Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Materials Research]]> vol. 18 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Editorial]]> <![CDATA[Characterization of Nd3+-doped Tellurite Glasses with Low OH Content]]> This work presents the results of the investigation of structural and thermal properties of Nd3+-doped tellurite glasses with low OH content. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, DTA, UV/VIS/NIR and Archimedes’ method. Tellurite glasses of composition (100 – x)(0.8TeO2 + 0.2WO3) + xNd2O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mol%) were prepared in both ambient and oxygen atmospheres. All samples showed an increase of the values of Tg, Tx, and Tx-Tg with Nd2O3 addition. The reduction of OH content implies a slight decrease of Tg. The density and the molar volume of the glasses increased with Nd2O3. The intensity of the absorption bands associated with Te-O bonds of TeO4 units decreased compared with the bands associated with Te-O bonds of TeO3+1/3 units. This indicates that Nd2O3 favors the transformation of the TeO4 groups in TeO3 groups via TeO3+1, increasing the NBOs and contributing to the formation of strongly hydrogen-bonded OH groups. The samples made in O2 showed a reduction of 48% of “free” OH ions compared with the Amb ones. <![CDATA[Mechanical Characterization of Ti–12mo–13nb Alloy for Biomedical Application Hot Swaged and Aged]]> Beta titanium alloys were developed for biomedical applications due to the combination of its mechanical properties including low elasticity modulus, high strength, fatigue resistance, good ductility and with excellent corrosion resistance. With this perspective a metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-12Mo-13Nb was developed with the replacement of both vanadium and aluminum from the traditional alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents the microstructure, mechanical properties of the Ti-12Mo-13Nb hot swaged and aged at 500 °C for 24 h under high vacuum and then water quenched. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. The results show a microstructure consisting of a fine dispersed α phase in a β matrix and good mechanical properties including low elastic modulus. The results indicate that Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy can be a promising alternative for biomedical application. <![CDATA[Thermal, Structural and Crystallization Study of Niobium Potassium Phosphate Glasses]]> New glass compositions were investigated in the binary system KPO3-Nb2O5. The glass forming domain was determined by melt-quenching of the starting nominal compositions and it has been experimentally observed that glass samples can be obtained between the molar compositions 95KPO3-5Nb2O5 and 50KPO3-50Nb2O5. Chemically stable compositions from 80KPO3-20Nb2O5 to 50KPO3-50Nb2O5 were characterized by DSC for determination of characteristic temperatures Tg, Tx, Tp and Tf. Glass transition temperatures strongly increase with Nb2O5 content whereas thermal stability against devitrification progressively decreases. Thermal data were used to suggest a structural model in which NbOx polyhedra are inserted inside the phosphate chains of PO4 units. For higher Nb2O5 contents, NbOx units progressively link together to form amorphous NbOx clusters, responsible for the yellow color and lower thermal stability against devitrification. For the composition 50KPO3-50Nb2O5, it has been found that the first crystallization peak is related with precipitation of hexagonal Nb2O5 in the glass matrix whereas the high temperature exothermic peak is due to both phase transition of hexagonal niobium oxide to monoclinic niobium oxide and precipitation of niobium potassium phosphate K2Nb6P4O26. <![CDATA[Thermomechanical Analysis on Ti-Ni Shape Memory Helical Springs Under Cyclic Tensile Loads]]> Shape memory alloys (SMAs) present some characteristics, which make it unique material to be use in applications that require strength and shape recovery. This alloys was been used to manufacture smart actuators for mechanical industry devices and several other applications in areas as medicine, robotics, aerospace, petroleum and gas industries. However it is important to know the actuators response to external stimulus (heat source, electrical current and/or external stress) in these technological applications. This work investigated the thermomechanical behaviors of helical actuators produced from Ti-Ni alloy commercial wires. Initially, the wire was subjected to some heat treatment and characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy. Then two heat treatments were selected to obtain the helical actuators. The actuators were tested in an apparatus developed to apply an external traction stress in helical actuators during thermal cycles. Two wires were tested in a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The results were analyzed in comparison with thermoplastic properties obtained in thermomechanical tests. The analysis took into consideration the wiring forming process, the precipitates formation, the stress fields generated by dislocations and reorientation of martensite variants during the actuators training process. <![CDATA[Production and Characterization of Polymeric Composite Materials Using MDF Waste in Powder and Poliester Terephthalic Resin]]> The growing demand for panels of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) for manufacture of furniture produces significant quantities of waste, which is often inappropriate discarded. This paper presents the study of the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite reinforced with powdered MDF residues collected from cuts machines for furniture manufacturing. Samples of the composites having waste mass fractions (m) in the range of 0-20% in resin Terephthalic (E) were studied. Through mechanical and physical tests the maximum tensile and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, maximum deformation, composite density and water absorption index were determined. A result of characterization tests confirms the viability of composite when compared to others composites using natural fibers as reinforcement or load. <![CDATA[Structural and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Si-N Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering]]> Zirconium silicon nitride (ZrSiN) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to verify the silicon influence on coating morphology and mechanical properties. The Si/(Zr+Si) ratio was adjusted between 0 to 15% just modifying the power applied on the silicon target. Only peaks associated to ZrN crystalline structure were observed in XRD analysis, since Si3N4 phase was amorphous. All samples have (111) preferred orientation, but there is a peak intensity reduction and a broadening increase for the sample with the highest Si/(Zr+Si) ratio (15%), demonstrating a considerable