Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020140001&lang=es vol. 18 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Virologic and immunologic effectiveness of darunavir-based salvage therapy in HIV-1-infected adults in a Brazilian clinical practice setting: results of a multicenter and retrospective cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Darunavir has been proven efficacious for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in randomized trials. However, effectiveness of darunavir-based salvage therapy is understudied in routine care in Brazil. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected patients from three public referral centers in Belo Horizonte, who received a darunavir-based therapy between 2008 and 2010, after virologic failure. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with viral load &lt;50 copies/mL at week 48. Change in CD4 cell count was also evaluated. Outcome measures were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis applied to observational studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of missing data at week 48. Predictors of virologic failure were examined using rare-event, finite sample, bias-corrected logistic regression. Results: Among 108 patients, the median age was 44.2 years, and 72.2% were male. They had long-standing HIV-1 infection (median 11.6 years) and advanced disease (76.9% had an AIDS-defining event). All patients had previously received protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 75% nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 4.6% enfuvirtide. The median length of protease inhibitor use was 8.9 years, and 90.8% of patients had prior exposure to unboosted protease inhibitor. Genotypic resistance profile showed a median of three primary protease inhibitor mutations and 10.2% had three or more darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Virologic success at week 48 was achieved by 78.7% (95% CI = 69.7–86%) of patients and mean CD4 cell count increase from baseline was 131.5 cells/μL (95% CI = 103.4–159.6). In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher baseline viral load (RR = 1.04 per 10,000 copies/mL increase; 95% CI = 1.01–1.09) and higher number of darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RR = 1.23 per each; 95% CI = 0.95–1.48) were independently associated with virologic failure. Conclusion: Virologic suppression is a realistic endpoint for most treatment-experienced patients who begin a darunavir-based therapy outside the controlled conditions of a randomized trial, at routine care settings. <![CDATA[Leprosy and hepatitis B coinfection in southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es To investigate the association of leprosy with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as yet unknown for South Brazil, we assessed hepatitis B virus coinfection in 199 South Brazilian leprosy patients (119 lepromatous, 15 tuberculoid, 30 borderline, 12 undetermined and 23 unspecified) and in 681 matched blood donors by screening for the hepatitis B virus markers HBSAg and anti-HBc, using ELISA. Positive samples were retested and anti-HBc+ only samples were tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). There was a strong association between leprosy and hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 6.4–14.7; p = 0.004·E−30), as well as an association between HBV infection and lepromatous leprosy, compared to other forms (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.8; p = 0.017). We also found that confinement due to leprosy was associated with hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.1–7.4; p = 0.015·E−3). Leprosy patients are susceptible to develop hepatitis B virus infection, especially lepromatous. Institutionalized patients, who probably present a stronger Th2 response, have higher risk of being exposed to hepatitis B virus. This clearly emphasizes the need for special care to leprosy patients in preventing hepatitis B virus coinfection in South Brazil. <![CDATA[Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n = 2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. <![CDATA[Promotion of hand hygiene strengthening initiative in a Nigerian teaching hospital: implication for improved patient safety in low-income health facilities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Health care-associated infection remains a significant hazard for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a fundamental action for ensuring patient safety. Objective: To promote adoption of World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Guidelines to enhance compliance among doctors and nurses and improve patient safety. Methods: The study design was a cross sectional intervention in a Federal Teaching Hospital South-eastern Nigeria. Interventions involved training/education; introduction of hand rub; and hand hygiene reminders. The impact of interventions and hand hygiene compliance were evaluated using World Health Organization direct observation technique. Results: The post-intervention hand hygiene compliance rate was 65.3%. Hand hygiene indications showed highest compliance rate ‘after body fluid exposure' (75.3%) and ‘after touching a patient' (73.6%) while the least compliance rate was recorded ‘before touching a patient' (58.0%). Hand hygiene compliance rate was significantly higher among nurses (72.9%) compared to doctors (59.7%) (χ2 = 23.8, p &lt; 0.05). Hand hygiene indication with significantly higher compliance rate was “before clean/aseptic procedure” (84.4%) (χ2 = 80.74, p &lt; 0.05). Out of the 815 hand hygiene practices recorded 550 (67.5%) were hand rub action. Conclusions: hand hygiene campaigns using the World Health Organization tools and methodology can be successfully executed in a tertiary health facility of a low-income setting with far reaching improvements in compliance. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of septic arthritis of the knee at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Septic arthritis is an infrequent disease although very important due to the possibility of disastrous outcomes if treatment is not adequately established. Adequate information concerning the epidemiology of septic arthritis is still lacking due to the uncommon nature of the disease as well as the struggle to establish a correct case-definition. Objective: To epidemiologically characterize the population seen at Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo with a diagnosis of septic arthritis between 2006 and 2011. Methods: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the knee between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics, the microorganisms that caused the infection and the patients' treatment and evolution were analyzed. Results: Septic arthritis of the knee was more common among men, with distribution across a variety of age ranges. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures. The most prevalent clinical comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the most commonly reported joint disease was osteoarthritis. Staphylococcus aureus was the prevailing pathogen. Fever was present in 36% of the cases. All patients presented elevation in inflammatory tests. Gram staining was positive in only 50.8% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented complications and unfavorable evolution of their condition. Conclusion: S. aureus is still the most common pathogen in acute knee infections in our environment. Gram staining, absence of fever and normal leukocyte count cannot be used to rule out septic arthritis. <![CDATA[Incidence rate of modifying or discontinuing first combined antiretroviral therapy regimen due to toxicity during the first year of treatment stratified by age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100034&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Toxicity is the most frequently reported reason for modifying or discontinuing the first combined antiretroviral therapy regimens, and it can cause significant morbidity, poor quality of life and also can be an important barrier to adherence, ultimately resulting in treatment failure and viral resistance. Elderly patients with HIV/AIDS (≥50 years) may have a different profile in terms of treatment modification due to higher incidence of comorbidities and polypharmacy. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of modifying or discontinuing first combined antiretroviral therapy regimen due to toxicity (TOX-MOD) during the first year of treatment at the IPEC – FIOCRUZ HIV/AIDS cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, stratified by age. Demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics from antiretroviral-naïve patients who first received combined antiretroviral therapy between Jan/1996 and Dec/2010 were collected. Incidence rate and confidence interval of each event were estimated using quasipoisson model. To estimate hazard ratio (HR) of TOX-MOD during the first year of combined antiretroviral therapy Cox's proportional hazards regression was applied. Overall, 1558 patients were included; 957 (61.4%), 420 (27.0%) and 181 (11.6%) were aged &lt;40, 40–49, and ≥50 years, respectively. 239 (15.3%) events that led to any modifying or discontinuing within the first year of treatment were observed; 228 (95.4%) of these were TOX-MOD, corresponding to an incidence rate of 16.6/100 PY (95% CI: 14.6–18.9). The most frequent TOX-MOD during first combined antiretroviral therapy regimen were hematologic (59; 26.3%), central nervous system (47; 20.9%), rash (42; 19.1%) and gastrointestinal (GI) (38; 16.7%). In multivariate analysis, incidence ratio of TOX-MOD during the first year of combined antiretroviral therapy progressively increases with age, albeit not reaching statistical significance. This profile was maintained after adjusting the model for sex, combined antiretroviral therapy regimen and year of combined antiretroviral therapy initiation. These results are important because not only patients are living longer and aging with HIV, but also new diagnoses are being made among the elderly. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the safety profile of first line combined antiretroviral therapy on elderly individuals, especially in resource-limited countries, where initial regimens are mostly NNRTI-based. <![CDATA[Methicillin-resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> nasal carriage in neonates and children attending a pediatric outpatient clinics in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100042&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In Latin America, few studies have been carried out on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in the pediatric population. We conducted a survey of nasal S. aureus carriage in neonates and in children attending the pediatric outpatient clinics in a large Brazilian city with high antimicrobial consumption. Methods: Pernasal swabs of neonates were collected upon admission and at discharge in four neonatal intensive care units and of children less than five years of age during outpatient visits. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were characterized for antibiotic susceptibility, mec gene presence, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa type, SCCmec-type, multilocus sequence type, and presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Results: S. aureus was carried by 9.1% and 20.1% of the 701 neonates and of 2034 children attending the outpatient clinics, respectively; methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was detected in 0.6% and 0.2%, of the these populations, respectively. Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains found in neonates from neonatal intensive care units and outpatients were genetically related to the Brazilian (SCCmec-III, ST239) and to the Pediatric (SCCmec-IV, ST5) clones. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus was only detected in outpatients. None of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains contained the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains related to the Brazilian clone showed multidrug resistance pattern. Conclusions: Despite the high antibiotic pressure in our area, and the cross transmission of the healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones between neonatal intensive care units and outpatients, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage is still low in our setting. <![CDATA[Peginterferon plus ribavirin and sustained virological response rate in HCV-related advanced fibrosis: a real life study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100048&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Tolerance and response to antiviral HCV treatment is poor in advanced fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess SVR rate and its predictive factors in HCV advanced fibrosis patients treated in real life with full dose PEG-IFN plus RBV and to evaluate the adverse events related to treatment. Methods: A multicentric, retrospective study was conducted at six university hospitals. METAVIR F3 and F4 HCV monoinfected patients who were treated with PEG-IFN and RBV had their data analyzed. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables independently related to SVR. Adverse events were recorded during treatment. Results: 308 patients were included, 75% genotype 1 and 23% genotype 3. METAVIR F3 was present in 39% and F4 in 61% of patients. The median Child Pugh score for F4 patients was 5 (5–9). The global SVR rate was 34%, 11% were relapsers and 55% were nonresponders. SVR rates were similar between patients treated with PEG-IFN alfa 2a or alfa 2b (p = 0.24). SVR rates according to Child–Pugh score were 26% (Child A) and 18% (Child B). The independent factors related to SVR in F4 patients were genotype 3, RVR and fewer Child Pugh score points. Treatment interruption occurred in 31% patients and death occurred in 1.9%, all with liver cirrhosis. Conclusion: Treatment of HCV in patients with advanced fibrosis should not be postponed. However, a very careful evaluation of cirrhotic patients must be performed before treatment is indicated and careful monitoring is required during treatment. <![CDATA[Rotavirus in adults, Brazil, 2004-2011: G2P[4] dominance and potential impact on vaccination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100053&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor rotavirus (RV) infections in adults &gt;18 years with acute gastroenteritis during 2004–2011 national Brazilian RV surveillance. In addition, to characterize the RV group A (RVA) strains in order to gain insight into the supposed vaccine selective pressure imposed to Brazilian children population. Methods: A total of 2102 convenient fecal specimens were investigated by ELISA, PAGE, and RT-PCR. Results: RV was detected in 203 (9.6%) of 2102 specimens, and showed a marked peak of detection in September. RVA infection was detected in 9.4% (197/2102) and RV group C (RVC) in 0.3% (6/2102). The most frequent genotypes detected in 2004 and 2005 were G9P[8] (38.5%; 5/13) and G1P[8] (54.5%; 6/11), respectively. The dominant genotype identified from 2006 to 2011 was G2P[4] (64.4%; 116/180). Detection rate varied during the 8-year period of the study from 0.7% to 12.9%. Conclusion: The high detection rate of G2P[4] in adults provides further evidence that its dominance reflects the seasonality of RVA strains instead of the supposed selective advantage created by vaccination program. It also can be suggested that adult infections may serve as a reservoir to maintain RVA strains in childhood gastroenteritis. Considering the detection rate, the evident reduction of RVA frequency observed in children after vaccine introduction was not present in adults. <![CDATA[Tuberculin skin testing in inflammatory bowel disease patients from an endemic area of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100060&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract. Immunosuppressive drugs are usually prescribed to treat IBD patients, and this treatment can lead to tuberculosis reactivation. This paper aimed to analyze tuberculin skin test (TST) results in IBD patients at a reference center in Brazil. Methods: We evaluated TST results in IBD patients using a cross-sectional study. We also analyzed the medical records of patients treated at a reference IBD outpatient unit where TST is routinely performed. Results: We reviewed 119 medical records of 57 (47.9%) Crohn's disease (CD), 57 (47.9%) ulcerative colitis (UC) and 5 (4.2%) indeterminate colitis (IC) patients. The mean (SD) age was 43.5 (13.7) years old. TST was positive in 24 (20.2%) of the patients. TST was positive in 16/57 (28.1%) UC and 6/57 (10.5%) CD patients (prevalence ratio [PR] 2.7). Forty-one patients (34.5%) were taking immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine or prednisone) at the time of the TST, and six of these patients (14.6%) had positive test results. Two patients using infliximab had negative TST results. Thirty-five of the 41 patients (85.4%) on immunosuppressive treatment were anergic compared with 73.1% (57/78) of the untreated patients (PR 1.2). Conclusions: Patients with IBD have TST results similar to the general Brazilian population. Within the IBD population, CD patients have a lower frequency of TST positivity than UC patients. <![CDATA[Interleukin-12 gene adjuvant increases the immunogenicity of virus-like particles of human papillomavirus type 16 regional variant strain]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100065&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objectives: To analyze the immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLP) of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) isolated in East China and the adjuvant potential of interleukin-12 (IL-12). Methods: The variant HPV16 L1VLP expressed in sf9 insect cells were purified with cesium chloride gradient centrifugation. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with VLP (L1N), VLP with Freund's adjuvant (L1A) or VLP with IL-12 recombinant plasmid (L1P). HPV16 VLP specific IgG and IFN-γ level in the serum were detected by ELISA, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ in spleen cells was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The titers of serum IgG antibodies in vaccinated groups were higher than in negative control and the serum antibodies mainly recognized conformation-dependent HPV16 VLP epitopes. Splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets increased after vaccination in every experimental group, and CD8+ increased obviously in L1P group. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ decreased in L1P group and increased in the other two groups, compared to control group. Vaccination induced specific secretion of IFN-γ in the serum of vaccinated group (p &lt; 0.05), especially in the L1P group. Conclusions: VLP of HPV16 variant strain isolated in East China could induce humoral immunity and cellular immunity in mice, and IL-12 recombinant plasmid can enhance cellular immunity. <![CDATA[HPV infection, risk factors and viral load among Mexican male college students]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100071&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HPV and the risky sexual behaviors associated to it in a sample of male college students, taking into account genotype and viral load. Methods: From 2002 to 2003, male students from the Autonomous University of Morelos State completed a questionnaire and provided self-collected genital samples to detect and quantify HPV. We performed a bivariate and a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify correlates associated with the infection and to assess the viral load as a function of the viral infecting type. The fragments of β-globin gene and L1 of HPV, were amplified, purified and cloned, to evaluate viral load. Results: Among 253 subjects, HPV prevalence was 19.4%, and HPV16 was the most common subtype. History of STIs (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 1.2–18.9), contraceptive pill use by female partner (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.1–6.3) and exchanging sex for money (OR = 4.9; 95% CI 1.2–20) were associated to the HPV infection. HPV16 viral load was 7.8 copies (HPV/beta-globin) compared to 0.9 copies for other HPV types. Discussion: HPV16 displayed the highest viral load, and it was the most prevalent. It was found that using contraceptive pills by female partners was associated with HPV infection. <![CDATA[Immune responses to <italic>Leptospira</italic> infection: roles as biomarkers for disease severity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100077&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Various leptospiral components have been identified and shown to be involved in tissue destruction. In addition, immune responses to leptospires have been implicated in target organ damages in severe leptospirosis cases. Several inflammatory mediators were shown to be higher in susceptible animals than in resistant hosts. Moreover, cytokines/chemokines and serum proteins induced following Leptospira infection were suggested to be biomarkers for disease severity in human leptospirosis. This review focuses on the role of immune responses in the severity of leptospirosis. Studies in both animal models and humans are discussed. <![CDATA[The association of HLA-DRB1 alleles and drug use with HIV infection in a Chinese Han Cohort]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100082&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Objective: To investigate the relationship between the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and the susceptibility and repellency of drug use combined with HIV infection in Chinese. Methods: A total of 213 unrelated healthy people, 41 HIV-infected drug users, 24 HIV-uninfected drug users, and 64 HIV-infected non-drug users were recruited. Their HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies were analyzed by PCR-SSP and allele distribution was analyzed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, in drug users, the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *0401-041, *1001 were significantly higher; in HIV-infected patients, the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *0101-0103, *0401-0411, *1001 were significantly higher, while the frequencies of DRB1 *1501-1502, *1101-1105, *1301-1302, DRB4, DRB5 were significantly lower; in HIV-infected drug users, the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *0101-0103, *0401-0411, *0801-0806, *1001, *1401/1404/1405 were significantly higher, while the frequencies of DRB1 *1301/1302, 1501-1502, DRB5 were significantly lower. Conclusion: There is close relationship between the polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 alleles and drug use with HIV infection, which plays an important role in elucidating the pathogenesis and providing the basis for therapeutics and prophylaxis of patients with drug use and HIV infection. <![CDATA[Clinical and laboratory characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Chinese patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100088&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) associated with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging infectious disease. 12 patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in our study were presented mainly with fever and severe malaise. The clinical manifestations typically became worse on the 6th or 7th day. The average fever time is 9.11 ± 1.54 days. Most of them had multiorgan dysfunction, and part of them had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis histiocytosis (HLH). The characteristic laboratory findings in the early stage were the drop of white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT) and serum Ca++, while increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). CD3+CD4+ were significantly decreased, while CD3-CD56+ were significantly increased, whereas CD3+CD8+ were constantly elevated throughout the disease course. Ten to 14 days after illness onset, symptoms were improved, accompanied by resolution of laboratory abnormalities. These results indicate that severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome has an acute onset and self-limited course. It is a systemic infection. The host immune response caused tissues and organs injury. The improvement of symptoms and laboratory tests is consistent with the elimination of the virus and recover of immune response. Further investigation should be done in order to better understand this disease and guide the clinical treatment. <![CDATA[Is nosocomial <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> bacteremia a predictive risk factor for mortality?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100092&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Secondary syphilis with oral manifestation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100095&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Bilateral geographical ulcer in a neonate]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100096&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Coronaviruses in children with febrile neutropenia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100098&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Carbapenemase KPC-2 in ESBL-producing <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> from two clinics from Villavicencio, Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100100&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Rifampin induced angioedema: a rare but serious side effect]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100102&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Mortality of children following a diagnosis of HIV infection in northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100104&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia. <![CDATA[Cervical spondylitis and spinal abscess due to <italic>Actinomyces meyeri</italic>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100106&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Human actinomycosis with involvement of the spine is a rare condition although it has been first described a long time ago. It is probably underrecognized since its clinical presentation is often misleading and accurate bacteriological diagnosis is challenging. We herein report a rare case of cervical actinomycosis with paravertebral abscess and spondylitis imputed to an infection by Actinomyces meyeri in a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian man. A. meyeri should be considered as a potential cause for subacute or chronic spondylitis, even in immunocompetent subjects. Modern diagnostic tools such as Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption–Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing are efficient for accurate microbiological identification. <![CDATA[Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism associated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C: case report and literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702014000100110&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pegylated interferon alpha (Peg IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin is the backbone of treatment in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Cardiotoxicity due to interferon therapy is rare. The most frequent cardiovascular complications are arrhythmias and ischemic manifestations. Cardiomyopathy is extremely rare but can be life threatening. We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with CHC in whom Peg IFN-α induced dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism. Chest radiography showed an enlarged and globular cardiac silhouette and pulmonary congestion. Echocardiography showed decreased left ventricular systolic function with an ejection fraction of 32% and fractional shortening of 15%. Cardiomyopathy had a complete remission after cessation of antiviral therapy with short-term heart failure medications and supportive care. Then we review the current literature about interferon induced cardiomyopathy in patients with HCV infection, as well as share our clinical experience in diagnosing and managing this rare complication.