Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases]]> vol. 14 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A new face to BJID</b>: <b>perspective for the near future</b>]]> <![CDATA[<B>Clinical presentation of leptospirosis</B>: <B>a retrospective study of 201 patients in a metropolitan city of Brazil</B>]]> INTRODUCTION: leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide importance. The disease is endemic in Brazil. This study was conducted to describe the clinical and laboratory presentation of leptospirosis in a metropolitan city of Brazil. METHODS: this is a retrospective study including 201 consecutive patients with leptospirosis admitted to tertiary hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, between 1985 and 2006. All patients had clinical and epidemiological data suggestive of leptospirosis, and positive laboratorial test for leptospirosis (microscopic agglutination test, MAT, higher than 1:800). RESULTS: a total of 201 patients were included, with mean age of 38.9 ± 15.7 years; 79.1% were male. The mean length from onset of symptoms to admission was 7 ± 3 days. The main clinical signs and symptoms at admission were fever (96.5%), jaundice (94.5%), myalgia (92.5%), headache (74.6%), vomiting (71.6%) and dehydration (63.5%). Hemorrhagic manifestations were present in 35.8%. Acute kidney injury was found in 87% of the patients. Platelet count was less than 100,000/mm³ in 74.3%. Hematuria was found in 42.9%. Death occurred in 31 cases (15.4%). CONCLUSIONS: leptospirosis is a globally relevant disease with potential fatal outcome. Signs and symptoms suggestive of leptospirosis must be known by any physician in order to institute early adequate treatment to improve outcome. Early indication and daily hemodialysis seems to be beneficial in this group of patients. <![CDATA[<B>Prevalence of phenotypic resistance of <I>Staphylococcus aureus </I>isolates to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B, ketolid and linezolid antibiotics in Turkey</B>]]> The incidence of drug-resistant pathogens differs greatly between countries according to differences in the usage of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenotypic resistance of 321 methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 195 methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in a total of 516 S. aureus strains to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLS B), ketolid, and linezolid. Disk diffusion method was applied to determine MLS B phenotype and susceptibility to different antibiotic agents. It was found that 54.6% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (ERSA), 48% to clindamycin, 55% to azithromycin, 58.7% to spiramycin, 34.7% to telithromycin, and 0.4% to quinupristin-dalfopristin, respectively. No strain resistant to linezolid was found. The prevalence of constitutive (cMLS B), inducible (IMLS B), and macrolides and type B streptogramins (M/MS B) among ERSA isolates (237 MRSA, 45 MSSA) was 69.6 %, 18.2%, and 12.2 % in MRSA and 28.9%, 40%, and 31.1% in MSSA, respectively. In conclusions, the prevalence of cMLS B was predominant in MRSA; while in MSSA strains, iMLS B and M/MS B phenotype were more higher than cMLS B phenotype resistance. The resistance to quinupristindalfopristin was very low, and linezolid was considered as the most effective antibiotic against all S.aureus strains. <![CDATA[<B>Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients</B>]]> The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections. <![CDATA[<B>Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies</B>]]> PURPOSE: this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI), parity and Pap smear results. METHODS: one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively) applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PCR using the L1 region. Real-time nested amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV and HPV 16 DNA specific probe after HPV DNA extraction by phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol. RESULTS: HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 12% and 18% of the colposcopy positive patients respectively. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 5.7% and 3.8% of the colposcopy negative patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients comparing HPV 16 with total HPV positivity (p = 0.021 for type 16 and p = 0.010 for total HPV) but there was not a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients when we compared HPV (excepting type 16) positivity (p = 0.314). In conclusion, HPV detection and typing may be helpful for cervical cancer screening and prevention. <![CDATA[<B>Prevalence of toxoplasmosis, HIV, syphilis and rubella in a population of puerperal women using Whatman 903<SUP>®</SUP> filter paper</B>]]> OBJECTIVES: to determine the seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmosis, HIV, syphilis and rubella in a population of puerperal women. METHODS: a prospective, cross-sectional study was performed from February 2007 to April 2008 at Hospital