loss of crystallinity or grain size reduction (about 8 nm calculated by Scherrer). It was also observed that the I(200)/I(111) ratio increases with silicon addition. Chemical composition and thickness of the coatings were determined by RBS analysis. No significant changes in nanohardness with increasing Si content were found. The morphology observed by FEG-SEM presents non columnar characteristics for thin films with silicon addition. The set of results suggests that Si addition is restricting the columnar growth of ZrN thin films. This conclusion is justified by the fact that Si contributes to increase the ZrN grains nucleation during the sputtering process. <![CDATA[Phase Formation, Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn Shape Memory Alloy Prepared by Selective Laser Melting]]> Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process used to produce parts with complex geometries layer by layer. This rapid solidification method allows fabricating samples in a non-equilibrium state and with refined microstructure. In this work, this method is used to fabricate 3 mm diameter rods of a Cu-based shape memory alloy. The phase formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties were investigated and correlated. Samples with a relative density higher than 92% and without cracks were obtained. A single monoclinic martensitic phase was formed with average grain size ranging between 28 to 36 μm. The samples exhibit a reverse martensitic transformation temperature around 106 ± 2 °C and a large plasticity in compression (around 15±1%) with a typical “double-yielding” behaviour. <![CDATA[Control of the Microhardness to Young Modulus Ratio by Mechanical Processing of a Ti-10Mo-20Nb Alloy]]> β-metastable titanium alloys with high strength to Young’s modulus ratio have been developed by different authors aiming their use as biomaterials for hard tissue replacement. However, it is not easy to combine low elastic modulus with high mechanical strength. In this work, a β-Ti alloy (Ti-10Mo-20Nb) was produced by arc-melting, then homogenized, cold swaged and aged in order to obtain fine α-Ti precipitates in a β-Ti matrix. The microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties characterization was based on Vickers microhardness tests and Young’s modulus measurements. The cold swaged material subjected to an ageing treatment at 500 °C for 4 h showed the highest hardness/ Young’s modulus ratio, associated to very fine α phase precipitates in a β-Ti matrix. <![CDATA[Study of the Influence of Chemical Composition on the Pozzolanicity of Soda-lime Glass Microparticles]]> The use of residues, in partial or total substitution of aggregates or binders in concrete, presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary cementitious material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by direct (Modified Chapelle, electrical conductivity) and indirect test (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and Strength Activity Index testing. The results show that microparticles of both glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This confirms the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. <![CDATA[Production of MA956 Alloy Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying]]> Aluminum matrix composites (AMC) are attractive structural materials for automotive and aerospace applications. Lightweight, environmental resistance, high specific strength and stiffness, and good wear resistance are promising characteristics that encourage research and development activities in AMC in order to extend their applications. Powder metallurgy techniques like mechanical alloying (MA) are an alternative way to design metal matrix composites, as they are able to achieve a homogeneous distribution of well dispersed particles inside the metal matrix. In this work, aluminum has been reinforced with particles of MA956, which is an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron base alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) of high Young’s modulus and that incorporates a small volume fraction of nanometric yttria particles introduced by mechanical alloying. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of MA to produce AMC reinforced with 5 and 10 vol.% of MA956 alloy particles. Homogeneous composite powders were obtained after 20 h of milling. The evolution of morphology and particle size of composite powders was the typical observed in MA. The composite powders produced with 10 vol.% MA956 presented a more accentuated decrease in particle size during the milling, reaching 37 μm after 50 h. The thermal stability of the composite and the existence of interface reactions were investigated aiming further high temperature consolidation processing. Heat treatment at 420 °C resulted in partial reaction between matrix and reinforcement particles, while at 570 °C the extension of reaction was complete, with formation in both cases of Al-rich intermetallic phases. <![CDATA[Ballistic Efficiency of an Individual Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Sisal Fibers in Multilayered Armor]]> Sisal fibers are among the natural lignocellulosic ones with great impact resistance for potential use in polymer composites. This work evaluates the ballistic efficiency of the distinct individual components of a multilayered armor. These include the front ceramic, the back metallic sheet and the intermediate layer as either the conventional aramid fabric or a novel sisal fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Sisal fibers incorporated in epoxy resin plates with volume fraction of 30% were ballistic tested using the 7.62 caliber ammunition. The fibers were embedded under pressure in the epoxy resin matrix and cured at room temperature for 24 hours. The tested specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. <![CDATA[Analysis of Dimension Stone Waste Addition to the Clayey Mass Used in Roof Tile Production]]> Addition of dimension stone waste to clayey mass is an alternative to make the dimension stone sector more environmentally sustainable and to reduce the consumption of clayey raw material. Our aim is to study the technical feasibility of dimension stone waste addition to the clayey mass used in roof tile production. Samples of waste and clay were tested for physical, chemical, mineralogical and microstructural characterization. Samples containing dimension stone waste contents, varying from 10% to 90% (wt.), were produced and burned in industrial furnace of a structural ceramic factory at a 900°C maximum temperature for 24 hours. The technological characteristics evaluated were water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density, loss on ignition, linear shrinkage and flexural strength. The results show that the samples with up to 60% waste content can be used in the production of ceramic bodies, since the waste promoted the physical packing of the grains, which increased the densification of ceramic bodies. With that, the waste-improved ceramic characteristics were analyzed. From 60% content onwards, the waste was not be able to fill the remaining interstices between the clay grains to densify the ceramic body because both raw materials have similar particle size distribution. Furthermore, the excess silica, in the form of quartz contained in the waste, presents an inert behavior in the factory firing temperature used in this research, causing fracture points and decreasing the flexural strength. <![CDATA[Giant Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite in Multilayered Ballistic Armor]]> The ballistic performance of a multilayered armor with a front ceramic tile backed by a plate of giant bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy composite was assessed. The ceramic layer spalls the projectile, while the bamboo composite dissipates the remaining energy. Ballistic tests were performed with high velocity ammunition and the projectile penetration was evaluated by the intrusion depth in a clay witness. The average depth value of near 18 mm was found well below the limit specified by the NIJ standard of 44 mm and better than that for aramid fabric composite, about 22 mm, with the same thickness of the giant bamboo composite. The giant bamboo composite acts as an efficient barrier for the fragments originated from the ceramic brittle rupture. For practical application in portable armor for personal protection, the layer of giant bamboo composite presents not only a superior ballistic performance but also lightness and economical advantages over the conventional aramid fabric. <![CDATA[Development of a Methodology for Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Extended Sheets Made from Stainless Steels]]> Extended sheets are produced by a pressure cutting process to transform common sheets in expanded metal. These sheets are usually made of carbon steel, but due to their corrosion susceptible, studies have been developed with the aim to evaluate the viability of replacing these common steels by stainless steels. This study proposed an experimental method to characterize structural and mechanically samples of stainless steel extended sheets (410D, 444A, 439 and 304A) and a 1010 carbon steel sheet thicker than the others. This study has a practical importance because nowadays there are not standardized procedures to do this kind of evaluation. The obtained results showed that the methodology was effective for the proposed objective and that the expanded sheets made of stainless steels have a better performance in terms of mechanical strength compared to the 1010 steel sheet. <![CDATA[Adjusting the Sintering Cycle of a Hadfield Sintered Steel Produced by Metal Injection Molding]]> Processing of high manganese austenitic sintered steels present several challenges concerning thermodynamic reactions that occur during the sintering of these materials such as Mn oxidation, sublimation and even the formation of liquid phases or undesired compounds, e.g. grain boundary carbides. Therefore it is extremely important to adjust the sintering parameters to obtain the adequate microstructure and properties. In this work, the effect of some sintering parameters, i.e. temperature, gas atmosphere and cooling rate are studied by dilatometry. The experiments revealed that the sintering temperature has small impact on the microstructure formation. On the other hand, the decrease on oxygen chemical potential in the furnace atmosphere resulted in less oxidation of the powder particles. Moreover, the increasing on the cooling rate to 50 °C/min avoided the formation of grain boundary carbides. As a main conclusion, a special sintering cycle for Hadfield steel samples was suggested. <![CDATA[Growth and Electrochemical Stability of Compact Tantalum Oxides Obtained in Different Electrolytes for Biomedical Applications]]> Tantalum has been cited to have many biomaterial applications, exhibiting biocompatibility and outstanding corrosion resistance. Tantalum may be covered with tantalum oxide using the electrochemical process of anodic oxidation. The oxide surface is known to be bioactive and more corrosion resistant. In this research, compact tantalum oxide films were obtained by potentiostatic and potentiodynamic methods in H2SO4 and H3PO4 (1 mol.L-1) electrolytes. By XPS analysis the stoichiometry Ta2O5 was detected. The thermodynamic stability of those oxides was compared and the results indicated that Ta2O5 obtained in H2SO4 has higher thermodynamic stability than Ta2O5 obtained in H3PO4. The incorporation of (PO4)3- ions and the formation of a bilayer oxide are responsible for the reduced stability. Also, the better control of chemical kinetic of oxide formation allows potentiodynamic oxides to be more stable. Ta2O5 shows spontaneous dissolution in artificial blood, nevertheless, it remains stable even after 60 days of immersion. By scratching tests was possible to notice that Ta2O5 is highly adherent to the tantalum metallic substrate and by mechanical indentation was possible to measure a lower elastic modulus for the Ta2O5 than the metallic substrate, what can be considered as distinguished properties for biomedical applications. <![CDATA[Effects of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of AISI 317L Steel Weld Metal in the FSW Process]]> The AISI 317L grade is an austenitic stainless steel with high Mo content (3.0 wt% min.). Due to the higher pitting resistance, this grade has replaced AISI 316L steel in many applications where the corrosion resistance is a critical property. However, the high Mo can induce phase transformations in high temperature services. In modern oil refinaries and petrochemical industries AISI 317L has been selected for temperatures as high as 550 °C. The goal of this work was to analyze the microstructural evolution and corrosion resistance of base and weld metal of AISI 317L stainless steel. The welded joints were produced by friction stir welding (FSW). The effect of prolonged exposure at 550 °C was investigated in specimens aged for 200h, 300h and 400h. After each aging treatment microstructural characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Double loop electrochemical polarization reactivation tests (DL-EPR) were performed to evaluate the degree of sensitization of the samples. The results indicated that the increase of the exposure time at 550 °C promotes the formation of intermetallic phases, which causes corrosion decay of the weld metal. <![CDATA[Crystallization Behavior of Amorphous Ti<sub>51.1</sub>Cu<sub>38.9</sub>Ni<sub>10.0</sub> Alloy]]> A good glass former, Ti57.4Cu33.4Ni9.2, was selected using the topological instability criterion (lambda criterion) and the average electronegativity approach. The crystallization behavior and microstructural development of amorphous melt-spun ribbons of