretroviral therapy Assessment of anxiety and depression symptoms should be done throughout therapy as both psycological conditions are associated with patient adherence, success of treatment, and ultimately with patients’ quality of life. <![CDATA[Vaccination coverage in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care at an AIDS outpatient clinic in Espírito Santo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500515&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6.8%) and for meningococcal group C (6%). Only 11.74% of the patients had received the influenza virus vaccine yearly since their HIV-infection diagnosis. No vaccination against influenza (p &lt; 0.034) or hepatitis B (p &lt; 0.029) were associated with CD4 counts &lt;500 cells/mL; no vaccination against flu or pneumococcus were associated with detectable HIV viral load (p &lt; 0.049 and p &lt; 0.002, respectively). Immunization coverage is still very low among HIV-infected adults in this setting despite recommendations and high infection-related mortality. <![CDATA[Unrecognized pediatric and adult family members of children with acute brucellosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500520&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Background and aim Brucellosis is an infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. The family members of an index case of brucellosis may be especially susceptible, due to sharing the same source of infection and similar risk factors for brucellosis. In this study, we propose to screen pediatric and adult family members of brucellosis index cases for detecting additional unrecognized infected family members. Materials and methods 114 family members of 41 pediatric patients with brucellosis were evaluated. All family members completed a brief questionnaire and were tested by a standard tube agglutination test (STA). Results The majority of family members (n = 96, 84.2%) were children. Among the 114 family members, 42 (36.8%) were seropositive, and 15 (35.7%) were symptomatic. The majority of the symptomatic seropositive family members (n = 12, 80%) had STA titers (≥1:640) higher than asymptomatic seropositive family members (n = 9, 33%; p = 0.004). Conclusion The routine screening of both pediatric and adult family members of index cases is a priority in endemic areas. Using this screening approach, unrecognized family members who are seropositive for brucellosis will be identified earlier and be able to receive prompt treatment. <![CDATA[Identification of hepatitis B virus A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain in patients in Southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500525&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic HBV infection with high viral replication may lead to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBV strains, such as the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant, have been associated with poor prognosis and higher risk of the patient for developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. This study analyzed the presence of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant in patients with chronic HBV and its association with clinical parameters such as viral load, aminotransferases, and HBV antigens. A total of 49 patients with chronic hepatitis B were included in the study, and the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain was detected in four samples (8.16%) by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length analysis (PCR-RFLP). The viral load was not significantly different between patients with or without the double mutant strain (p = 0.43). On the other hand, carriers of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant had higher levels of ALT (p = 0.0028), while AST levels did not differ between groups (p = 0.051). In this study, 75% of the samples with the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutation were HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive, reflecting seroconversion even though they still displayed high viral loads. Our study has shown that the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain circulates in Brazilian patients, and is associated with elevated levels of ALT and HBeAg seroconversion. <![CDATA[Increasing rates of <em>Clostridium difficile</em> infection in Mexican hospitals]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500530&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Introduction The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world. Methods This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis. CDI was classified according to international guidelines. Demographic and clinical data as well as information regarding total hospital admissions, total length-of-hospital stay, and other variables related to hospitalization were gathered from the epidemiology and administration departments of each hospital. Results A total of 2050 hospital beds were analyzed with 288,171 patients hospitalized accumulating 1,576,446 days of hospitalization during the study period. The average rate of CDI per 1000 hospital-days was lower than the rates reported in the US and Europe, although in 2015 CDI rates were almost persistently above the mean rate for the study period. More than half of PCR positive patients were ribotype 027. Conclusion Hospital rates of CDI are increasing in Mexican hospitals with a predominance of infections caused by ribotype 027. <![CDATA[High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500535&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. <![CDATA[Will Mayaro virus be responsible for the next outbreak of an arthropod-borne virus in Brazil?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500540&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Mayaro virus is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of Mayaro virus infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil. In this review, we describe the reported prevalence of this infection over the years and discuss the circumstances that can contribute to the establishment of an urban mayaro virus epidemic in Brazil and the problems encountered with the specific diagnosis, especially the antigenic cross-reactivity of this pathogen with other viruses of the same family. <![CDATA[<em>Leishmania donovani</em> infection activates Toll-like receptor 2, 4 expressions and Transforming growth factor-beta mediated apoptosis in renal tissues]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500545&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. The levels of superoxide anion (O2 -), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (MDA), inflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression were found significantly elevated at 60th day in these animals and declined at 90th day post infection. However, TGF-β and caspase 3 activities were higher at 90th day in comparison to 60th day post infection. These findings suggested that exacerbated inflammatory conditions correlate with abnormal renal functions in L. donovani infection, which is further augmented by activated TLRs expressions by circulating leishmanial antigens. Further, the increased levels of TGF-β and caspase 3 at 90th day suggested TGF-β mediated apoptotic cell death of renal and other cells during later stages of disease that may eventually result in release of host and parasitic factors in urine during visceral leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[Next-generation sequencing virulome analysis of a <em>Yersinia enterocolitica</em> subsp. <em>palearctica</em> bioserotype 4/O:3 ST18 isolated from human blood in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500550&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disease and other clinical manifestations in humans. Potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been isolated in Brazil, from human, environmental, food, and animal sources. Herein we report a genome sequence of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica strain YE 19, serotype O:3, biotype 4, sequence type 18, with virulence determinants isolated from human blood in Rio de Janeiro in 2005. The results corroborate other findings that this strain harbors a set of virulence determinants that could play a role in host pathoadaptation and may also justify the successful dissemination of bioserotype 4/O:3 in Brazil. The presence of strains harboring all of these virulence genes in Brazil is a potential threat to young children and immunocompromised individuals, for whom yersiniosis are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The results of a genomic data analysis will help understand the virulence of Brazilian strains and provide data for Y. enterocolitica studies worldwide. <![CDATA[Rapid spread of an ongoing outbreak of Zika virus disease in pregnant women in a Mexican hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500554&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In the first nine weeks of implementation of a Zika Virus Preparedness Plan in a Mexican Public Hospital, we cared for 221 pregnant women with any signal or symptom suggesting Zika virus infection and 99 (44.8%) patients were found to be positive for Zika virus.The median age of patients was 25.3 years (range 13-49). Symptoms in PCR-positive patients were rash (91.4%) followed by headache (53.1%), myalgia (46.9%), arthralgia (45.7%), pruritus (35.8%), retroocular pain (29.6%), conjunctivitis (21%), and fever (21%). The women's epidemiologic exposure history indicates local transmission and a community outbreak. <![CDATA[Salivary anti-PGL-1 IgM may indicate active transmission of <em>Mycobacterium leprae</em> among young people under 16 years of age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500557&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibody levels. High frequency of IgM positivity strongly suggests active transmission of M. leprae in these communities. We suggest in the present work that salivary anti-PGL IgA and IgM are important biomarkers to be used for identifying communities with probable active transmission of M. leprae. <![CDATA[Tuberculosis incidence among people living with HIV/AIDS with virological failure of antiretroviral therapy in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500562&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000 copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density = 4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. <![CDATA[Intrauterine fetal death due to congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500567&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000 copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density = 4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. <![CDATA[The <em>in vitro</em> activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against 417 Gram-negative bacilli collected in 2014 and 2015 at a teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500569&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000 copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density = 4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. <![CDATA[A case of chronic lacrimal canaliculitis: revisiting the role of <em>Actinomyces israelii</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000500574&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000 copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density = 4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS.