Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 8 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B>Surgical infections</B>: <B>a microbiological study</B>]]> Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51), secondary peritonitis (n=25), necrotizing fascitis (n=22) and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19) were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32). The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%), necrotizing fascitis (75%) and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7%) were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1%) and cefuroxime (70.8%). For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp.), the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2%) and ciprofloxacin (35.2%). The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%), Proteus spp. (33.3%), E. coli (22.2%), and S. aureus (12.5%). All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%). Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections. <![CDATA[<B>CD<SUB>81</SUB> binding regions of hepatitis C virus remain conserved after liver transplantation</B>]]> CD81 is a surface-associated protein expressed in the membranes of mammalian cells. It has been suggested that CD81 interacts with hepatitis C virus E2 protein, and thus might facilitate the entry of HCV into hepatocytes. The envelope-binding site appears to involve amino acids (aa) 480-493 and 544-551 within the E2 glycoprotein. Little is known about the quasispecies genetic diversity of these two regions. We studied four patients who underwent transplantation for HCV-related cirrhosis and who developed recurrent hepatitis C. We evaluated HCV quasispecies diversity in serum samples obtained at the time of transplantation and at several time points thereafter. Quasispecies diversity was assessed by cloning and sequencing of viral isolates, with computer analysis of evolution models. The genetic distance in the region that spans aa 480 to 493 was 0.019 &plusmn; 0.004 before the transplant, and 0.039 &plusmn; 0.014 after the transplant (p=0.324). In the aa 544 to 551 region, the pre-transplant genetic distance was 0.012 &plusmn; 0.008 and the post-transplant distance, 0.010 &plusmn; 0.007 (p=0.890). There was also no significant difference between the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site before and after transplantation. In conclusion, the HCV genetic sequences of putative CD81 binding regions aa 480-493 and aa 544-551 did not diversify significantly after liver transplantation. This may favor HCV re-infection of the allograft after liver transplantation. <![CDATA[<B>Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in the Western Brazilian Amazon region (Rio Branco, Acre)</B>: <B>a pilot study carried out during a hepatitis B vaccination program</B>]]> In 1999, on the occasion of the application of the first vaccine dose during the state vaccination campaign against hepatitis B virus (HBV), 390 individuals from the town of Rio Branco, Acre, aged two or more years were selected for the determination of the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV. HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc IgG) were determined on this occasion and anti-HBs antibodies were also assessed 30 days after the third vaccine dose. At the time of vaccination, 39% of the individuals were still susceptible to HBV, while 61% presented serologic evidence of previous HBV contact or previous vaccination. The individuals with previous HBV contact were significantly older (p<0.001) than those without HBV markers. Of the 192 individuals who returned for reexamination, 30 days after the third dose, 158 (82.3%) had received three vaccine doses, and only 60 (31.2%) belonged to the group without HBV markers. In these individuals, the seroconversion rate after the third dose was 92% (55/60). In conclusion, we found considerable HBV in this population, indicating the need for pursuing the immunization programs. We also found high rates of vaccination coverage in the Western Brazilian Amazon region. <![CDATA[<B>Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and early neonatal life</B>: <B>consequences for HIV-exposed, uninfected children</B>]]> Women have emerged as the fastest growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected population worldwide, mainly because of the increasing occurrence of heterosexual transmission. Most infected women are of reproductive age and one of the greatest concerns for both women and their physicians is that more than 1,600 infants become infected with HIV each day. Almost all infections are a result of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, transmission rates lower than 2% have been achieved in clinical studies. Antiretroviral compounds differ from most other new pharmaceutical agents in that they have become widely prescribed in pregnancy in the absence of proof of safety. We reviewed antiretroviral agents used in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, and their consequences for infants. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL for diagnosis of malaria due to <i>Plasmodium vivax</i></b>]]> OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL® for diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included all the patients who sought medical attention in the San Martin Pangoa Hospital, Junin, an area endemic for vivax malaria in Peru, between October and December 1998, who had fever during the previous 72 hours and who were older than 12 months. The gold standard for diagnosis was thick blood film microscopy. We determined the parasitemia rate for each of the positive slides. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test. RESULTS: We included 72 patients; 39 of them were positive for P. vivax by microscopic examination. The sensitivity of the Optimal test was 92.3%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value 100% and the negative predictive value 91.6%. The accuracy of the test was 95.8%. The sensitivity of the OptiMAL® test progressively decreased when parasitemia was lower than 1,000 parasites/microliter. CONCLUSIONS: the OptiMAL® test has a high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. However, its sensitivity decreased when parasitemia levels were lower. It is a very simple technique, which makes it a good alternative for malaria diagnosis in remote places, although its elevated cost is still a problem. <![CDATA[<b>Aminotransferase changes and acute hepatitis in patients with dengue fever</b>: <b>analysis of 1,585 cases</b>]]> INTRODUCTION: Type 3 dengue virus caused an extensive epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro in summer 2002. In some of the patients, it was found in an atypical form with increased aminotransferase levels and acute hepatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis was made of 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases at the Dengue Reference Center in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state. The grade of hepatic aggression was established according to the alterations in the aminotransferase levels: grade A - normal levels of aminotransferase; grade B - elevated aminotransferase, with increased levels of at least one of the enzymes; grade C - elevated aminotransferase, with the levels of at least one of the enzymes increased to more than three times the reference values; grade D - acute hepatitis, with aminotransferase levels increased to at least 10 times their normal values. RESULTS: Among the 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases, 44.5% presented alterations in the aminotransferase levels (grade B), 16.9% presented grade C liver involvement and 3.8% of the patients had progressed to acute hepatitis (grade D). The average values for the rise in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were 93.3 U/L and 86.0 U/L. The greatest alterations were observed among females (p<0.001), cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (p<0.001), and cases with sequential infections (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liver damage with elevation of aminotransferases and reactive hepatitis was a common complication of dengue virus infection in these patients. <![CDATA[<B>Risk factors for <I>Toxoplasma gondii</I> infection in women of childbearing age</B>]]> OBJECTIVES: Determine the risk factors involved in toxoplasmosis transmission and determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for toxoplasmosis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out on 2,242 women at childbearing age. An indirect immunofluorescence reaction was used to identify immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Previous gestations were also analyzed as a possible risk factor. The results were analyzed by chi2 and OR tests, and by variance analysis. The sample was statistically balanced according to social-economic risk factors. RESULTS: Previously pregnant women were 1.74 times more frequently infected with toxoplasmosis, regardless of environmental conditions. Pregnant women living under unfavorable environmental conditions had an approximately two times increased risk of being infected for each risk factor (contact with host animals, presence of vehicles of oocyst transmission). Previous pregnancy was the risk factor that had the strongest influence on acquiring toxoplasmosis (variance analysis and statistical balancing). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of this zoonosis is high in Goiânia-GO, Brazil (65.8%). Inadequate environmental sanitation was not significantly correlated with toxoplasmosis infection, except when associated with previous pregnancy, showing that the fundamental cause for infection is not environmental. CONCLUSION: The finding that pregnancy makes women more vulnerable to this protozoan, makes it important to implement prophylactic control of at-risk pregnant women. <![CDATA[<B>Cerebral infarction related to cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV-infected patient</B>: <B>case report and literature review</B>]]> Neurological dysfunction as the first manifestation of AIDS has been found in 10 to 20% of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infections. However, stroke has rarely been reported in AIDS patients. The most common causes of cerebral infarction in AIDS are central nervous system infections: toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis. Potential vascular mechanisms for cerebral infarction and transient neurological deficits among AIDS patients include deposition of antigen-antibody complexes with vasculitis and infarction, and a direct toxic effect of a viral antigen or infectious agent on vascular endothelium. The role of cryptococcal meningitis in vasculopathy is still not clear. We report a case of cerebral infarction in an HIV-infected patient, with cryptococcal meningitis as the first manifestation of AIDS. <![CDATA[<b>Acute liver failure complicating viral hepatitis A</b>]]> Hepatitis A is one of the most frequent infectious liver diseases affecting children worldwide. The disease is usually mild and self-limited, and complications are very rare. Nevertheless, hepatitis A can sometimes cause acute liver failure (ALF), a severe, life-threatening condition. Herein is reported a case of a child who presented ALF during a course of hepatitis A. The need for early identification of possible ALF cases among hepatitis A patients, and for effective ways of evaluating such a possibility, are discussed. We also emphasize the importance of prevention measures, especially vaccination. <![CDATA[<B><I>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</I> bacteremia diagnosed in an HIV-negative patient in Brazil</B>: <B>a rare or an under-reported event?</B>]]> A case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia in an HIV negative immunodepressed patient was described using the BACTEC 460 TB system. This bacterium should be investigated in the blood of immunodepressed non-HIV infected patients with prolonged fever. <![CDATA[<b>Actinomycosis simulating malignant large bowel obstruction</b>]]> We present a case of a 58 year old white male who entered the hospital with abdominal pain and developed large bowel obstruction, simulating malignant disease. Anatomopathological examination showed abdominal actinomycosis, a rare presentation of this disease.