this new composition in response to heat treatment were investigated using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the crystallization of the Ti57.4Cu33.4Ni9.2 alloy takes place through of three exothermic reactions with the nucleation of TiCu, Ti2Cu and Ti2Ni. The kinetics of crystallization were investigated by DSC, and the kinetic parameters were determined using Kissinger’s method. <![CDATA[Wettability and Morphological Characterization of a Polymeric Bacterial Cellulose / corn Starch Membrane]]> The uses of polymer blends have stimulated research to promote a better performance of existing raw materials. The implementation of blends in the production of polymeric membranes has shown great results in regenerative medicine and consequently it has improved the application of biomaterials in this area. This study aimed to evaluate the morphology and wettability of a bacterial cellulose/corn starch polymeric membrane. In relation to biomaterials, wettability is an important property to be evaluated because it is possible to observe if the degradation is accelerated even when in contact with biological fluids. The membrane was morphologically evaluated by SEM. Results showed that there was interaction between the polymers. Additionally, by the technique of contact angle it was also possible to observe the ability to absorb water, being highly satisfactory, showing a complete wetting with a contact angle of 10.7° in the initial assessment and 6.6° in the evaluation after 5 seconds. <![CDATA[Flexural Behavior of Epoxy Matrix Composites Reinforced with Malva Fiber]]> Polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been increasingly investigated and applied as engineering materials owing to their economical, technical, societal and environmental advantages. The malva fiber, particularly an important resource in the Amazon region in Brazil, only recently begin to be investigated as possible composite reinforcement for engineering application. However, the mechanical properties of composites reinforced with malva fiber are still unknown. In this paper, the flexural behavior of epoxy matrix composites reinforced with continuous malva fiber was for the first time investigated. Specimens of continuous malva fibers aligned along an epoxy matrix were press-molded. Three-points bending test were performed and the fractured specimens were analyzed by SEM. The results showed a marked improvement in the composites flexural properties with the increase in the amount of reinforced malva fiber. This improvement was found to match the Rule of Mixtures, which revealed the unique potential of malva composites for engineering applications. <![CDATA[Polyethylene-polyaniline Nanofiber Composites: Evaluation of Experimental Conditions of <em>in situ</em> Polymerization]]> The difficult processability of polyaniline (PAni) can be overcome by preparing composites with high density polyethylene (HDPE), resulting in a conducting material with improved mechanical properties. PAni nanofibers were synthesized in this research using a rapid mixing method, while HDPE/PAni composites were prepared by in situ polymerization using Cp2ZrCl2/MAO as a catalyst system. Different experimental conditions for polymerization and an electrochemical study were performed. The findings confirmed that the addition of small amounts of Pani (up to 7%) and longer impregnation (120 min) with methylaluminoxane (MAO) before polymerization are important factors contributing to increased catalytic activity. Analysis by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry indicates that MAO reacts with the PAni in the ethylene polymerization process, and forms active species in the presence of the catalyst. Changes in catalytic activity may be due to the kinetic consumption of the active species, which become less important in the presence of PAni. <![CDATA[Supramolecular Architecture and Electrical Properties of a Perylene Derivative in Physical Vapor Deposited Films]]> The supramolecular structure of organic thin films is a key factor in their optical and electrical properties and, consequently, in the technological applications involving organic electronic. Here, thin films of a perylene derivative, the bis butylimido perylene (BuPTCD), were produced by vacuum thermal evaporation (PVD, physical vapor deposition). The main objective is to investigate the supramolecular structure of the BuPTCD in these PVD films, which implies to control their thickness at nanometer scale and to determine their molecular organization, morphology at micro and nanometer scales and crystallinity. The ultraviolet-visible absorption reveals a uniform growth of the PVD films. The optical and atomic force microscopy images show a homogeneous surface of the film at micro and nanometer scales, respectively. The X-ray diffraction indicates that both powder and PVD film are in the crystalline form. Complementary, a preferential head-on orientation of the molecules in the PVD films is determined via infrared absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the annealing process (200oC) did not affect the molecular organization of the PVD films, revealing a thermal stability of the BuPTCD molecules within the PVD films. Through DC electrical measurements, an electrical conductivity of 7.45x10-10 S/m was determined for BuPTCD PVD films onto Au interdigitated electrodes (IDE-structured devices), which can be enhanced, under illumination, by two orders of magnitude (photoconductivity effect). As proof-of-concept, the IDE-structured devices are tested as gas sensor for trifluoroacetic acid. <![CDATA[Effect of Cooling Rate on the Corrosion Behavior of As-Cast SAF 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel After Solution Annealing Treatment]]> The formation of intermetallic phases alters the properties of duplex stainless steel and is therefore a crucial factor in its performance. For example, the formation of sigma phase in duplex steel increases its brittleness and decreases its corrosion resistance because this phase consumes chromium and molybdenum in solid solution, thus leading to the depletion of these elements in the matrix. This study investigated the corrosion resistance of as-cast SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel after solution annealing treatment at 1100 °C for 240 minutes, under varying cooling rates. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between cooling condition, microstructural changes and corrosion resistance based on cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) measurements. The results revealed a significant reduction in the corrosion resistance of a slowly cooled sample, which presented an increase in the degree of Cr (Qr / Qa) depletion resulting from the formation of sigma phase. <![CDATA[Properties of NGO 3% Silicon Steel Asymmetrically Cold Rolled]]> The effects of asymmetric and conventional deformations and annealing on the microstructure of non-grain-oriented (NGO) 3 wt% silicon steel were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and magnetometry. The results suggest that pure asymmetric rolling tends to lessen magnetic losses. However, intermediate annealing resulted in lower planar anisotropy, which could be estimated from the magnetic anisotropy theory. In this work, it was shown that this theory is able to predict the J50 magnetic polarization values using crystallographic texture. <![CDATA[The Influence of Twist Drill Main Cutting Edge Preparation in Drilling Process]]> In order to improve the performance of a twist drill, one must understand some aspects involved in drilling process that are not commonly addressed, such as the micro geometry employed in the tool’s tip sharpening and the protection of the main cutting edge. The edge of the twist drill can be protected by rounding, chamfering or the combination of both. This paper analyzes the influence of edge preparation by two different methods, honing and chamfering on a solid cemented carbide twist drill Ø11 mm, used in the machining and processing of SAE 4144M hardened and tempered steel (hardness: 380HV1), with a 100% martensitic structure, employed in injection pumps for diesel engines. The hole’s diameter, position deviation, roughness and roundness revealed significant differences in results. The tool with the honed edge presented lower wear values, when compared to the tool with the chamfered edge. <![CDATA[Study of the Influence of the Hydration Level on the Electromechanical Behavior of Nafion Based Ionomeric Polymer-metal Composites Actuators]]> The ionomeric electroactive polymers-metal composites (IPMC) are materials that realize bending movements in response to an electrical stimulus and can be applied to the artificial muscles development. This paper investigated the influence of the hydration level on the electromechanical behavior of Nafion based IPMC. An experimental apparatus composed by a system to measure the bending force and to control the electrical stimulus and the relative humidity around the sample was developed. The main results indicated that samples with higher hydration level produce larger bending forces, but they show a more expressive back relaxation with lower time constant. A discussion about the results considering some models described in the literature conclude the paper. <![CDATA[The Influence of Sample Preparation on the Quantitative Analysis of the Volume Fraction of Martensite Formed in a 304l Trip Steel]]> The metastable 304L austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to phase transformation induced by plastic deformation. The traditional metallographic preparation, via mechanical methods, introduces superficial plastic deformation from grinding and polishing. It is important to evaluate this effect on the results of quantitative analysis of martensite formed in 304L steels and similar alloys. In this work, phase transformation was induced by a tensile test at room temperature with two different plastic deformation rates in order to provide distinct structural conditions for the proposed analysis. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Ferritescopy were used to determine the volume fraction of martensite in samples with and without metallographic preparation. The results show that the analyses quantitative were not affected by metallographic preparation. <![CDATA[Effects of Adding Some Natural Substances to Biodiesel to Control its Effect on Carbon Steel Corrosion]]> Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters and it presents relatively inert behavior right after its production. However, structural changes occur during its storage, as this fuel has low oxidative stability, fact that increases its corrosivity. The problem of corrosion has become increasingly relevant due to the Government's policy of setting a gradual increase in the percentage of biodiesel added to diesel. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of three natural products to work as corrosion inhibitor in biodiesel. The evaluation was done by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that it is possible to reduce biodiesel influence on carbon steel corrosion and that it can be extend to other metals used in automotive engines. <![CDATA[Ballistic Test of Multilayered Armor with Intermediate Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Jute Fabric]]> Multilayered armors with a front ceramic followed by aramid fabric (Kevlar™) are currently used against high velocity ammunition. In these armors, a front ceramic layer that shatters and spalls the bullet is followed by an intermediate layer, usually plies of aramid fabric, which dissipates both the bullet and ceramic fragments energy. In the present work, the intermediate aramid fabric layer was replaced by an equal thickness layer of 30 vol% jute fabric reinforced epoxy composite. Ballistic impact test with 7.62 caliber ammunition revealed that both the plain epoxy and the jute fabric composite have a relatively similar performance of the Kevlar™ and also attended the NIJ standard for body protection. The energy dissipation mechanisms of jute fabric composite were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and found to be the rupture of the brittle epoxy matrix as well as the interaction of the jute fibers with the post-impact fragments. This latter is the same mechanism recently disclosed for aramid fabric. However, the lightness and lower cost of the jute fabric composite are additional advantages that favor its substitution for the aramid fabric. <![CDATA[Charpy Impact Tests of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Giant Bamboo Fibers]]> The giant bamboo fiber is among the strongest in the Bambusa species with a potential for application as engineering material. Its properties have been evaluated but there is limited information on the impact resistance of epoxy composites incorporated with giant bamboo fibers. Therefore, this study evaluated the Charpy impact energy of epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol% of giant bamboo fibers. Specimens with Charpy configuration were press-molded with continuous and aligned giant bamboo fibers reinforcing a DGEBA-TETA epoxy as the composite matrix. The energy absorbed by the composites was obtained in standard impact tests and the fracture surface of ruptured specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, SEM. The impact energy was found to increase exponentially with the amount of incorporated fiber. SEM observations revealed the mechanism of crack propagation both in the brittle epoxy matrix and in the fiber interface of the composites. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the Diameter Influence on the Tensile Strength of Pineapple Leaf Fibers (PALF) by Weibull Method]]> The fiber extracted from pineapple leaf (PALF) displays relevant mechanical properties that are motivating investigations for possible engineering application as polymer composite reinforcement. As any natural lignocellulosic fiber, the PALF presents non-uniform dimensions and heterogeneous properties with a significant dispersion of values. In fact, a marked variation in the tensile strength has been reported, which represents a problem for the design of a PALF reinforced composite. In several other lignocellulosic fibers, the diameter dimension was found to affect the value of the tensile strength. This work investigated the precise diameter dependence of the PALF tensile strength using the Weibull statistic method. The results showed a mathematical hyperbolic type of inverse correlation between the PALF strength and its diameter, which was found to be similar to that commonly obtained in other lignocellulosic fibers. <![CDATA[Fique Fiber Tensile Elastic Modulus Dependence with Diameter Using the Weibull Statistical Analysis]]> Fique is a plant native of Colombia with fibers extracted from its leaves presenting relevant physical characteristics and mechanical properties for possible engineering applications, such as reinforcement of polymer composites. The main physico-mechanical properties of the fique fiber have already been investigated for both untreated and mechanically treated fibers. The statistical distribution of the fique fiber diameter was analyzed and the effect of microfibrillar angle on the tensile strength and elongation was determined. However, the correlation of mechanical properties with the fiber diameter is yet to be determined. Thus, the present work evaluated the tensile elastic modulus dependence of the fique fiber as a function of its diameter. By means of the Weibull statistical analysis, it was found that an inverse correlation adjusted the elastic modulus with the equivalent diameter through a hyperbolic type of mathematical relationship. Similar correlation have been found for several lignocellulosic fibers not only by the research group of the present work but also other international groups The results are compared and discussed. <![CDATA[Biodegradable Copolymers Obtained by Solution Polymerization]]> This study aims the synthesis of copolymers of poly (l-lactic acid) and polycaprolactone by ring opening polymerization. The reactions between l-lactide (LLA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) monomers, in 100/0, 95/5, 90/10 and 80/20 LLA/CL mass ratios, were conducted in refluxing toluene, using Stannous octoate as iniciator, methanol as co-iniciator and inert atmosphere (N2). The reaction medium was maintained under stirring at 120 °C for 24 hours. The samples were characterized by carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (C13-NMR and H1-NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Monomers were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG). Copolymers were formed only in samples containing 20 wt% ε-caprolactone. NMR spectra of the other samples showed no evidence of CL units. This fact may be associated with the low-temperature volatilization of monomers. The GPC analysis showed that the increase of CL concentration decrease the molecular weight of copolymers. <![CDATA[Physicochemical, Mechanical and Morphologic Characterization of Purple Banana Fibers]]> Weather conditions and the Brazilian fertile soil contribute to abundant natural resources in a wide variety of fiber types. These fibers have attracted interest in Materials Science area for such characteristics as: low cost, high elasticity modulus and renewability. In this context, the objective of this work was physical, chemical and morphological characterization of purple banana fibers (Musa velutina). The following characterizations were employed: TG, DSC, FTIR, XRD, SEM, density, mechanical properties and chemical composition. The results showed that the purple banana fibers had good thermal, mechanical, morphological and structural properties. Treatment with sodium hydroxide was efficient in removing amorphous regions present on the fiber as evidenced by the chemical composition, increasing the crystallinity index. Therefore, the purple banana fiber is promising as reinforcement in polymer matrices. <![CDATA[Correlation Between Fuel Lubricity and Vibration Signals Obtained in Ball-disc Analysis Using Fourier Transform]]> During the contact between metallic surfaces in mechanical systems, some dynamic characteristics present significant changes as the vibration signal patterns. The acquisition and characterization of these signals, by the use of Fourier Transform (FT), are non-intrusive tools in the evaluation of lubricity. This study aimed to evaluate dynamically the fuels lubricity (diesel S50, biodiesel and its blends) by the reciprocating sliding of a ball against a flat disc (AISI 52100 steel). After that, the vibration signals were evaluated by statistical test and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and STFT (Short-Time Fourier Transform) analyses and verified their associations with parameters supplied by ASTM D6079. The results present a correlation between lubricity, frequency spectrum and the parameters of profiles from the worn disc surface. In addition, the evolution of wear scars presented an influence of the biodiesel content in these fuels. <![CDATA[Magnetic Nanoparticles Obtained by Homogeneous Coprecipitation Sonochemically Assisted]]> The present work demonstrates preparation of magnetic nanoparticles by a novel method. Magnetic nanoparticles with potential for biomedical and environmental applications were obtained by homogeneous coprecipitation method sonochemically assisted. The effect of ultrasonic cavitation on changing the reaction environment was studied. The chemical reaction media used here was very similar to those used for Sono-Fenton process. The ultrasonic energy has driven the growth of particles; smaller diameter nanoparticles were obtained by applying a higher power. For the first time, it was demonstrated the iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis at pH lower than 6. <![CDATA[Preparation and Characterization of Nanowhiskers Cellulose from Fiber Arrowroot <em>(Maranta arundinacea)</em>]]> The agribusiness generates countless sources of biomass that are not appropriately and / or adequately utilized, turning them into industrial wastes. This study aims to explore the Arrowroot fiber as a source of raw material for the cellulose nanowhiskers production by acidic hydrolysis. Hydrolyses were carried out varying the temperature and the sulfuric acid concentration, with the hydrolysis reaction time fixed and constant stirring. The nanowhiskers of cellulose extracted from the arrowroot fibers has great potential as reinforcing agents in the nanocomposites production regarding to others cellulose nanowhiskers sources, because they have shown a similar performance as the other fibers, good thermal stability, crystallinity index and good aspect ratio as compared to the literature. <![CDATA[Sterile Clay Pozzolans from Phosphate Mining]]> The work presents the characterization of clays from sterile mining of the concentrated phosphatic materials of Araxá in Minas Gerais as pozzolanic materials. Three clays of distinct tones, namely, yellow (YC), red (RC), and intermediate (IC) clays, were used at different levels of excavation depth. The clays were calcined at three temperatures (680, 760, and 840 °C) in a muffle-type electric oven. The pozzolanic activity levels of the calcined clays was measured through the conductivity change in saturated Ca(OH)2 solutions and also from the result of the compressive failure load achieved by mortars with 35% of the Portland cement replaced with the calcined material. The results indicated that the calcined clays showed a high level of pozzolanic activity and can be used as a partial substitute for Portland cement, thus suggesting the possibility of recovering this sterile material. <![CDATA[Development of Epoxy Matrix Artificial Stone Incorporated with Sintering Residue from Steelmaking Industry]]> The present work is part of an innovation research project aiming to develop artificial stone from industrial wastes. In principle, the project goal is to fabricate artificial stones with improved characteristics to be used as plates for housing and road construction. In this work, the specific industrial residue was an electrostatically precipitated powder obtained from the initial sintering stage of an integrated steelmaking plant. Plates were produce by vacuum vibro-compression of epoxy resin mixed with 80 and 85 wt% of this specific residue. After curing, the plates were characterized for physical parameters and mechanical properties. The microstructural aspect of the finishing surface was analyzed for both novel artificial stones by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the 80% residue incorporated artificial stone is superior to the 85% residue incorporated and markedly stronger than a commercial artificial stone, incorporated with granite residue, with comparable density and water absorption. These characteristics favor the technical substitution of the presently investigated artificial for the commercial stone. In particular, based on wear tests, the residue incorporated artificial stone would be restricted to application as pavement in medium traffic roads. <![CDATA[Photoacoustic Thermal Characterization of Banana Fibers]]> Natural fibers are attracting the interest of engineering sectors owing to specific advantages such as lightweight and lower cost as well as an inherent condition of being renewable, biodegradable, recyclable and environmentally correct with respect to CO2 emission. In addition, several natural fibers present mechanical and thermal properties appropriate for engineering applications. The fiber extracted from the stem of the banana plant is nowadays recognized by its mechanical properties. However, some thermal properties of the banana fibers have not yet been fully investigated. The present work investigated, by photoacoustic spectroscopy and photothermal techniques, the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the banana fiber. The results revealed that the banana fibers showed a promising thermal insulation capacity, comparable to those of conventional synthetic insulators. <![CDATA[Dislocation Density by X-ray Diffraction in α Brass Deformed by Rolling and ECAE]]> Dislocations are responsible for most aspects of plastic deformation in metals. In this work, the dislocation density, ρ, in brass was estimated after different deformation processes via line broadening of X-ray diffractograms using the Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile Program (CMWP) and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In addition, we attempted to evaluate, on a global basis, the influence of crystallographic texture in ρ analysis, making sure that the results obtained by XRD could be trusted even in samples with moderate levels of texture. For this, we compared the ρ values for α brass samples (66% Cu and 34% Zn) with different levels of texture, one deformed by cold rolling and the other by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE).The results suggest that using CMWP program it was possible to satisfactorily estimate the dislocation density in α brass. It also the was shown that the results by XRD and by TEM were self-consistent in two samples texturized to different degrees. <![CDATA[Pechini Synthesis of Nanostructured Li<sub>1.05</sub>M<sub>0.02</sub>Mn<sub>1.98</sub>O<sub>4</sub> (M = Al<sup>3+</sup> or Ga<sup>3+</sup>)]]> Doped Li1.05M0.02Mn1.98O4 (M = Ga3+ or Al3+) were prepared by Pechini synthesis using lithium and manganese acetates, citric acid, ethylene glycol, and the respective oxide or acetate of the doping ions in molar ratios of 2.00 (Mn1.98 + M0.02) to 1.05 Li. The TGA/DTA of the precursor gels showed weight loss/energy relative to crystallization below 450 ºC. From the XRD, a single cubic phase (Fd3m) was identified for the all-doped or undoped oxides after only 2 h calcination. The unit cell parameters a for both aluminum- and gallium-doped oxides calcined at 750 °C for 2 h (8.212 Å and 8.210 Å, respectively) were higher than that for the undoped oxide (8.199 Å). The crystallite sizes ranged from ~ 20 nm to 70 nm, conferring nanometric character. The specific capacities decreased in order: Cdischarge (Li1.05Mn2O4) &gt;Cdischarge (Li1.05Ga0.02Mn1.98O4) &gt;Cdischarge (Li1.05Al0.02Mn1.98O4), but with increasing capacity retention for the doped samples. <![CDATA[Effect of the Glycerol and Lignin Extracted from Piassava Fiber in Cassava and Corn Starch Films]]> Several alternatives have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by conventional polymers. This study aims to evaluate the chemical, mechanical and morphological properties of flexible thermoplastic films of cassava and corn starch, using glycerol and lignin as plasticizers and reinforcement. The films were produced through casting. It was observed that the presence of lignin effectively increased the maximum stress and the elastic modulus by about of 840% and 4200%, respectively, when comparing to the film containing only glycerol. In addition, lignin improved thermal properties, modified some structural properties and made the surface of the material rougher. <![CDATA[Influence of UV Radiation on the Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Banana Fiber]]> Surface treatments done in banana fibers (BFs) can generate significant superficial structural changes enabling the production of mechanically stronger composites. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of banana fibers of Prata specie from inner and outer leaf sheaths, when irradiated with UV light (λmax = 400 nm) during 7 (UV7) and 15 (UV15) days. Structural and microstructural characterizations for non- and irradiated fibers were performed by, FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which showed the influence of UV irradiation on BFs surface and chemical structure. The Ea involved in the thermal degradation process of InNatura fiber (188.2 kJ.mol–1) was obtained using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA/TG). The results obtained from mechanical characterization showed that the UV7 fibers presented significant improvement in tensile strength (89.77 MPa) and elastic modulus (238.94 MPa) as compared to tensile strength (69.99 MPa) and elastic modulus (87.40 MPa) of InNatura fibers. Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA has showed that there were no differences between mechanical properties of BFs from inner to outer leaf sheaths. UV radiation has proved to be a clean method for BF surface treatment, which can improve the mechanical properties of composites based on these fibers. <![CDATA[Study of the Efficiency of Polypyrrole/ZnO Nanocomposites as Additives in Anticorrosion Coatings]]> We synthesized (ZnO nanoparticles)/polypyrrole (ZnO_NPs/PPy) hybrid nanocomposites and used them as additives in an epoxy paint to protect SAE 1020 carbon steel from corrosion. The nanocomposites were obtained by chemical polymerization of pyrrole in aqueous solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution containing dispersed ZnO nanoparticles. We characterized the nanoparticles by infrared absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A large disparity in the distribution of ZnO particle sizes became evident from the TEM images, which also show the formation of hybrid nanocomposites consisting of polypyrrole coated ZnO nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit potential (OCP) tests, which were performed on SAE 1020 carbon steel plates coated with epoxy and ZnO_NPs/PPy, have shown that epoxy paints have their efficiency as anticorrosive coatings significantly improved when ZnO_NPs/PPy hybrid nanocomposites are added to them. <![CDATA[Incorporation of in Natura and Calcined Red Muds into Clay Ceramic]]> Brazil is one of the world greatest aluminum producer and also comprises a large industrial sector dedicated to the production of alumina (Al2O3) by the traditional Bayer process. During this process an insoluble residue, known as red-mud, is generated and normally discarded. A possible use for the red mud is its incorporation into clay ceramics. Indeed, this has been a solution not only for the red mud but also for residues of different industrial segments. The common clay, like the kaolinite, versatility allows the incorporation of several types of residues. The red mud, in addition to compounds like silica and alumina that are compatible with clays, is also composed of iron, sodium, calcium and other elements that confer important characteristics to ceramic products. Thus, the present work investigated the incorporation of up 60 wt% of distinct red muds, one as processed, in natura, and the other calcined at 900 °C, into clay ceramics. Both red muds act as inert materials without improving the pure clay ceramic properties. <![CDATA[Influence of Compaction Pressure and Particle Content on Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Artificial Marbles with Marble Waste and Unsaturated Polyester]]> Compact artificial stones are widely used in buildings around the world, and the expected demand to the next years is increasing. In this study, stone fragments from marble processing are recycled as raw materials for produce compact artificial stones using compaction in a vacuum environment (100 mm Hg). Crushed marble waste (80 and 85%wt) are mixed with unsaturated polyester resin as binder. Materials were processed under compaction pressures of 1 and 10 MPa, for 20 minutes at 90 °C. Artificial marble with flexural ultimate strength of 25 MPa, water absorption below 0.2% and homogeneous particles distribution were obtained to materials produced with 80%wt of marble particles. To artificial marbles with 85%wt of particles, lower flexural ultimate strength and higher water absorption were observed (18 MPa and 0.4% respectively). In addition, the greater compaction pressure used improves slightly values obtained in 3 points bending test. Furthermore, tangent delta peaks at 115 °C were observed to evaluated artificial marbles. <![CDATA[A Comparative Study Between the Early Stages Hydration of a High Strength and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement and the Type II F Portland Cement Through Non Conventional Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry]]> This work presents a study, which compares the early stages of hydration of a High Initial Strength and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (HIS SR PC) with those of Type II F Portland Cement (PC II), by Non-Conventional Differential Thermal Analysis (NCDTA) within the first 24 hours of hydration. Water/cement (w/c) ratios equal to 0.5, 0.6 and 0.66 were used to prepare the pastes. The hydration of these two types of cement was monitored on real time by NCDTA curves, through the thermal effects of the hydration reactions, from which cumulative evolved energy curves were obtained. These techniques allow one to analyse the influence of each type of cement on the main stages that occur during the hydration process. Thermogravimetric analysis were also performed at 4 and 24h of hydration for both cements, to analyse the influence of each kind of cement on the amount of the main formed hydrated products. The results showed that with 4h of hydration, the total combined water amount released from the hydrated products was higher for the PC II pastes than for the HIS SR PC pastes. Otherwise, with 24h of hydration, the amount of the total combined water released from the hydrated products was higher for the HIS SR PC pastes than for the PC II pastes. <![CDATA[Development of Starch Biofilms Using Different Carboxylic Acids as Plasticizers]]> Biodegradable films are widely exploited among scientists nowadays. Their positive environmental impact, besides their potential to promote better food conservation and an increase in shelf life motivate research in this field. Availability, low cost and biodegradability of starch increase the interest of using this material to produce biodegradable films. However, starch films tend to be brittle and they need addition of a plasticizer to enable their usage. In this work, starch films were synthesized with different carboxylic acids as plasticizers, aiming to observe the effect of the acids' chain size in the final films properties. Oxalic, succinic and adipic acids were used. The materials were produced by casting and characterized by DSC, TG, XRD, FTIR and SEM. It was observed that the acids chain size influenced on the thermal and structural properties of the films.