Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 10 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B>Bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy</B>]]> The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia being the most frequent metabolic disturbance in these patients. Fibrates are indicated when hypertriglyceridemia is accentuated and persists for over six months. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected individuals on HAART. All patients received 400mg/day of bezafibrate and were evaluated three times: Mo (pre-treatment), M1 (one month after treatment), and M2 (six months after treatment). Fifteen adult individuals, eight males and seven females with mean age = 41.2 ± 7.97 years and triglyceride serum levels > 400mg/dL were included in the study. Smoking, alcohol ingestion and sedentarism rates were 50%, 6.66% and 60%, respectively. Family history of CD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus was reported in 33.3%, 40% and 46.7% of the cases, respectively, while dyslipidemia was reported by only 13.3%. More than half of the patients were using a protease inhibitor plus a nucleotide analog transcriptase inhibitor. Eutrophy and tendency toward overweight were observed at all three study time points. There were significant reductions in triglyceride serum levels from Mo to M1 and from Mo to M2. No significant changes were observed in the serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, hepatic enzymes, CD4+, CD8+ and viral load. Therefore, bezafibrate seems to be safe and effective for the reduction of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected patients on HAART. <![CDATA[<B>Detection of human papilloma virus in the tonsils of children undergoing tonsillectomy</B>]]> Human papilloma virus (HPV) is related to respiratory mucosal diseases, such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, as well as to upper-respiratory-tract malignancies. There are few reports concerning the prevalence of HPV in the upper respiratory tract of non-affected individuals. We examined the prevalence of HPV in the tonsils of children of the general population scheduled for tonsillectomy. Samples were taken from the tonsils of 100 children undergoing tonsillectomy and were then tested for HPV with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, utilizing the generic primers MY09 and MY 11. The study excluded children known to have HPV and HIV-related diseases. Parents and legal guardians completed a standardized socio-demographic questionnaire. The questionnaire revealed that 84% of the mothers had at least one risk factor for genital HPV. None of the tonsil samples were positive for HPV. Apparently HPV does not commonly colonize the tonsils of children undergoing routine tonsillectomy. <![CDATA[<B>Diagnosis of human papillomatosis by polymerase chain reaction in cases of divergence between results of hybrid capture and papanicolaou cytology</B>]]> As various types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, correct diagnosis is of fundamental importance for screening programs. We evaluated the divergence of results between Papanicolaou cytology and hybrid capture by PCR detection of HPV DNA . A transversal study was conducted on 70 women attending private gynecological clinics in Brasilia, Brazil. PCRs were conducted with specific primers for general and high-risk HPV DNA. Based on the PCR results, hybrid capture was a superior diagnostic technique. When Papanicolaou was compared with the molecular biology methods, it was found that a positive Papanicolaou result does not necessarily indicate the presence of HPV. The agreement between PCR and hybrid capture results can be attributed to the fact that both methods detect latent infection, while Papanicolaou detects only microscopic cellular alterations. <![CDATA[<B>Validation of criteria for nosocomial use of amikacin in Brazil with the Delphi technique</B>]]> The Delphi technique has been used since the 1950s to collect the opinions of experts; to gauge their indications, and in some instances, to develop a consensus. This systematic collection and aggregation of informed judgments from a group of experts on specific questions or issues is a highly efficient and cost-effective means to establish guidelines and policies, when compared to other strategies, such as committee meetings or personal interviews. OBJECTIVE: Examine the content validation process of the proposed criteria of the American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP) for amikacin use in hospital settings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Delphi technique was applied using the proposed ASHP criteria questionnaire containing 102 specific questions related to the nosocomial use of amikacin by individual patients. The questionnaire contained six groups of questions: 1) Identification and basic demographic data, 2) Relevant data for the use of amikacin, 3) Justification of its usage, 4) Critical parameters of amikacin use, 5) Complications, 6) Measurement of results. Eight hospital specialist medical doctors were selected, including five in the area of infectious diseases, one surgeon, one nephrologist and one in critical care medicine. The questionnaire was e-mailed to the doctors and they were asked for their opinion about the appropriateness of the questions. They were to say whether the general concept seemed totally or partially adequate to the proposed process, what grade (0 to 10) they would give to each section, and if there were any perceived deficiencies, they could add, omit or modify individual questions. A second questionnaire containing the questions for which there had been no consensus based on the answers to the previous one was re-sent to the participants for consolidation. RESULTS: Feedback revealed an agreement of 75% concerning the utility and appropriateness of sections 1 and 2. The section about the justification of amikacin usage was agreed on by 50%. There was a total agreement of 62% for the critical parameters of amikacin use, and a partial agreement of 37%. The complication of usage of the questionnaire was agreed upon by 50% of the participants, and positive measurement of the results was totally agreed on by 62%, and partially by 37%. The overall score for the questionnaire was 8.77 ± 0.25. CONCLUSION: The usage criteria for amikacin recommended by ASHP were validated by the Delphi technique for utilization in Brazilian hospital settings. The Delphi technique applied to validate a questionnaire instrument for monitoring the correct use of a specific strategic antibiotic indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of serious antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, proved to be a reliable and simple tool for designing guidelines and a consensus document for hospital use of antibiotics. <![CDATA[<B>Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, colonizing the intestinal tract of patients in a university hospital in greece</B>]]> OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonizing the intestinal tract of hospitalized patients and define risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A point prevalence survey of VRE fecal carriage was carried out among patients who stayed at a 600-bed teaching hospital for at least two days. Resistance to vancomycin was detected by the E-test method. Epidemiological data was recorded for all patients included in the study and was used for the risk factor analysis. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients hospitalized for at least two days were enrolled in this investigation. Thirty-nine patients (30.5%) were colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Twenty-three of the 39 strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 13 were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum and three strains as Enterococcus casseliflavus. The risk factors that were significantly associated with VRE colonization included length of hospital stay (13.2 days vs. 8.6 days), age (60.7 years vs. 47.7 years) and the presence of underlying malignancies (28.2% vs. 11.2%). An association was found between VRE colonization and the use of antimicrobials with anaerobic activity, such as metronidazole, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem. The use of vancomycin was associated with VRE colonization in the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: VRE colonization must be monitored, and risk factors should be determined, because they are useful for screening hospitalized patients for VRE colonization in order to establish prevention and control measures. <![CDATA[<B>The evolution of the resistance of <I>Staphylococcus aureus</I> found on healthcare workers correlated with local consumption of antibiotics</B>]]> OBJECTIVE: Correlate the evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus collected from healthcare workers with the local consumption of antibiotics. MATERIAN AND METHODS: Open prospective research.Study Site. General Reference Hospital with 200 beds in a 700,000 inhabitant region, in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: Two collections (samples) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from healthcare-workers during an approximate four-year interval. Samples 1 (n= 200) and 2 (n= 270) had this bacterium in 63 (32%) and 90 (33%) of the patients, respectively. At the same time, the annual consumption of antibiotics in DDD/1,000 patient-days was determined. The variation of resistance was significantly smaller (m.s.d.=12.11) for gentamycin (p<0.01) and (m.s.d.=9.22) for Tobramycin (p<0.05). The correlation between variation in resistance and antibiotic consumption was not significant. Workers studied in the two samples showed a significant (p<0.01) frequency (c²=10.44) for persistent nasal carriage and for non carriage. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found in 12 (6%) patients of sample 1 and 11 patients (4%) of sample 2. CONCLUSION: Stability of resistance allows us to maintain therapeutic outlines. The variation in bacterial resistance in the twice-sampled population (n=105) indicated the selection pressure of the hospital environment. The resistance that was found is representative of the hospital microbiota; this relationship represents a biological model, based on the healthcare-workers' interaction with colonizing bacteria and nosocomial infections. New studies could improve this model for other bacteria, to determine the tendency for resistance and help guide the antibiotic use. <![CDATA[<B>Risk factors for infection by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing<I> Klebsiella pneumoniae</I> in a tertiary hospital in Salvador, Brazil</B>]]> Nosocomial infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) have been frequently reported worldwide. We have no information on such problems in Bahia, Brazil. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the risk factors for nosocomial infections caused by ESBL-Kp, in a tertiary hospital, in Bahia, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated all reported cases of nosocomial infections caused by ESBL-Kp in a private, tertiary hospital, in Salvador, Brazil, from 2000 through 2004. We compared patients with a diagnosis of ESBL-Kp (cases) and patients infected by non-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae (controls). Mean age, underlying disease, and frequency of invasive procedures were compared between the two groups. History of previous use of antibiotics was also analyzed. RESULTS: Based on multivariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics, diagnosis of malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for acquisition of ESBL-Kp infection. No correlation was found for age, use of corticosteroids, diagnosis of chronic renal failure or AIDS, and infection by ESBL-Kp. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the use of antibiotics or underlying disease that increases the chance of antibiotic are the main risk factors for ESBL-Kp infections. Programs focusing on rational use of antibiotics are mandatory for prevention and control of such infections. <![CDATA[<B>Tuberculosis</B>: <B>a study of 111 cases in an area of high prevalence in the extreme south of Brazil</B>]]> Tuberculosis is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries. We studied 111 tuberculosis patients confirmed by mycobacteria isolation between 1998 and 2000 in Rio Grande, in south Brazil. One-hundred-thirteen pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical materials were examined through culture by the Ogawa-Kudoh method and through smear examination by the Ziehl-Nielsen or Kinyoun methods. The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done through the usual phenotypical methods. The proportion method (indirect technique) was used to determine the resistance of isolates. The man/woman ratio was 2.6:1, 75% were white, and the group had a mean age of 39.7±12.7. Risk factors were present in 38.7% (34 men and 9 women, p=0.2), with a mean age of 35 (p=0.002); infection by HIV was the most frequent (28.8%), followed by alcoholism (16.2%) and injected drug use (15.3%). The frequency of M. tuberculosis isolates was 99.1%. Pulmonary disease occurred in 88.3% of the cases, extrapulmonary in 9.9% and 1.8% in both. There was an association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and the presence of risk factors (p=0.0001). Resistance to isoniazid was found in 4% of the isolates and to isoniazid and rifampin in 2%, all being patients with some risk factors. The profile of tuberculosis in the population of this study followed the pattern described for developing regions of the world. <![CDATA[<B>Is hepatitis C virus a cause of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy?</B><B> </B><B>A systematic review of literature</B>]]> Recent studies have suggested that some patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) are also afflicted with insidious forms of viral myocarditis. Participation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in this process has been postulated. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between hepatitis C virus and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Systematic review of the literature using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASES, LILACS and COCHRANE) for the period from 1995 to 2005, limited to papers published in English, Spanish and Portuguese. Sixty-two papers were found, of which six were in accordance with the proposed methodology. After selection, the articles were classified by quality of data and number of variables studied. Most of the patients were male adults from 31 and 75 years old, who had ischemic cardiopathy excluded as etiology of the dilated cardiomyopathy. A significant association between dilated cardiomyopathy and hepatitis C virus was found in only two papers, both from Japan and by the same author. Most of the papers received low classifications, as they did not fulfill the systematization criteria. <![CDATA[<B>Overview of tigecycline and its role in the era of antibiotic resistance</B>]]> The increasing antimicrobial resistance found in the many clinically important species of bacteria that commonly cause serious and life-threatening diseases presents a difficult challenge for clinicians, especially when an appropriate initial therapy must be chosen. New antibiotics are urgently needed to address the formidable issues associated with infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The need for new antibiotics that effectively resist antimicrobial mechanisms of resistance has become paramount. Tigecycline is a new antimicrobial agent; it is the first in a new class of antibiotics, the glycylcyclines, with properties conferring the ability to overcome many common resistance mechanisms, thus allowing the use of tigecycline for many serious and life-threatening infections for which the use of other antibiotics is no longer appropriate. Tigecycline is a novel expanded spectrum antibiotic that appears poised to meet the latest bacterial challenges facing clinicians, including the serious and life-threatening infections caused by highly resistant bacteria. Tigecycline, moreover, appears to hold promise as a new, versatile antibiotic that can be chosen for empirical therapy, even as a single agent, for initial therapy of many clinically important infections. <![CDATA[<B>Antibiotics for the empirical treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in children</B>]]> While the routine use of antibiotics for infectious diarrhea in children must be avoided, because it brings little benefit in most cases and is associated with the risk of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selected cases may require antimicrobial therapy, and the choice of the antimicrobial agent often has to be made empirically. Physicians prescribing antimicrobials in such a setting have not only to be aware of the most likely pathogens, but also of their characteristic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the safety profile of the various drugs. We reviewed the literature on the use of ampicillin, beta-lactamase inhibitors, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, nalidixic acid, fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, metronidazole and malabsorbed agents in the setting of acute infectious diarrhea, and we evaluated the available information, seeking to apply it to empirical use, highlighting clinically-useful pharmacological information and patients' and pathogens' characteristics that must be taken into account for decisions about antimicrobial therapy. <![CDATA[<B>Perinatal tuberculosis</B>: <B>a diagnostic challenge</B>]]> Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, the congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. In Brazil, there has been only one published case of congenital tuberculosis and two cases of the perinatal form of this disease. We report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting with pneumonia. Alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli were found in the gastric lavage. Diagnosis of this disease presentation requires a high index of suspicion. <![CDATA[<B>Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis</B>: <B>a patient with 749 lesions</B>]]> Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, the congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. In Brazil, there has been only one published case of congenital tuberculosis and two cases of the perinatal form of this disease. We report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting with pneumonia. Alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli were found in the gastric lavage. Diagnosis of this disease presentation requires a high index of suspicion.