Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1413-867020150002&lang=pt vol. 19 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in a Brazilian Women's Hospital: a case-control study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200113&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The present study evaluated patients with diagnosis of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean section and their controls to determinate risk factors and impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on this condition. Methods: All cesareans performed from January 2009 to December 2012 were evaluated for SSI, based on criteria established by CDC/NHSN. Control patients were determined after inclusion of case patients. Medical records of case and control patients were reviewed and compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Our study demonstrated an association following univariate analysis between post-cesarean SSI and number of internal vaginal examinations, time of membrane rupture, emergency cesarean and improper use of antibiotic prophylaxis. This same situation did not repeat itself in multivariate analysis with adjustment for risk factors, especially with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, considering the emergency cesarean factor only. Conclusion: The authors of the present study not only question surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use based on data presented here and in literature, but suggest that the prophylaxis is perhaps indicated primarily in selected groups of patients undergoing cesarean section. Further research with greater number of patients and evaluated risk factors are fundamental for better understanding of the causes and evolution of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. <![CDATA[Clinical relevance of rhinovirus infections among adult hospitalized patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200118&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Human rhinovirus (HRV) is an emerging viral pathogen. Aim: To characterize a group of patients admitted due to infection by this agent in a general hospital in Chile. Methods: Cases were identified by RT-PCR for 1 year through active surveillance of patients admitted with severe respiratory illness. Diagnosis was not available during hospitalization. Thirty-two cases were identified, 90% were ≥60 years old or had co-morbid conditions. Human rhinovirus-related admissions represented 23.7% of hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory infections among adults and ranked second to influenza (37.8%). Patients presented with pneumonia (68.8%), decompensated chronic lung conditions (21.9%), heart failure or influenza-like illness (6.3% each). Admission to intensive or intermediate care units was required by 31.2% and in-hospital mortality reached 12.5%. A CURB-65 score ≥3 was significantly associated to in-hospital mortality (p &lt; 0.05). Most patients received antibiotics (90%). Conclusions: Human rhinovirus infections in elderly patients with co-morbid conditions are associated with hospitalizations, requiring critical or semi-critical antibiotics use. A high CURB-65 score was associated to in-hospital mortality. <![CDATA[Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200125&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood could reflect an indi- vidual's immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes and clinical status of patients with active tuberculosis. Methods: This was a retrospective review of data collected from the clinical database of The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi, Medical College of Jiangnan University. A total of 419 patients who had newly diagnosed active tuberculosis and 108 cases from 419 patients with tuberculosis therapy either near completion or completed were selected. Controls were 327 healthy donors. Results: Median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes was 0.36 (IQR, 0.22-0.54) in patients before treatment, and 0.16 (IQR, 0.12-0.20) in controls (p &lt; 0.001). Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes &lt;9% or &gt;25% was significant predictors for active tuberculosis (OR = 114.73, 95% CI, 39.80-330.71; OR = 89.81, 95% CI, 53.18-151.68, respectively). After treatment, the median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes recovered to be nearly normal. Compared to other patients, patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis and of age &gt;60 years were more likely to have extreme ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes (AOR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.08-6.09; AOR = 4.36, 95% CI, 1.43-13.29, respectively). Conclusions: Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes &lt;9% or &gt;25% is predictive of active tuberculosis. <![CDATA[Antiviral and myocyte protective effects of IL-28A in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200132&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether interleukin-28A (IL-28A) plays a role in murine myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and to explore its possible mechanism involved. Methods: Male BALB/c mice both infected and not infected by CVB3 were randomly divided into four groups (n = 40), untreated or treated with different doses of IL-28A for 4 days, and then sacrificed on days 4 and 7 post-infection. The heart samples were collected for histopathologic examination. Cardiac viral load was determined by a plaque assay. Additionally, immunoblot analysis, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine the expression of signal transducer, activator of transcription 1 and 2 (STAT1 and STAT2), CVB3-induced apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2, BAX and Caspase-3. Results: Compared to uninfected mice, the CVB3 infected mice exhibited higher mortality rate (p &lt; 0.001), apparent inflammation and myocardial lesion (p &lt; 0.01), and higher cardiac viral load (p &lt; 0.01). After CVB3 infection, IL-28A treated mice presented no death (p &lt; 0.001), reduced inflammation and myocardial lesion (p &lt; 0.01), and lower viral load (p &lt; 0.01) compared to untreated mice. Besides, treatment with IL-28A markedly increased the expressions of STAT1 and STAT2, and inhibited CVB3-induced apoptosis in myocardial cells with increased ratio of Bcl-2/BAX. Conclusion: The antiviral and myocyte protective effects of IL-28A in CVB3-inducedmyocarditis are regulated by STAT1 and STAT2. <![CDATA[Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing noninvasive diseases in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200141&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, severely impair children's health. This study analyzed serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2012 in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai. Methods: A total of 328 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by multiplex sequential PCR and/or capsule-quellung reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for 11 antimi- crobial agents were determined by broth microdilution method. Results: Among 328 strains, 19F (36.3%), 19A (13.4%), 6A (11.9%), 23F (11.0%), 14 (5.8%), 6B (5.2%), and 15B/C (4.3%) were the most common serotypes. The coverage rates of 7-, 10-, and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13) were 58.2%, 58.