Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 8 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B>Use of selective media for detection of cephalothin-resistant bacteria in surgical patients</B>]]> Bacterial colonization in hospitalized patients is an important step in nosocomial infections. Frequent employment of antimicrobials can modify patients' normal microbiota, favoring colonization and infection by antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. First-generation cephalosporins are frequently used as prophylactic antibiotics in surgery. Intestinal, oropharyngeal and skin colonization by cephalothin-resistant microorganisms were studied in 60 pre-operative patients at the Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. Feces were cultured in Eosin-methylene blue medium containing 32 µg/mL of cephalothin. Swabs obtained from the oropharynx and from skin were inoculated in cistein-lactose electrolytes-deficient medium containing 32 µg/mL of cephalothin. Isolated strains were identified and tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Cephalothin-resistant strains were isolated from the feces of 59 patients (98%), from the oropharynx of 13 patients (22%) and from skin in 10 patients (17%). Enterobacter cloacae was predominant in feces (68% of the patients) and oropharynx (13%). Acinetobacter spp. was the most frequent microorganism isolated from the skin (10%). Antimicrobial multiresistant strains were isolated from at least one of the sites in 38 patients (63%). The employment of selective medium containing antimicrobials is a relatively simple and efficient method, being useful to evaluate microorganisms from hospitalized patients' microbiota that are relevant as potential pathogens in nosocomial infections. <![CDATA[<B>Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of <I>Enterococci</I> recovered from Brazilian intensive care units</B>]]> We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the molecular epidemiology of 99 enterococcal surveillance isolates from two hospitals of Brasília, Brazil. Conventional biochemical tests were used to identify the enterococcal species and the disk diffusion method was used to determine their resistance profiles. Enterococcus faecalis (76%) and E. faecium (9%) were the most prevalent species. No enterococci showed the vanA or vanB vancomycin resistance phenotypes or genotypes. Only the intrinsically resistant species E. gallinarum (n=2) and E. casseliflavus (n=3) harbored the vancomycin-resistance genes vanC1 and vanC2/3, respectively. We found E. faecalis isolates with high-level resistance to gentamicin (22%) and streptomycin (8%) and both E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates with resistance to more than two antimicrobials (84% and 67%, respectively). Nine E. faecalis isolates (12%) were resistant to ampicillin; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 16µg/mL (n=6) and 32µg/mL (n=3). Among these ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis, seven were also resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis classified those isolates in three different genotypes, suggesting dissemination of genetically related ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis strains among different patients. <![CDATA[<B>Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination</B> <B>in an intensive care unit</B>]]> The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emphasis should be placed on reducing the spread of these pathogens in the hospital, making sure that biosafety protocols are followed by the staff. <![CDATA[<B>Efficacy and safety of Efavirenz in HIV patients</B> <B>on Rifampin for tuberculosis</B>]]> Forty-nine AIDS patients, most of who were antiretroviral therapy (ARV) naïve, with active tuberculosis, were treated with Rifampin 600mg, Isoniazid 400mg and Pirazinamide 2g daily. They also received ARV, consisting of Efavirenz (600mg/day) plus 2 NRTIs. All patients were prospectively followed for at least 24 months. Baselines were: male/female ratio 2:1, mean age 34.7 &plusmn; 9.4 yrs; weight 51 &plusmn; 9.0 kg, viral load 5.6 &plusmn; 0.6 logs, CD4 cell count 101 &plusmn; 128 cells/ mm³. Follow up mean values of data logs of VL and CD4+ cell /mm³ counts were: VL 1.7 and CD4+ 265; VL 1.3 and CD4+ 251; VL 1.4 and CD4+ 326 at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Weight gain changes were: 5 &plusmn; 9.9 &plusmn; 12 and 21 &plusmn; 16 kg respectively at 6, 12 and 24 months. A non-concomitant ARV regimen was introduced at least three weeks after TB treatment initiation. Severe adverse reactions included rash (two), toxic hepatitis (six), Immune Reconstitution Syndrome (seven), and four deaths. We conclude that Efavirenz at a daily dose of 600 mg is sufficient and safe to treat HIV/TB patients using a Rifampin containing regimen. <![CDATA[<B>Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats</B>]]> Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU) sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis. <![CDATA[<B>Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis</B>]]> Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of pediatrician's knowledge about viral hepatitis, through questionnaires to 574 pediatricians, with no obligation of identification. The pediatricians were recruited among those who attended a national Congress of Pediatrics in Brasília, Brazil. Among these pediatricians, 50.1% frequently treated cases of hepatitis, and 74.7% indicated that they had knowledge of the existence of five hepatotropic viruses; 14.5% knew about at least four types of hepatitis complications, while only 7.7% and 4.3% were able to correctly diagnose viral hepatitis A and B, respectively. Many (28.4%) did not know how to treat the patients adequately. Only 37.5% had already recommended vaccination against hepatitis B. Only 50.2% of the pediatricians had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. We concluded that it is crucial to make pediatricians more knowledgeable about viral hepatitis, through continued education programs, especially emphasizing prevention procedures. <![CDATA[<B>Transfusion risk for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1991-2001</B>]]> We examined the time trend of residual risk of transfusing blood contaminated with HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, in the largest blood bank of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1991-2001. The HIV risk was reduced approximately 10 times during the decade of 1990, to 1:48777, but then increased significantly by the end of 2001. A similar time trend was observed for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, although the increase was not significant in this case. Even during the period of lowest risk, the estimates were considerably higher than in developed countries. <![CDATA[<B>Three decades of meningococcal disease</B> <B>in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil</B>]]> Consolidation of data on meningococcal disease surveillance for the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, has provided new insight about the evolution of this disease during the period of 1971-2000. A descriptive epidemiological study, based on retrospective analysis of all cases of meningococcal disease notified in the state of Santa Catarina, linked the surveillance data from the Secretary of the State of Health, magnetic tape records and the data from the national surveillance of diseases of obligatory notification. Following World Health Organization guidelines, cumulative incidence exceeding five cases per 100,000 inhabitants was considered indicative of an epidemic. Official population data from the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística were used for the incidence denominator. During the 1971-2000 period, 7,893 cases and 1,354 deaths caused by meningococcal disease were reported. This corresponds to a mean of 263 cases and 45 deaths per year, with a mean incidence of 6.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a fatality rate of 17.2%. Three distinct epidemiological periods were identified, two of which can be considered epidemic. Two of three distinct epidemiological periods were characterized by an epidemic of meningococcal disease, covering 20 of the 30 years analyzed. Identification of the epidemics and preventive actions, such as vaccination and health education, contributed to the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to this disease. <![CDATA[<B>Avidity of IgG for rubella</B>: <B>an evaluation of the need for implementation at the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital</B> <B>in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil</B>]]> Rubella serum assays performed in the laboratory of the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital (HMIPV) from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed to determine if IgG avidity assays should be implemented. IgG was determined using the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay, ELFA, VIDAS® system, bioMérieux or the Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay, MEIA, Axsym® system, Abbott, and IgM was determined using the ELFA, VIDAS® system, bioMérieux, a capture format assay. Specific IgG was assayed in 2,863 samples, with positive results for 84% of the patients, for the most part with high levels of antibodies. IgM was assayed in 2,851 samples, being positive in 14 (0.49%) and inconclusive in 25 (0.88%). Serology for toxoplasmosis was also positive or inconclusive in 5 patients. After a cost-effectiveness analysis, it was decided not to implement avidity assays, considering that the HMIPV is a public institution, with limited funding. Difficulties concerning the integration of the Clinical Pathology Service with the Clinical Staff of the institution were also considered. <![CDATA[<B>Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in an AIDS patient</B>]]> A 37-year-old man with a three-year history of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was admitted with impaired consciousness, seizures and fever. He was on highly active antiretroviral therapy and on neurotoxoplasmosis secondary prophylaxis. Laboratory exams from two months before showed a CD4 cell count of 37/µL and a viral load of 230,000 copies/mL. Three months before admission he developed herpetic skin rash in the right trunk and acyclovir was added to his treatment regimen. On physical exam he was drowsy and had motor and sensory aphasia. The patient had elevated protein levels and normal pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of the brain showed a hypodense lesion in the left parietal lobe, with poorly defined margins and no contrast enhancement. The magnetic resonance scan (MRI) showed multiple hyperintensities in T2-weighted image in white and grey matters and hypointense products of hemorrhage in both hemispheres and in the cerebellum. He was empirically treated with intravenous acyclovir and prednisone. Viral DNA of Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was detected in the CSF by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Acyclovir was continued for 10 days and the patient became well, with improvement of aphasia.We present a case of VZV encephalitis, confirmed by nested PCR, in a patient with suggestive MRI findings, who succeeded with treatment. VZV encephalitis is a rare opportunistic infection, occurring in 0.1 to 4% of AIDS patients with neurological disease; it is related to severe immunodeficiency and has a high mortality. <![CDATA[<B>Human ehrlichioses in Brazil</B>: <B>first suspect cases</B>]]> Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) rickettsiosis is the most common and recognized of the human rickettsioses in Brazil. It is difficult to establish the diagnosis of human rickettsiosis infection by routine microbiologic methods, creating a false idea that Rickettsia and Ehrlichia infections are rare and without importance. New tick-borne diseases, like Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA) and Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), have been described in many countries. These diseases can present symptoms similar to rickettsioses of the spotted fever group, and they are transmitted by ixodid ticks. The first two suspected cases of human ehrlichiosis in Brazil were first considered to be cases of BSF. The differential diagnosis was made at the Minas Gerais Rickettsiosis Public Health Laboratory. The clinical and laboratory findings, with positive serology for the HME agent, indicated suspected cases of human ehrlichioses in Brazil. <![CDATA[<B>Acute hemiplegia associated with cat-scratch disease</B>]]> Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious illness caused by a Gram-negative rod named Bartonella henselae. Typical CSD is characterized by a small skin lesion at the site of a scratch or a bite, followed by regional lymphadenopathy, one to two weeks later. Atypical forms may present as ocular manifestations, neurological manifestations, hepatosplenic involvement and vertebral osteomyelitis. Among neurological complications, encephalopathy is by far the most common. Other neurological manifestations are very rare. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, with a posterior cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed and treated after a positive "Whartin-Starry" stain on lymph node biopsy. Two weeks after treatment, the patient was readmitted presenting an acute episode of left hemiplegia. A brain MRI demonstrated a right subcortical fronto-parietal lesion with no contrast enhancement. Complete recovery was observed after corticosteroid treatment.