Geral, Universidade de Caxias do Sul in a population of 1,510 puerperal women. Women that gave birth to live born or stillborn infants were included in the study; maternal and perinatal variables were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square with occasional Fisher's correction were used for comparisons. Alpha was set in 5%. RESULTS: a total of 148 cases of congenital infection (9.8%) were identified: 66 cases of syphilis (4.4%), 40 cases of HIV (2.7%), 27 cases of toxoplasmosis (1.8%) and 15 cases of rubella (1.0%). In ten cases there was co-infection (four cases of HIV and syphilis, two cases of HIV and rubella, one case of HIV and toxoplasmosis, two cases of rubella and syphilis, and one case of toxoplasmosis and rubella). In a comparison between puerperal women with and without infection there was no statistical significance in relation to incidence of abortions, small for gestational age, prematurity, live births and stillbirths, and prenatal care. Need of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), maternal schooling, maternal age higher than 35 years and drug use (alcohol, cocaine and crack) had statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the prevalence rate of infections was 9.8%. Need of NICU, maternal schooling lower than eight years, maternal age higher than 35 years and drug use were significantly associated with occurrence of congenital infection. <![CDATA[<B>Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil</B>]]> This paper reports the results of environmental surveillance of yeasts in specific areas of two tertiary local hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, samples from the air of two public hospitals were collected on a monthly basis. The samples were collected through passive sedimentation method (day and night exposure) of Petri dishes. A total of 240 air samples from 10 hospital environments were analyzed. These environments presented similar contamination levels, from which 80 fungi isolates were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (n = 34), Rhodotorula spp. (19), Trichosporon asahii (11), C. tropicalis (8), C. albicans (4), C. glabrata (1), C. guilliermondii (1), C. krusei (1) and Saccharomyces spp. (1). Regarding the presence of yeasts and climatic conditions, there were 40 strains (50%) in semi-critical areas (natural ventilation) and critical areas (air conditioned). Considering the presence of microorganisms with pathogenic potential, environmental monitoring is necessary to prevent possible hospital infections. <![CDATA[<B>Comparison of dot-ELISA and standard ELISA for detection of <I>Neisseria meningitidis </I>outer membrane complex-specific antibodies</B>]]> Dot-ELISA using the outer membrane complex antigens of Neisseria meningitidis as a target was standardized for rapid detection of meningococcal-specific antibodies in human serum. We investigated the level of meningococcal-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM in serum using dot-ELISA with outer membrane antigens prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotype B:4.19:P1.15,3,7,9 (a strain isolated from a Brazilian epidemic). The dot-ELISA is based on the same principles as the standard ELISA and is useful for detection of anti-N. meningitidis B antibodies in serum of patients with meningococcal infections. For the assay, outer membrane complexes (OMCs) were absorbed by nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with a 5% skim milk solution. Serum samples were drawn upon hospital admission and during convalescence from patients with meningococcal septicemia, and single samples were drawn from uninfected controls. We retrospectively examined a total of 57 serum samples: 35 from patients infected with N. meningitidis B, 12 from patients infected with Haemophilus influenzae b, and 10 from health individuals. When performed at room temperature, dot-ELISA took approximately four hours to perform, and the optimum antigen concentration was 0.42 µg per dot. The specificity of IgG, IgM, and IgA demonstrates that dot-ELISA using OMCs from N. meningitidis B as a target is suitable for serologic verification of clinically suspected meningococcal disease in patients and for titer determination of antibodies produced during different phases of natural infection. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dot-ELISA was comparable to that of standard ELISA. Overall, dot-ELISA is simple to perform, rapid, and low cost. Further validation of the test as a screening tool is required. <![CDATA[<B>HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey</B>: <B>how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?</B>]]> The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years. <![CDATA[<B>Search for <I>Mycobacterium leprae</I> in wild mammals</B>]]> Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati), Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned), Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush), Cavia aperea (restless cavy), Didelphis albiventris (skunk), Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog), and Gallictis vittata (ferret) showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. <![CDATA[<B>MRSA outbreak at a transplantation unit</B>]]> Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections frequently complicate the post-operative course of transplant recipients, and despite nasal carriage and endemic colonization, MRSA outbreaks are not commonly described. This study reports a case of MRSA outbreak and discusses infection control measures and recommendations for this situation. <![CDATA[<B>Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers among children and adolescents in the south brazilian region</B>: <B>metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina</B>]]> Hepatitis B and C are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health, about 15% of population is infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and less than 1% by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Nevertheless, the age-specific prevalence of HBV and HCV markers remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and immunity in children and adolescents between 10 to 16 years old who live in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Three hundred and eighty four individuals were enrolled in this study. Serological markers for HBV and HCV (HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBs and anti-HCV) were determined through Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (MEIA) - AxSYM System® - by using commercial diagnostic kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA). All 384 adolescents (100%) were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM. Only two (0.52%) were positive for total anti-HBc. Among the studied individuals, 226 (58.85%) presented titers of anti-HBs > 10.0mIU/mL, 121 (31.51%) presented anti HBs < 10.0mIU/mL, and 37 (9.64%) did not present titers of anti-HBs. Regarding to anti-HCV, all 384 adolescents (100%) presented negative results for this marker. In conclusion, this study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infections. In addition, it was verified a great number of children and adolescents (89.84%) who were positive for the immunity marker anti-HBs, implying that the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B has been effective in the studied region. <![CDATA[<B>Raw oysters can be a risk for infections</B>]]> The aims of this study were to count and identify sucrose positive and negative vibrios isolated from cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters during their growing cycle. Every month for 12 months, 10 to 18 oysters were collected for study. Collections occurred at the Center for Studies of Coastal Aquaculture (CSCA), which is associated with the Institute of Marine Science, Labomar, located in Euzebio, Ceará, Brazil. Approximately 150 oysters and their intervalvular liquor were studied. Vibrio Standard Plates Counts (SPC) from oyster meat and their intervalvular liquor varied from 25 to 59,000,000 CFU/g. For most of the 12 months of the oysters' life, it was possible to identify Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Vibrio carchariae was identified in four collections. Among other isolated species, the most important, considering public health risks, was V. vulnificus, although only one strain was confirmed. We concluded that retail purchased oysters should never be eaten raw or undercooked because many species of the genus Vibrio are known to be pathogenic to humans and live naturally on and in shellfish throughout their life cycle. <![CDATA[<B>Methicillin/Oxacillin-resistant <I>Staphylococcus aureus </I>as a hospital and public health threat in Brazil</B>]]> Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an established nosocomial pathogen (HA-MRSA, hospital acquired MRSA), but has recently begun to appear in the community (CA-MRSA, community acquired MRSA). The cause of resistance to methicillin and all other β-lactam antibiotics is the mecA gene, which is situated on a mobile genetic element, the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Seven major variants of SCCmec, type I to VII are distinguished. HA-MRSA disseminated worldwide and causes the majority of S. aureus nosocomial infections with a limited number of clones disseminated including the Brazilian Epidemic Clone (BEC, ST239-MRSA-III). CA-MRSA isolates are susceptible to non-β-lactam antibiotics, usually isolated from healthy individuals which do not possess any unknown risk factors for MRSA infection and are associated with a larger clonal diversity compared with HA-MRSA. However, during recent years distinction between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA is beginning to fade. Actually, knowledge about MRSA disseminating clones is required to implement any strategies to control the transmission of MRSA either within hospitals or in community. For this reason, rapid identification of strains is an important issue. The rate of HA-MRSA can be reduced substantially through the implementation of interventions strategies, even in settings