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Out of the isolates, 26 (7.9%) strains were penicillin resistant. Most of the strains displayed high resistance rate to macrolides (98.5% to erythromycin, 97.9% to azithromycin, and 97.0% to clindamycin). Conclusions: The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because of the emergence of 19A and there should be long-term and systematic surveillance for non-vaccine serotypes. <![CDATA[São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200146&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temper- ature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature &gt;28 ◦ C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29 ± 2 ◦ C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature &gt;32 ◦ C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32 ◦ C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. <![CDATA[A meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of doripenem for treating bacterial infections]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200156&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Objective: The aim of this article is to compare the efficacy and safety of doripenem for bacterial infections. Methods: We included six randomized clinical trials identified from PubMed and Embase up to July 31, 2014. The included trials compared efficacy and safety of doripenem for complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, nosocomial pneumonia, and acute biliary tract infection. The meta-analysis was carried on by the statistical software of Review Manager, version 5.2. Results: Compared with empirical antimicrobial agents on overall treatment efficacy, doripenem was associated with similar clinical and microbiological treatment success rates (for the clinical evaluable population, odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.69, p = 0.13; for clinical modified intent-to-treatment population, OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.55-1.41, p = 0.60; for microbiology evaluable population, OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.90-1.50, p = 0.26; for microbiological modified intent-to-treatment (m-mITT), OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.81-1.20, p = 0.87). We compared incidence of adverse events and all-cause mortality to analyze treatment safety. The outcomes suggested that doripenem was similar to comparators in terms of incidence of adverse events and all-cause mortality on modified intent-to-treatment population (for incidence of AEs, OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.90-1.35, p = 0.33; for all-cause mortality, OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51, p = 0.67). In nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment, doripenem was not inferior to other antibacterial agents in terms of efficacy and safety. Conclusion: From this meta-analysis, we can conclude that doripenem is as valuable and well-tolerated than empirical antimicrobial agents for complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, acute biliary tract infection and nosocomial pneumonia treatment. <![CDATA[High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200163&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretroviral therapy by using a cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay. Cellular membrane receptors were identified by using CXCR4, CCR5 and CD4 monoclonal antibodies, while detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs for gag and pol HIV regions was achieved by using a labeled probe. Genotypic identification of X4 and R5 tropic viruses was attempted by geno2pheno algorithm. There was a high degree of concordance between cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno algorithm in determination of HIV-1 tropism. Cytometry-based tropism assay demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison to geno2pheno, which was used as a gold-standard. One sample could not be amplified by geno2pheno method, but was classified as duotropic by cytometry-based tropism assay. We did not find any association between CD4+ count or plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and tropism results. The overall performances of cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay were almost identical in determination of HIV-1 tropism. <![CDATA[Efficacy of polymyxins in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200170&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In recent years, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become endemic in many countries. Because of limited treatment options, the abandoned "old antibiotics", polymyxins, have been reintroduced to the clinic. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymyxins in the treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, we systemically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and analyzed the available evidence. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis statement were followed, and the I2 method was used for heterogeneity. Nineteen controlled and six single-arm cohort studies comprising 1086 patients met the inclusion criteria. For controlled studies, no significant difference was noted for overall mortality (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.58-1.08; p = 0.15), clinical response rate (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.61-2.54; p = 0.55), or microbiolog- ical response rate (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.26-1.36; p = 0.22) between polymyxin-treated groups and the control groups. Subgroup analyses showed that 28-day or 30-day mortality was lower in patients who received polymyxin combination therapy than in those who received monotherapy (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19-0.68; p &lt; 0.01) and the control groups (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.75; p &lt; 0.01). The results of the six single-arm studies were in accordance with the findings of controlled studies. One controlled and two single-arm studies that evaluated the occurrence of nephrotoxicity reported a pooled incidence rate of 19.2%. Our results suggest that polymyxins may be as efficacious as other antimicrobial therapies for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection. Compared to polymyxin monotherapy, combination regimens may achieve lower 28-day or 30-day mortality. Future large-volume, well-designed randomized control trials are required to determine the role of polymyxins in treating carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. <![CDATA[Vaccination coverage and immunity against hepatitis B among HIV-infected patients in South Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200181&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Evidence-based strategies to improve the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination coverage rates might help to reduce the burden caused by co-infection with HBV and human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the aim was to evaluate the vaccination coverage and immunity against HBV among HIV-infected individuals in South Brazil, and identify factors that are associated with compliance patterns and antibody reactivity. Three hundred HIV-infected men and women were included in this survey. The patients answered a standardized questionnaire, and vaccination cards were checked in order to assess hepatitis B vaccine status. A blood sample was collected for quantitative