Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Genetics and Molecular Biology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1415-475720210001&lang=en vol. 44 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Expression profiling of some Acute Myeloid Leukemia - associated markers to assess their diagnostic / prognostic potential]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Investigating the etiological causes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the molecular level should help in identifying targets and strategies that would increase the efficacy of the current management regimens. Some genes may act as molecular diagnostics, of these ASXL1 and PHF6 are involved in regulation of gene expression, and BAX , and ARC, are pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules, respectively. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from 54 recently diagnosed AML patients in addition to 20 healthy individuals (the control group). Cellular RNA was extracted from all the samples and were subjected to quantitative analysis of the transcript levels of the four selected markers. Our data showed a significant elevation in the expression levels of PHF6 and ARC in AML patients, when compared to the controls (77.8% and 83.3%, respectively). On the other hand, ASXL1 and BAX exhibited increase, to a lesser extent, in the expression levels of the AML patients (52% and 55.6%, respectively). Our study also showed that the expression levels of ARC and PHF6 exhibited a concomitant increase and this could be correlated with poor prognosis of the cases. Thus, we can suggest these markers as reliable prognostic markers for prediction of AML outcomes. <![CDATA[MicroRNA-149 is downregulated in Alzheimer’s disease and inhibits β-amyloid accumulation and ameliorates neuronal viability through targeting BACE1]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between microRNA-149 (miR-149) and BACE1, and evaluate the clinical significance and biological function of miR-149 in AD progression. Bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase reporter assay were used to confirm the interaction between miR-149 and BACE1. Expression of miR-149 and BACE1 was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. The clinical significance of miR-149 in AD diagnosis and severity determination was evaluated using ROC analysis. The effect of miR-149 on Aβ accumulation and neuronal viability was analyzed in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y cells. miR-149 was found directly binding the 3’-UTR of BACE1 and was negatively correlated with BACE1 in AD patients and cell model. Serum miR-149 expression was downregulated in AD patients and served as a potential diagnostic biomarker. The overexpression of miR-149 in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y cells resulted in inhibited Aβ accumulation and enhanced neuronal viability. This study demonstrated that serum miR-149 is decreased in AD patients and serves as a candidate diagnostic biomarker, and that the overexpression of miR-149 may suppress Aβ accumulation and promote neuronal viability by targeting BACE1 in AD model cells. <![CDATA[Updated birth prevalence and relative frequency of mucopolysaccharidoses across Brazilian regions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by 11 enzyme deficiencies, classified into seven types. Data on the birth prevalence of each MPS type are available for only a few countries, and the totality of cases may be underestimated. To determine the epidemiological profile of MPS in each Brazilian region, we analyzed data collected between 1982 and 2019 by a national reference laboratory and identified 1,652 patients. Using data between 1994 and 2018, the birth prevalence (by 100,000 live births) for MPS was 1.57. MPS II was the most common type of MPS in Brazil, and its birth prevalence was 0.48 (0.94 considering only male births). Regarding the number of cases per region, MPS II was the most frequent in the North and Center-West (followed by MPS VI), and also in the Southeast (followed by MPS I); MPS I and MPS II were the most common types in the South; and MPS VI was the most common in the Northeast (followed by MPS II). The differences observed in the relative frequencies of MPS types across Brazilian regions are likely linked to founder effect, endogamy, and consanguinity, but other factors may be present and need further investigation. <![CDATA[Analysis of potential virulence genes and competence to transformation in <em>Haemophilus influenzae</em> biotype <em>aegyptius</em> associated with Brazilian Purpuric Fever]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100401&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a hemorrhagic pediatric illness caused by Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae), a bacterium that was formerly associated with self-limited purulent conjunctivitis. BPF is assumed to be eradicated. However, the virulence mechanisms inherent to Hae strains associated with BPF is still a mystery and deficient in studies. Here, we aim to analyze the role of the autotransporter genes related to adherence and colonization las, tabA1, and hadA genes through RT-qPCR expression profiling and knockout mutants. Relative quantification by real-time PCR after infection in human cells and infant rat model suggests that las was initially downregulated probably duo to immune evasion, tabA1, and hadA were overexpressed in general, suggesting an active role of TabA1 and HadA1 adhesins in Hae in vitro and in vivo. Transformation attempts were unsuccessful despite the use of multiple technical approaches and in silico analysis revealed that Hae lacks genes related to competence in Haemophilus, which could be part of the elucidation of the difficulty of genetically manipulating Hae strains. <![CDATA[Genomic sequencing of different sequevars of <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em> belonging to the Moko ecotype]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100402&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Banana vascular wilt or Moko is a disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and compare the genomes of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes of different sequevar strains from Brazil. Average nucleotide identity analyses demonstrated a high correlation (&gt; 96%) between the genome sequences of strains CCRMRs277 (sequevar IIA-24), CCRMRs287 (IIB-4), CCRMRs304 (IIA-24), and CCRMRsB7 (IIB-25), which were grouped into phylotypes IIA and IIB. The number of coding sequences present in chromosomes and megaplasmids varied from 3,070 to 3,521 and 1,669 to 1,750, respectively. Pangenome analysis identified 3,378 clusters in the chromosomes, of which 2,604 were shared by all four analyzed genomes and 2,580 were single copies. In megaplasmids, 1,834 clusters were identified, of which 1,005 were shared by all four genomes and 992 were identified as single copies. Strains CCRMRsB7 and CCRMRs287 differed from the others by having unique clusters in both their chromosomes and megaplasmids, and CCRMRsB7 possessed the largest genome among all Moko ecotype strains sequenced to date. Therefore, the genomic information obtained in this study provides a theoretical basis for the identification, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes. <![CDATA[Genome sequencing and analysis of plant growth-promoting attributes from <em><em>Leclercia adecarboxylata</em></em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100403&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Plant growth-promoting bacteria are ecological alternatives for fertilization, mainly for gramineous. Since plant x bacteria interaction is genotype and strain dependent, searching for new strains may contribute to the development of new biofertilizers. We aim to characterize plant growth-promoting capacity of Leclercia adecarboxylata strain Palotina, formerly isolated by our group in corn. A single isolated colony was taken and its genome was sequenced using Illumina technology. The whole genome was compared to other Leclercia adecarboxylata strains, and their biological and growth-promoting traits, such as P solubilization and auxin production, were tested. Following that, a 4.8 Mb genome of L. adecarboxylata strain Palotina was assembled and the functional annotation was carried out. This paper is the first to report the genes associated with plant growth promotion demonstrating in vitro indole acid production by this strain. These results project the endophyte as a potential biofertilizer for further commercial exploitation. <![CDATA[Influence of environmental dust in transformation capacity of S<em>treptococcus pneumoniae</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572021000100501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract S. pneumoniae, commonly known as pneumococcus, is a naturally competent Gram-positive bacterium and is the major cause of pneumonia in elderly and children in developing countries. This pathogen is associated with respiratory diseases affected by pollution. The objective of this work was determining the effect of ash and environmental dust from the burning of sugarcane on pneumococci bacterial transformation. The transformation capacity of the Pn360 pneumococci strain was performed using the assays of DNA donor of mutant for luxS gene. Thus, the transformation tests were performed in contact with dust collected in the southwestern region of Brazil (important region where burning of sugar cane is present in the agriculture). The use of degradative practices in the sugar cane agriculture in Brazil was involved in the transformation capacity of the S. pneumoniae. This phenomenon includes important consequences for public health concerning to resistance acquisition and new virulence factors of this important infection. In conclusion, we obtained important results concerning the action of environmental pollution in Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation, increasing the DNA acquisition for this pathogen.