where MRSA is endemic as in most Brazilian hospitals. However, these policies could be quite complicated in the light of an increasing CA-MRSA prevalence in healthcare facilities, considering that distinction between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA has started to disappear. <![CDATA[<B>Juvenile paracoccidioidomycosis in urban area</B>: <B>report of two cases</B>]]> We present two cases of juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis frequently found in rural areas, whose prognosis is poor in children and young adults. They are a 14-year-old boy and a 25-year-old woman, both residents in an urban area in São Paulo - Brazil, without any history of travelling to an endemic area. They have been admitted to the hospital due to fever, weight loss and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic and histopathologic study. Patients have recovered after therapy with oral itraconazole and were discharged from hospital, maintaining outpatient visits. In this article, the authors discuss the unusual presentation of PCM in an urban area. <![CDATA[<B>Non Hodgkin's lymphoma with cutaneous involvement in AIDS patients</B>: <B>report of five cases and review of the literature</B>]]> Cutaneous B cell lymphoma (CBCL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of neoplastic B cell of the skin with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Commonly, the clinical features of CBCL are plaques, nodules, or ulcerative lesions. Skin is one of the common sites for extra-nodal lymphomas in patients with AIDS and B cell type is less common than T cell type. Only recently, the existence of B cell lymphomas presenting clinically in the skin without evidence of extra-cutaneous involvement has been accepted as primary CBCL. Here, we are presenting 5 patients with cutaneous involvement in the setting of HIV/AIDS disease. Two of them were primary cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphomas. All were CBCL; 3 were immunoblastic, 1 was plasmablastic, and the other was a Burkitt lymphoma. We analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, virological, and immunological characteristics of this group of patients. <![CDATA[<B>Paracoccidioidomycosis</B>: <B>description of two cases autochthonous in Ceará</B>]]> Paracoccidioidomycosis is endemic in most countries of Latin America. Brazil has the greatest number of cases, with no autochthonous case registered in the state of Ceará. The cases of two patients that had never gone outside the State of Ceará and lived at least some years in the municipality of Palmácia. <![CDATA[<B>Oral HPV infection in a bone marrow transplantation patient</B>: <B>a case report with atypical clinical presentation and unexpected outcome</B>]]> HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is one of the most prevalent infections worlwide. Oral HPV infection may be associated with different diseases of oral cavitie. Although oral HPV infection occurs frequently, it rarely causes lesions. An increased rate of oral HPV-induced lesions is observed in people with an impaired immune system. The most common conditions induced by oral HPV infection are focal epithelial hyperplasia, oral condylomas and oral papillomas. We reported a case of oral HPV lesion in a bone marrow transplantation patient with atypical clinical presentation and unexpected outcome. <![CDATA[<B>Rare zoonosis (hemotrophic mycoplasma infection) in a newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patient followed by a <I>Nocardia asteroides</I> pneumonia</B>]]> Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is per se a disease characterized by suppressed immune response and thus susceptibility to various opportunistic infections. We describe the case of a 21-yearold woman who developed a rare zoonosis - hemotrophic mycoplasma infection in the initial stage of SLE, complicated with Nocardia asteroides pneumonia afterwards. Nocardia infection coincided with initiation of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide therapy for SLE. After the treatment she recovered completely. To our knowledge the only case of human hemoplasmosis (then referred to as eperythrozoonosis) in medical literature was the one described by a group of Croatian authors 22 years ago. No cases of a hemotrophic mycoplasma infection in a SLE patient have been published up to now. <![CDATA[<B>Novel pharmaceutical molecules against emerging resistant gram-positive cocci</B>]]> INTRODUCTION: methicillin- and also vancomycin (glycopeptide)-resistant Gram-positive organisms have emerged as an increasingly problematic cause of hospital-acquired infections, also spreading into the community. Vancomycin (glycopeptide) resistance has emerged primarily among Enterococci, but the MIC values of vancomycin for the entire Staphylococcus species are also increasing worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the aim of our review is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of newer antibiotics with activity against methicillin-resistant and glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive cocci, on the ground of our experience at a tertiary care metropolitan Hospital, and the most recent literature evidences in this field. RESULTS: Quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline show an excellent in vitro activity, comparable to the activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin for methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and superior to the one that vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Dalbavancin, televancin, and oritavancin are new lipoglycopeptide agents with excellent activity against Gram-positive cocci, and have superior pharmacodynamics properties compared to vancomycin. We review the bacterial spectrum, clinical indications and practical use, pharmacologic properties, and expected adverse events and contraindications associated with each of these novel antimicrobial agents, compared with the present standard of care. DISCUSSION: linezolid activity is substantially comparable to that of vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, although its penetration into the respiratory tract is exceptionally elevated. Tigecycline has activity against both Enterococus species and MRSA; it is also active against a broad spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes, which allows for use intraabdominal, diabetic foot and surgical infections. Daptomycin has a rapid bactericidal activity for Staphylococcus aureus and it is approved in severe complications, such as bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis. It cannot be used to treat pneumonia and respiratory diseases, due to its inactivation in the presence of pulmonary surfactant. <![CDATA[<B>Brucellar epididymo-orchitis in southeastern part of Turkey</B>: <B>an 8 year experience</B>]]> OBJECTIVE: the different clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment of patients with acute brucellar epididymo-orchitis (BEO) reporting to the reference hospital in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: in this study, 27 male patients with brucellosis, who presented with epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis (EO) at the university hospital in Diyarbakir from 1998 to 2006, were included. They were compared with the other male patients. Positive blood culture or high agglutination titers of > 1/160 and positive clinical manifestations of brucellosis were the main criteria for diagnosing brucellosis. RESULTS: fourteen patients had unilateral EO. Leukocytosis was present in 10 patients; all of them had initial agglutination titers of > 1/160 and 10 patients had a positive blood culture. All patients received combined therapy with streptomycin for the first 21 days (or oral rifampicin for 6-8 weeks) with doxycycline or tetracycline for 6-8 weeks. All showed improvement, fever subsided in 3-7 days, and the scrotal enlargement and tenderness regressed. Only one patient had a relapse within one year. CONCLUSION: in brucellosis-endemic areas, clinicians encountering EO should consider the likelihood of brucellosis. In this study, young age was the most common risk factor, and leukocytosis and high CRP level were the most common laboratory findings. Most cases were unilateral. All patients responded to medical management very well. Conservative management with combination antibiotic therapy was adequate for managing BEO. Conclusively, brucellosis must be considered as a cause of orchitis, especially in endemic regions like Turkey. <![CDATA[<B>Quality of sputum in the performance of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis</B>]]> SETTING: faster alternative techniques are required to improve the diagnosis and control of pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sample quality in the performance of PCR for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHOD: during one year, sputum samples were collected from 72 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 12 non-tuberculosis controls, which were admitted to the Nereu Ramos hospital, Florianópolis city, Brazil. The samples were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen-stained sputum smear microscopy and Lowestein-Jensen medium culture, which were defined as gold standard tests for mycobacteria, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Those samples that presented more than 40% of viable cells and less than 25% of epithelial cells were defined as high quality samples. RESULTS: PCR showed sensitivity of 55.6%, specificity of 41.7%, positive predictive value of 85.1%, negative predictive value of 13.5%, and accuracy of 53.6%. High quality samples showed sensitivity of 72.4%, specificity of 50%, positive predictive value of 91.3%, negative predictive value of 20%, and accuracy of 69.7%. Low quality samples showed sensitivity of 44.2%, specificity of 37.5%, positive predictive value of 79.2%, negative predictive value of 11.1%, and accuracy of 43.1%. CONCLUSION: use of high quality samples improved significantly the PCR performance, especially on their sensitivity and positive predictive values.