determination of antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs). Participants were also evaluated for their CD4 cell count and HIV viral load. The overall vaccination coverage of HBV vaccination found in this study (57.4%) was lower than that was previously reported in South Brazil. Anti-HBs levels &gt;10 IU/L were observed in 47.0% of the studied population. A significant inequality in the coverage rates and antibody reactivity was found in favor of patients with better economic status. In conclusion, the results indicate the need for improvement in the HBV vaccination coverage among HIV carriers, in particular focusing on low-income individuals. <![CDATA[Molecular characterization and epidemiology of cefoxitin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible chromosomal ampC genes from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Algeria: description of new sequence type in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200187&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this study, 922 consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients at Bejaia, Algeria were analyzed for AmpC-type β-lactamases production. The ampC genes and their genetic environment were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmid incompatibility groups were determined by using PCR-based replicon typing. Phylogenetic grouping and multilocus sequence typing were determined for molecular typing of the plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) isolates.Of the isolates, 15 (1.6%) were identified as AmpC producers including 14 CMY-4- producing isolates and one DHA-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. All AmpC-producing isolates co-expressed the broad-spectrum TEM-1 β-lactamase and three of them co-produced CTX-M and/or SHV-12 ESBL. Phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed that most of them belonged to groups D and B1. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of K. pneumoniae isolates identified four different sequence types (STs) with two new sequences: ST1617 and ST1618. Plasmid replicon typing indicates that bla CMY-4 gene was located on broad host range A/C plasmid, while LVPK replicon was associated with bla DHA-1. All isolates carrying bla CMY-4 displayed the transposon-like structures ISEcp1/AISEcp1-blaCMY-blc-sugE. Our study showed that CMY-4 was the main pAmpC in the Enterobacteriaceae isolates inAlgeria. <![CDATA[Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200196&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. <![CDATA[The role of ERBB2 gene polymorphisms in leprosy susceptibility]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200206&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Mycobacterium leprae infects skin and peripheral nerves causing deformities and disability. The M. leprae bacterium binds to ErbB2 on the Schwann cell surface causing demyelination and favoring spread of the bacilli and causing nerve injury. Polymorphisms at the ERBB2 gene were previously investigated as genetic risk factors for leprosy in two Brazilian populations but with inconsistent results. Herein we extend the analysis of ERBB2 variants to a third geographically distinct population in Brazil. Our results show that there is no association between the genotyped SNPs and the disease (p &gt; 0.05) in this population. A gene set or pathway analysis under the genomic region of ERBB2 will be necessary to clarify its regulation under M. leprae stimulus. <![CDATA[Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200209&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described. Objectives: To describe aspects of S. bovis endocarditis. Methods: This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery referral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied. Results: Nine patients with S. bovis endocarditis were included; all cases fulfilled the modified Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4%) in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%). Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%), embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 7/9 (77.7%). Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home. Conclusions: S. bovis most frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise. <![CDATA[The first reported catheter-related Brevibacterium casei bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia and review of the literature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200213&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Brevibacterium spp. are catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non motile, aerobic Gram- positive rods that were considered apathogenic until a few reports of infections in immunocompromised patients had been published. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. casei catheter-related bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia. We aim to enhance the awareness of pediatric hematology and infectious disease specialists about this pathogen and review of the literature. <![CDATA[Nocardia veterana: disseminated infection with urinary tract infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200216&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[The halo sign of Q fever pneumonia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200220&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[Norovirus and Rotavirus infection in children aged less than five years in a paediatric hospital, Havana, Cuba]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200222&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[Pityriasis rosea following human papillomavirus vaccination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200224&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[Treatment of genotype one hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV co-infected patients using telaprevir based regimen]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200226&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in an adult, immunocompetent patient]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200228&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. <![CDATA[Raoultella ornithinolytica causing fatal sepsis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702015000200230&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nocardia spp. are a group of aerobic actinomycetes widely distributed in soil, and associated with severe opportunistic infections, essentially pulmonary infections. We report the first case of disseminated infection associated with urinary tract infection caused by Nocardia veterana. The diagnosis was difficult; despite the presence of pulmonary nodules, the lung biopsies remained negative while only one aerobic blood culture and the urine culture were positive for N. veterana, identified after a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Few cases of clinical importance due to N. veterana have been published since its characterization. The bacteriological diagnosis of nocardiosis can be difficult to establish because of the delayed growth and the specific techniques that are required. This case illustrates the necessity of performing specific investigations in immunocompromised patients who present with infectious disease because the severity of this infection requires early diagnosis and quick initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy.