Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 6 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B>Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing of <I>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i></B>: <B>focus on imipenem</B>]]> Susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and by E-test and molecular typing by macrorestriction analysis were performed to determine the relatedness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from three distinct hospitals. The resistance profile of 124 isolates to 8 antimicrobial agents was determined in three different hospitals, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Frequencies of susceptibility ranged from 43.9% for carbenicillin to 87.7% for ceftazidime. Cross-resistance data of imipenem-resistant isolates indicated that most (70%) were also resistant to carbenicillin, although 30% remained susceptible to ceftazidime and cefepime. In general, susceptibility profiles were not able to determine relatedness among isolates of P. aeruginosa. On the other hand, molecular typing by macrorestriction analysis demonstrated high discriminatory power and identified 66 strains among 72 isolates of P. aeruginosa. Imipenem-susceptible isolates were all different. However, identical clones of imipenem-resistant isolates were found in two of the hospitals, despite variable response to other antibiotics. No clustering of infection among the different medical centers was observed. In conclusion, clones of P. aeruginosa did not spread among the different hospitals in our city even though related isolates of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were found. <![CDATA[<B>Compliance to antiretroviral medication as reported by AIDS patients assisted at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul</B>]]> Compliance to antiretroviral medication is a problem for AIDS patients. Compliance can be influenced by the characteristics of the therapeutic program, by the health guidance professionals, by the patient, and by society in general. A group of 139 Brazilian AIDS patients from the Infectious-Parasitic Diseases day clinic at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were interviewed from September 27, 1999 to January 21, 2000. We identified and evaluated the frequency of noncompliance to antiretroviral medication, as well as the associated motives. Those who ingested 80%, or more, of prescribed dosages during the week previous to the interview were considered compliant. Among the patients interviewed, 70% mentioned loss or misplacement of medicine, and 63% were considered compliant. Average compliance was 75.8%, with no difference between the sexes. The reasons given for non-compliance were: absent-mindedness or forgetfulness (67.7%), lack of medicine (41.9%), side effects (21.5%), complexity of prescribed regimens (12.9%), fatigue (9.7%), and voluntary interruption (7.5%). The non-compliance observed among these patients indicates that health service personnel should promote activities to recuperate these therapeutic programs, employing methodologies appropriate to the characteristics of this population. <![CDATA[<B>HIV prevalence among blood donors in a blood bank in Curitiba (Brazil)</B>]]> There still is no cure for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its etiologic agent is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and transmission occurs through sexual relationships, contacts with blood, and vertically (mother to child). In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at a blood bank in Curitiba. We studied 213,666 blood donations made from March 1, 1992, to April 25, 1999. Each potential blood donor first answered a questionnaire, submitted to a clinical examination, and filled out a self-exclusion card. Blood was collected and analyzed only from the candidates approved by the first two criteria. Two tests were used to detect HIV: ELISA for screening, and Western-Blot for confirmation. The results were analyzed statistically by determining the 95% confidence interval. Of the total number of donors, 156,942 were men, and 56,724 were women. There were 319 cases of HIV infection (244 men, 75 women). There were no significant differences between genders, or among the different age groups, or between first-donation and repeated-donation donors. There was a significant predominance of HIV infection among single individuals compared to married, widowed, and other individuals. The same occurred among married and divorced individuals compared to widowed subjects. The prevalence of HIV among blood donors was 0.149% (0.155% among men and 0.132% among women). The frequency of HIV was statistically identical among new blood donors and repeat donors. A large number of HIV-infected married women was also observed. <![CDATA[<B>Childhood pneumonia</B>: <B>clinical aspects associated with hospitalization or death</B>]]> OBJECTIVE: To determine which available information at an Emergency Room (ER) consultation is associated with hospitalization or death among children with pneumonia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The ER of one university and one private hospital. MEASUREMENT: Using stepwise logistic regression we analyzed factors that showed a univariate association. MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,970 cases, the median age was 1.83 years (range 2 days to 14.5 yrs, mean 2.76 + 2.72 yrs); 25.8% were hospitalized and 0.8% died. Age (2-11 mos, OR 0.4 [0.2-0.6]; 12-59 mos, OR 0.2 [0.1-0.4]; <FONT FACE=Symbol>&sup3;</FONT> 5yrs, OR 0.1 [0.08-0.3]), malnutrition (OR 2.0 [1.4-2.7]), underlying chronic illness (OR 1.4 [1.1-1.8]), tachypnea (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.4]), chest indrawing (OR 1.7 [1.4-2.2]), and somnolence (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.4]) were associated with hospitalization and age (2-11 mos, OR 0.3 [0.08-0.8]; <FONT FACE=Symbol>&sup3;</FONT> 12 mos, OR 0.06 [0.02-0.2]), malnutrition (OR 3.1 [1.2-7.7]) and underlying chronic illness (OR 4.3 [1.6-11.0]) were associated with death in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Several clinical aspects may be used in assessing need for hospitalization (i.e. young age, malnutrition, underlying chronic illness, tachypnea, chest indrawing and somnolence) for children with pneumonia seen at the ER. Individual intrinsic factors such as age, malnutrition and underlying chronic illness were independently associated with death. Pneumonia should be considered a treatable disease and complete recovery can be achieved in the majority of the cases. <![CDATA[<B>Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient</B>]]> Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5). Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01) and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019). Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001). The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care. <![CDATA[<B>Reiter's Syndrome associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a case report</B>]]> The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS) with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD4+ = 240 cells/mm³, CD8+ = 1,301 cells/mm³ and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml), pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy), and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient's cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees). AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine); for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide); and (prednisone and inometacine) for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and HIV infection is reviewed. <![CDATA[<B>Concomitant prostatic schistosomiasis and sdenocarcinoma</B>: <B>case report and review</B>]]> The term schistosomiasis encompasses a group of infectious disorders caused by five species of the genus Schistosoma, a blood trematode of outstanding importance in tropical areas. Some of these disorders have long been associated with malignant neoplasia, the most striking association being between disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant etiological agent of urinary schistosomiasis, and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relatively uncommon vesical cancer in non-endemic areas. Four cases of simultaneous adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate have been previously reported (S. haematobium in three and S. mansoni in one). We report a fifth case of concomitant adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate in a 68-year-old Brazilian patient infected with S. mansoni. We also review the medical literature on the association between schistosomiasis and cancer. <![CDATA[<B>Bilateral peripheral facial palsy secondary to lymphoma in a patient with HIV/AIDS</B>: <B>a case report and literature review</B>]]> Neurological complications represent one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, peripheral neuropathy comprises only 5% to 20% of the total neurological complications and facial nerve palsy, especially when it is bilateral, is a less common manifestation. Peripheral facial palsy has been considered as a possible neurological complication of the early stage of HIV infection but the number of reported cases in the literature is limited. Histological findings of nervous tissue in peripheral facial palsy at an early stage of HIV infection include a degenerative and not suppurative inflammatory process, but its etiology remains obscure. Peripheral facial palsy in the late stage of HIV infection is characterized by an advanced immunological deficit and generally it is secondary to an opportunistic infection of the CNS, such as neurotoxoplasmosis and lymphoma. However, this peripheral attack of the facial nerve is not very common at this late stage of HIV infection. Bilateral peripheral facial palsy as a complication of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is considered an extremely rare entity. There are no published reports of bilateral peripheral facial palsy secondary to lymphomas or other neoplasms of the CNS in immunosupressed patients. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been considered a late and relatively common manifestation of HIV infection, but an exact cause for the higher incidence of this malignant neoplasm in HIV/AIDS patients is still uncertain.