Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 21 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Comparison of the ACC/AHA and Framingham algorithms to assess cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the predictions of Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk score (FRS) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk score in an HIV outpatient clinic in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study 341 HIV infected patients over 40 years old consecutively recruited were interviewed. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement between the two algorithms. 61.3% were stratified as low risk by Framingham score, compared with 54% by ACC/AHA score (Spearman correlation 0.845; p &lt; 0.000). Only 26.1% were classified as cardiovascular high risk by Framingham compared to 46% by ACC/AHA score (Kappa = 0.745; p &lt; 0.039). Only one out of eight patients had cardiovascular high risk by Framingham at the time of a myocardial infarction event registered up to five years before the study period. Both cardiovascular risk scores but especially Framingham underestimated high-risk patients in this HIV-infected population. <![CDATA[Comparison between the gold standard DXA with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound based-strategy (QUS) to detect osteoporosis in an HIV infected cohort]]> ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoporosis represents one of the most frequent comorbidity among HIV patients. The current standard method for osteoporosis diagnosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can provide information about bone quality. The aims of this study are to compare these two methods and to evaluate their ability to screen for vertebral fracture. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV patients attending the Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of Brescia during 2014 and who underwent lumbar/femoral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, vertebral fracture assessment and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound. The assessment of osteoporosis diagnostic accuracy was performed for calcaneal quantitative ultrasound and for vertebral fracture comparing them with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: We enrolled 73 patients and almost 48% of them had osteoporosis with at least one of the method used. Vertebral fracture were present in 27.4%. Among patients with normal bone measurements, we found vertebral fracture in proportion between 10% and 30%. If we used calcaneal quantitative ultrasound method and/or X-ray as screening, the percentages of possible savable dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ranged from 12% to 89% and misclassification rates ranged from 0 to 24.6%. A combined strategy, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound and X-Ray, identified 67% of patients with low risk of osteoporosis, but 16.4% of patients were misclassified. Conclusions: We observed that patients with osteoporosis determined by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have higher probability to undergo vertebral fracture, but neither of them can be used for predicting vertebral fracture. Use of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound for screening is a reasonable alternative of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry since our study confirm that none strategy is clearly superior, but both screen tools must be always completed with X-ray. <![CDATA[A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of <em>Neisseria meningitidis</em> in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. <![CDATA[High HIV infection prevalence in a group of men who have sex with men]]> ABSTRACT Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Secondary data was collected between June 2014 and September 2015 in a research of cross-sectional design in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Volunteers answered an online computerized questionnaire and took HIV test. Chi-squared distribution and multiple logistic regression was used. There were 341 participants. Most of them were racially mixed, single, average age of 30.6 years and with a higher education level. The HIV prevalence was 13.9%. Two logistic models were fit (insertive or receptive anal intercourse). Both models showed an association with HIV among those who had a HIV positive sexual partner (Odds Ratio ≈ 2.5) and a high self-perception of acquiring HIV (Model 1: Odds Ratio ≈ 7/Model 2: Odds Ratio ≈ 10). Low condom usage in receptive anal intercourse with casual partners had a direct association with HIV seropositivity, whereas insertive anal intercourse with casual partners with or without condoms were inversely related. The study identified a high prevalence of HIV infections among a group of men who sex with men with a high self-perception risk of acquiring HIV. The findings also showed a relation with sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables. <![CDATA[Serum markers as an aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections in AIDS patients]]> ABSTRACT Introduction: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients’ serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan, galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase. The association among the variables was analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: 60 patients were included in the study. The patients were classified in three groups: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (19 patients), community-acquired pneumonia (18 patients), and other infections (23 patients). The overall mortality was 13.3%. The time since diagnosis of HIV infection was shorter in the pneumocystosis group (4.94 years; p = 0.001) than for the other two groups of patients. The multivariate analysis showed that higher (1-3)-β-D-Glucan level (mean: 241 pg/mL) and lactate dehydrogenase (mean: 762 U/L) were associated with the diagnosis of pneumocystosis. Pneumocystosis was the aids-defining illness in 11 out of 16 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In the era of antiretroviral therapy, PJP was still the most prevalent pulmonary infection and (1-3)-β-D-Glucan and lactate dehydrogenase may be suitable markers to help diagnosing pneumocystosis in our HIV population. <![CDATA[Infections after shoulder arthroplasty are correlated with higher anesthetic risk score: a case-control study in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Purposes: Shoulder arthroplasty (SA) has been performed by many years for the treatment of several conditions, including osteoarthritis and proximal humeral fractures following trauma. Surgical site infection (SSI) following Shoulder arthroplasty remains a challenge, contributing to increased morbidity and costs. Identification of risk factors may help implementing adequate strategies to prevent infection. We aimed to identify pre- and intra-operative risk factors associated with deep infections after Shoulder arthroplasty. Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted to describe the prevalence, clinical and microbiological findings, and to evaluate patient and surgical risk factors for prosthetic shoulder infection (PSI), among 158 patients who underwent SA due to any reason, at a tertiary public university institution. Risk factors for PSI was assessed by uni- and multivariate analyses using multiple logistic regression. Results: 168 SA from 158 patients were analyzed, with an overall infection rate of 9.5% (16/168 cases). Subjects undergoing SA with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade III or higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58-17.79, p &lt; 0.013) and presenting local hematoma after surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 7.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-46.09, p = 0.04) had higher risk for PSI on univariate analysis. However, only ASA score grade III or higher remained significant on multivariate analysis (OR = 4.74, 95% CI = 1.33-16.92, p = 0.016). Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli were equally isolated in 50% of cases; however, the most commonly detected bacterium was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.7%). Conclusion: This study provides evidence suggesting that patient-related known factors such as higher ASA score predisposes to shoulder arthroplasty-associated infection. Furthermore, unusual pathogens associated with PSI were identified. <![CDATA[Humoral and cellular immune response of mice challenged with <em>Yersinia pestis</em> antigenic preparations]]> ABSTRACT Objectives: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response. Methods: The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40 µg or 20 µg of the F1 protein produced anti-F1 Abs, with titres ranging from 1/16 to 1/8132. The average of CD3+-CD4+ and CD3+-CD8+ T cells did not differ significantly between the groups. Neither YP total extract nor F1 protein induced a significant expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, F1 failed to induce IFN-γ expression in CD8+ T cells, unlike the YP total extract. Conclusion: The results showed that F1 protein is not an immunogenic T cell antigen, although the YP total extract (40 µg dose) favoured CD8+ T cell-mediated cellular immunity. <![CDATA[Ceftolozane-tazobactam activity against drug-resistant <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> causing healthcare-associated infections in Latin America: report from an antimicrobial surveillance program (2013-2015)]]> ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor.A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Results: Ceftolozane-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 0.25/32 µg/mL; 84.2% susceptible) and meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.12 µg/mL; 92.6% susceptible) were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 6.6% were carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 26.4% exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Whereas ceftolozane-tazobactam showed good activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype strains of Enterobacteriaceae (MIC50/90, 0.5/&gt;32 µg/mL), it lacked useful activity against strains with a (MIC50/90, &gt;32/&gt;32 µg/mL; 1.6% S) carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most potent (MIC50//90, 0.5/16 µg/mL) β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa isolates, inhibiting 86.8% at an MIC of ≤4 µg/mL. P. aeruginosa exhibited high rates of resistance to cefepime (16.0%), ceftazidime (23.6%), meropenem (28.3%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (16.4%). Conclusions: Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most active β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated higher in vitro activity than available cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam when tested against Enterobacteriaceae. <![CDATA[Molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis: a 9-year retrospective and prospective study in a referral laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Symptomatic forms of toxoplasmosis are a serious public health problem and occur in around 10-20% of the infected people. Aiming to improve the molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients, this study evaluated the performance of real time PCR testing two primer sets (B1 and REP-529) in detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA. The methodology was assayed in 807 clinical samples with known clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR results in a 9-year period. All samples were from patients with clinical suspicion of several features of toxoplasmosis. According to the minimum detection limit curve (in CT), REP-529 had greater sensitivity to detect T. gondii DNA than B1. Both primer sets were retrospectively evaluated using 515 DNA from different clinical samples. The 122 patients without toxoplasmosis provided high specificity (REP-529, 99.2% and B1, 100%). From the 393 samples with positive ELISA, 146 had clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and positive conventional PCR. REP-529 and B1 sensitivities were 95.9% and 83.6%, respectively. Comparison of REP-529 and B1 performances was further analyzed prospectively in 292 samples. Thus, from a total of 807 DNA analyzed, 217 (26.89%) had positive PCR with, at least one primer set and symptomatic toxoplasmosis confirmed by clinical diagnosis. REP-529 was positive in 97.23%, whereas B1 amplified only 78.80%. After comparing several samples in a Brazilian referral laboratory, this study concluded that REP-529 primer set had better performance than B1 one. These observations were based after using cases with defined clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR. <![CDATA[Recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT A panel of national experts was convened by the Brazilian Infectious Diseases Society in order to determine the recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in Brazil. The following aspects are covered in the document: organization of OPAT programs; patient evaluation and eligibility criteria, including clinical and sociocultural factors; diagnosis of eligibility; venous access and antimicrobial infusion devices; protocols for antimicrobial use and monitoring and cost-effectiveness. <![CDATA[Clonal dissemination of vancomycin-resistant <em>Enterococcus faecium</em> ST412 in a Brazilian region]]> ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes. MLST genotyping showed that all VREfm belonged to ST412 (the high-risk clone, hospital-adapted). The present study describes the dissemination of ST412 clone in the local hospitals. The clonal spread of these ST412 isolates in the area we analyzed as well as other hospitals in southeastern Brazil supports the importance of identifying and controlling the presence of these microorganisms in health care-related services. <![CDATA[Mobile health application to assist doctors in antibiotic prescription - an approach for antibiotic stewardship]]> ABSTRACT Background: Technologies applied to mobile devices can be an important strategy in antibiotic stewardship programs. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a decision-making application on antibiotic prescription. Methods: This was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study on the implementation of an antimicrobial guide for mobile application. This study analyzed the period of 12 months before and 12 months after the app implementation at a university hospital based on local epidemiology, avoiding high cost drugs and reducing the potential for drug resistance including carbapenem. Antimicrobials consumption was evaluated in Daily Defined Dose/1000 patients-day and direct expenses converted into USD. Results: The monthly average consumption of aminoglycosides and cefepime had a statistically significant increase (p &lt; 0.05), while the consumption of piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem was significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05). The sensitivity to meropenem as well as to polymyxin increased after the app implementation. A decrease in sensitivity to cefepime was observed after introduction of this antibiotic as a substitute of piperacillin/tazobactam for treating intra-hospital infections.There was a net saving of USD 296,485.90 (p &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: An antibiotic protocol in the app can help antibiotic stewardship reducing cost, changing the microbiological profile and antimicrobial consumption. <![CDATA[Does SOFA predict outcomes better than SIRS in Brazilian ICU patients with suspected infection? A retrospective cohort study]]> ABSTRACT We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition) and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points). From January 2008 to December 2014, 1487 patients were admitted to the ICU due to suspected infection. SOFA ≥2 identified more septic patients than SIRS ≥2 (79.0% [n = 1175] vs. 68.5% [n = 1020], p &lt; 0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting ICU mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) = 0.64 vs. 0.64, p = 0.99). SOFA ≥2 was marginally better than SIRS ≥2 in predicting need for mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.64 vs. 0.62, p = 0.001), ICU stay &gt; 7 days (AUROC = 0.65 vs. 0.63, p = 0.004), and length of hospitalization &gt;10 days (AUROC = 0.61 vs. 0.59, p &lt; 0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting mechanical ventilation &gt;7 days. <![CDATA[Subcutaneous infection by <em>Graphium basitruncatum</em> in a heart transplant patient]]> ABSTRACT Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification. <![CDATA[Human parechovirus: sepsis-like illness with pulmonary infection]]> ABSTRACT Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification. <![CDATA[Malaria in Southern Brazil: a potential threat for a non-endemic region]]> ABSTRACT Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification. <![CDATA[Long-term virologic and immunologic responses on darunavir/ritonavir - containing regimens among highly antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients: 7-year follow-up of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification.