Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> vol. 134 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[New findings about atherosclerosis in Brazil from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)]]> <![CDATA[Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in HIV patients with or without Kaposi's sarcoma. An analytic cross-sectional study]]> CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a common neoplastic disease in AIDS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with or without KS manifestations and correlate HHV-8 detection with KS staging. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytic cross-sectional study conducted in a public tertiary-level university hospital in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Antibodies against HHV-8 lytic-phase antigens were detected by means of the immunofluorescence assay. HHV-8 DNA was detected in the patient samples through a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) that amplified a region of open reading frame (ORF)-26 of HHV-8. RESULTS: Anti-HHV-8 antibodies were detected in 30% of non-KS patients and 100% of patients with KS. Furthermore, the HHV-8 DNA detection rates observed in HIV-positive patients with KS were 42.8% in serum, 95.4% in blood samples and 100% in skin biopsies; and in patients without KS, the detection rate was 4% in serum. Out of the 16 serum samples from patients with KS-AIDS who were classified as stage II, two were positive (12.5%); and out of the 33 samples from patients in stage IV, 19 (57.6%) were positive. CONCLUSION: We observed an association between HHV-8 detection and disease staging, which was higher in the serum of patients in stage IV. This suggests that detection of HHV-8 DNA in serum could be very useful for clinical assessment of patients with KS and for monitoring disease progression.<hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) é uma doença neoplásica comum em pacientes com aids. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência da infecção por herpesvírus humano 8 (HHV-8) em pacientes infectados por HIV, com ou sem SK e associar a detecção do HHV-8 com o estadiamento do SK. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal analítico realizado em hospital universitário público terciário de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Anticorpos contra antígenos de fase lítica do HHV-8 foram detectados por imunofluorescência. O DNA viral de HHV-8 foi detectado em amostras de pacientes pela reação em cadeia da polimerase do tipo nested (nested PCR), que amplificou uma região do fragmento de leitura aberta (ORF)-26 do HHV-8. RESULTADOS: Anticorpos anti-HHV-8 foram detectados em 30% dos pacientes sem SK e 100% dos com SK. Além disso, a detecção de HHV-8 DNA observada em pacientes HIV-positivos com SK foi de 42,8% no soro, 95,4% em amostras de sangue e 100% em biópsias de pele, e em pacientes sem SK foi de 4% no soro. Das 16 amostras de soro de pacientes com SK-AIDS classificados como estádio II, duas foram positivas (12,5%) e, das 33 amostras de pacientes no estádio IV, 19 (57,6%) foram positivas. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos associação entre a detecção do HHV-8 e o estadiamento da doença, que foi maior no soro de pacientes no estágio IV. Isso sugere que a detecção do HHV-8 no soro poderia ser muito útil para a avaliação clínica de pacientes com SK e para o monitoramento da progressão da doença. <![CDATA[Post-analysis methods for lactate threshold depend on training intensity and aerobic capacity in runners. An experimental laboratory study]]> ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate different mathematical post-analysis methods of determining lactate threshold in highly and lowly trained endurance runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in a tertiary-level public university hospital. METHOD: Twenty-seven male endurance runners were divided into two training load groups: lowly trained (frequency &lt; 4 times per week, &lt; 6 consecutive months, training velocity ≥ 5.0 min/km) and highly trained (frequency ≥ 4 times per week, ≥ 6 consecutive months, training velocity &lt; 5.0 min/km). The subjects performed an incremental treadmill protocol, with 1 km/h increases at each subsequent 4-minute stage. ­Fingerprint ­blood-lactate analysis was performed at the end of each stage. The lactate threshold (i.e. the running velocity at which blood lactate levels began to exponentially increase) was measured using three different methods: increase in blood lactate of 1 mmol/l at stages (DT1), absolute 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (4 mmol), and the semi-log method (semi-log). ANOVA was used to compare different lactate threshold methods and training groups. RESULTS: Highly trained athletes showed significantly greater lactate thresholds than lowly trained runners, regardless of the calculation method used. When all the subject data were combined, DT1 and semi-log were not different, while 4 mmol was significantly lower than the other two methods. These same trends were observed when comparing lactate threshold methods in the lowly trained group. However, 4 mmol was only significantly lower than DT1 in the highly trained group. CONCLUSION: The 4 mmol protocol did not show lactate threshold measurements comparable with DT1 and semi-log protocols among lowly trained athletes.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar modelos matemáticos de pós-análise do limiar de lactato em grupos de corredores de longa distância muito ou pouco treinados. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo laboratorial experimental. Hospital Público Universitário Terciário. MÉTODO: Vinte e sete corredores homens foram divididos em: pouco treinados (frequência &lt; 4 vezes por semana, &lt; 6 meses, velocidade ≥ 5,0 minutos/km) e muito treinados (frequência ≥ 4 vezes por semana, ≥ 6 meses, velocidade &lt; 5,0 minutos/km). Os participantes foram submetidos a protocolo de esteira escalonado (1% inclinação) = 1 km/h por fase (4 minutos). Ao fim de cada estágio, análise da "impressão digital" metabolômica foi realizada. O limiar do lactato (i.e. velocidade em que o lactato sanguíneo aumenta exponencialmente) foi medido utilizando-se três métodos: aumento de 1 mmol/l da concentração, concentração absoluta de 4 mmol e método semi-log. ANOVA foi utilizada para comparar os diferentes limiares de lactato e grupos. RESULTADO: Atletas muito treinados apresentaram limiares de lactato maiores que os corredores pouco treinados, independentemente do método de cálculo utilizado. Comparando todos os corredores juntos, as análises de aumento de 1 mmol/l e semi-log não foram diferentes, enquanto a concentração absoluta de 4 mmol/l foi significativamente mais baixa que as dos dois outros métodos. Essas mesmas tendências foram observadas ao se compararem os métodos de limiar de lactato no grupo menos treinado. Entretanto, a análise absoluta de 4 mmol/l foi menor do que a do aumento de 1 mmol/l no grupo muito treinado. CONCLUSÃO: O método concentração absoluta de 4 mmol não mostrou mensurações comparáveis de limiar do lactato quando comparado com os protocolos aumento de 1 mmol/l e semi-log nos atletas pouco treinados. <![CDATA[Gene mutations of platelet glycoproteins and response to tirofiban in acute coronary syndrome]]> CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Glycoprotein inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban) are used in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction before percutaneous coronary intervention. Of these, tirofiban is the least effective. We hypothesized that the response to tirofiban might be associated with glycoprotein gene mutations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Emergency Unit, Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo. METHOD: Intrahospital evolution and platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban were analyzed in relation to four glycoprotein mutations in 50 patients indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention: 17 (34%) with unstable angina and 33 (66%) with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation was analyzed using the Born method. Blood samples were obtained before and one hour after tirofiban infusion. Glycoproteins Ia (807C/T ), Ib (Thr/Met) , IIb (Ile/Ser ) and IIIa (PIA ) were the mutations selected. RESULTS: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, previous coronary artery disease and stroke were similar between the groups. Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes had lower platelet aggregation before tirofiban administration than that of the wild genotype (41.0% ± 22.1% versus 55.9% ± 20.8%; P = 0.035). Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes correlated moderately with lower platelet inhibition (r = -0.31; P = 0.030). After tirofiban administration, platelet glycoprotein Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa mutations did not influence the degree of inhibition of platelet aggregation or intrahospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of glycoproteins Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa did not influence platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Inibidores da glicoproteína (abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban) são utilizados em pacientes com angina instável e infarto do miocárdio sem elevação do segmento ST (IAMSSST) antes da intervenção coronária percutânea. Dentre eles, o tirofiban é o menos eficaz. Nossa hipótese é que a resposta ao tirofiban possa estar associada a mutações no gene da glicoproteína. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo na Unidade de Emergência do Instituto do Coração (InCor), Universidade de São Paulo (USP). MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas a evolução intra-hospitalar e agregabilidade plaquetária em resposta ao tirofiban de 4 mutações da glicoproteína em 50 pacientes com indicação para intervenção coronária percutânea, 17 (34%) com angina instável e 33 (66%) com IAMSSST. A agregação plaquetária foi analisada pelo método de Born. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas antes e uma hora após infusão do tirofiban. As glicoproteínas Ia (807C/T ), Ib (Thr/Met ), IIb (Ile/Ser ) e IIIa (PIA ) foram as mutações selecionadas. RESULTADOS: Hipertensão, dislipidemia, diabetes, tabagismo, doença coronariana e acidente vascular cerebral prévios foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Observou-se menor agregabilidade plaquetária dos genótipos mutantes da glicoproteína IIIa antes da administração de tirofiban do genótipo selvagem (41% ± 22% versus 56% ± 21%; P = 0,035). Genótipos mutantes da glicoproteína IIIa correlacionaram-se moderadamente com menor inibição plaquetária (r = -0,31; P = 0,030). Após a administração tirofiban, as mutações das glicoproteínas Ia, Ib, IIb, e IIIa não influenciaram o grau de inibição da agregação plaquetária e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: Mutações das glicoproteínas Ia, Ib, IIb e IIIa não influenciaram a agregação plaquetária em resposta ao tirofiban nos pacientes com angina instável e IAMSSST. <![CDATA[Association between variation in the genes DDAH1 and DDAH2 and hypertension among Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic groups in China]]> CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase enzymes (DDAH), which are encoded by the genes DDAH1 and DDAH2, play a fundamental role in maintaining endothelial function. We conducted a case-control study on a Chinese population that included three ethnic groups (Han, Kazakh and Uygur), to systemically investigate associations between variations in the genes DDAH1 and DDAH2 and hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study at the Department of Internal Medicine and Genetic Diagnosis, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. METHODS: This case-control study included 1,224 patients with hypertension and 967 healthy unrelated individuals as controls. DDAH1 -396 4N (GCGT) del&gt;ins, rs3087894, rs805304 and rs9267551 were genotyped using the TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. RESULTS: The G/C genotype of rs3087894 in DDAH1 was a risk factor for hypertension in the Kazakh group in the co-dominant model (G/C versus G/G) (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88; P &lt; 0.05), with the same result in the dominant model (G/C + C/C versus G/G) (OR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84; P &lt; 0.05). In contrast, the C/C genotype of rs3087894 seemed to be a protective factor against hypertension in the Uygur group in the recessive model (C/C versus G/G + G/C) (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39- 0.97; P &lt; 0.05). Similar findings for rs3087894 were also observed after adjusting the variable for the age covariate. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the C-allele of rs3087894 in DDAH1 was a risk factor for hypertension in the Kazakh group but a protective factor in the Uygur group.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Enzimas dimetilarginina dimetilaminohidrolase (DDAH), codificadas por genes DDAH1 e DDAH2, desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da função endotelial. Realizamos estudo tipo caso-controle na população chinesa, com três grupos étnicos (han, kazakh e uygur) para investigar sistematicamente a associação entre a variação de genes DDAH1 e DDAH2 e a hipertensão. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo tipo caso-controle no Departamento de Medicina Interna e Diagnóstico Genético, Hospital de Tongji, Tongji Medical College, Universidade de Ciência e Tecnologia de Huazhong. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu 1.224 pacientes com hipertensão e 967 indivíduos saudáveis, sem parentesco, como controles. DDAH1 -396 4 N (GCGT) del &gt; ins, rs3087894, rs805304 and rs9267551 foram genotipados usando o ensaio nuclease TaqMan 5'. RESULTADOS: O genótipo G/C de rs3087894 no DDAH1 foi um fator de risco para a hipertensão arterial no grupo kazakh em modelo codominante (G/C versus G/G; OR 1,39; IC 95%: 1,02-1,88; P &lt; 0,05), com o mesmo resultado no modelo dominante (G/C + C/C versus G/G; OR 1,38; IC 95%: 1,03-1,84; P &lt; 0,05). Em contraste, o genótipo C/C de rs3087894 parecia ser um fator de proteção para a hipertensão no grupo uygur no modelo recessivo (C/C versus G/G + G/C; OR 0,62; IC 95%: 0,39-0,97; P &lt; 0,05). Achado semelhante para rs3087894 também foi observado depois de se ajustar a variante à covariante idade. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos resultados indicaram que o C-alelo de rs3087894 no DDAH1 foi fator de risco para a hipertensão no grupo de kazakh, mas fator de proteção no grupo de uygur. <![CDATA[Visceral adiposity index and prognosis among patients with ischemic heart failure]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The obesity paradox has already been established in relation to heart failure, but it is not known which obesity indicator best reflects this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity indexes and mortality among patients with heart failure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in the Department of Cardiology of Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Brazil). METHODS: Clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, biochemical and anthropometric data on 116 patients aged 30 to 85 years with a diagnosis of heart failure were evaluated. Arm fat area, body mass index, body surface area, body adiposity index, lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were calculated. Cox regression was used to perform survival analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, the individuals with ischemic heart failure who remained alive showed higher VAI (3.60 ± 3.71 versus 1.48 ± 1.58; P = 0.04) and a trend towards higher LAP, in comparison with the individuals who died. After an average follow-up of 14.3 months, ischemic heart failure patients who had VAI &gt; 1.21 showed 78% lower risk of death (HR 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02-0.67; P = 0.02) and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed better prognosis for these individuals (P = 0.005; log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that VAI is a good predictor of better prognosis among ischemic heart failure patients.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: O paradoxo da obesidade já está consolidado na insuficiência cardíaca, mas não se sabe qual indicador de obesidade melhor reflete esse fenômeno. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre índices de obesidade e a mortalidade entre pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte realizado no Departamento de Cardiologia do Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Brasil). MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 116 pacientes com diagnóstico de insuficiência cardíaca de 30 a 85 anos. Dados clínicos, demográficos, socioeconômicos, bioquímicos e antropométricos foram avaliados. Área de gordura do braço, índice de massa corporal, área de superfície corporal, índice de adiposidade corporal, produto da acumulação lipídica e índice de adiposidade visceral foram calculados; regressão de Cox foi usada para realizar análises de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: No início do estudo, indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca isquêmica que se mantiveram vivos mostraram valores mais elevados de índice de adiposidade visceral (3,60 ± 3,71 contra 1,48 ± 1,58, P = 0,04) e uma tendência para produto da acumulação lipídica maior quando comparados com os indivíduos que morreram. Após acompanhamento médio de 14,3 meses, os pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca isquêmica que apresentaram índice de adiposidade visceral &gt; 1,21 tiveram 78% menor risco de morrer (HR 0,12; IC 95% 0,02-0,67, P = 0,02) e as curvas de Kaplan-Meier para sobrevida mostraram melhor prognóstico nesses indivíduos (P = 0,005, teste log-rank). CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados sugerem que o índice de adiposidade visceral é um bom preditor de melhor prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca isquêmica. <![CDATA[Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years) were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8). Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Com a alta prevalência da obesidade levando a políticas públicas para o seu enfrentamento, pessoas com o peso adequado podem se sensibilizar e alterar sua percepção sobre o seu peso. Objetivou-se avaliar a prevalência de insatisfação com o peso corporal em adolescentes eutróficos, segundo variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e morbidades. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal de base populacional que utilizou dados do Inquérito de Saúde realizado em Campinas (SP), em 2008/2009. MÉTODOS: Foram estimadas as prevalências e as razões de prevalência de insatisfação com o peso segundo as variáveis independentes, por meio de regressão simples e múltipla de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Analisaram-se 573 adolescentes eutróficos de 10 a 19 anos, com idade média de 14,7 anos. A insatisfação com o peso atingiu prevalência de 43,7% (intervalo de confiança de 95%, IC: 37,8-49,8). Maiores prevalências de insatisfação com o peso foram verificadas no sexo feminino, nos adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos, que possuíam oito ou mais equipamentos na residência, nos ex-fumantes, nos que relataram ingerir bebida alcoólica e nos que apresentavam uma ou mais doenças crônicas. Menor prevalência de insatisfação foi observada nos adolescentes que residiam em moradias com condições inadequadas. Dos adolescentes eutróficos, 26,1% queriam perder peso e 17,6% desejavam ganhar. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam que, mesmo apresentando o peso dentro da faixa de normalidade, elevada proporção de adolescentes manifesta-se insatisfeita com o seu peso, em especial os indivíduos de sexo feminino, os mais velhos e os de melhor nível socioeconômico. <![CDATA[Disability due to maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) as a risk factor for chronic childhood malnutrition: cross-sectional study]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The disability associated with maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) is among the possible explanations for the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and CMDs. CMDs may impair the mother's ability to perform her role, particularly in deprived environments. The present study aimed to evaluate whether disability relating to CMDs could be part of the pathway of the association between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in two institutions: one for malnourished children and another for eutrophic children living in a low-income community in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. METHOD: The cases consisted of 55 malnourished children aged from 12 to 60 months who were attending a nutritional rehabilitation center, with height-for-age z-scores &lt; 2. The controls were 70 eutrophic children of the same age who were attending a day care center in the same area as the cases. The Self-Report Questionnaire made it possible to identify likely cases of maternal CMD. The Sheehan Disability Scale enabled evaluation of the associated disability. RESULTS: Chronic childhood malnutrition was significantly associated with maternal disability relating to CMDs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.02-5.1). The best logistic regression model using chronic childhood malnutrition as the dependent variable included the following independent variables: higher number of people living in the household; absence of the biological father from the household; and maternal disability relating to CMDs. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed, the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and maternal disability relating to CMDs may be useful in helping to identify the causal chain between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs and to indicate environmental risk factors associated with chronic childhood malnutrition.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A incapacidade associada aos transtornos mentais comuns (TMCs) maternos está entre as explicações possíveis para a associação entre a desnutrição infantil crônica e os TMCs. Os TMCs podem comprometer a capacidade materna de desempenhar seu papel, especialmente em ambientes precários. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar se a incapacidade relacionada com TMCs pode fazer parte do processo de associação entre a desnutrição infantil e TMCs maternos. DESENHO E LOCALIZAÇÃO: Estudo transversal realizado em duas instituições, uma para crianças desnutridas e outra para crianças eutróficas vivendo em uma comunidade de baixa renda no estado de Alagoas, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Casos foram 55 crianças desnutridas de 12 a 60 meses atendidas num centro de recuperação nutricional com escore z da idade para altura &lt; 2. Controles foram 70 crianças eutróficas da mesma idade que frequentavam uma creche na mesma área do que os casos. O "Self-Report Questionnaire" permitiu identificar casos prováveis de TMCs maternos; a "Sheehan Disability Scale" possibilitou a avaliação de incapacidade associada. RESULTADOS: A desnutrição crônica infantil e a incapacidade maternal relacionada ao TMCs mostraram-se associados (OR = 2.28, IC 95% 1.02-5.1). O melhor modelo de regressão logística utilizando desnutrição crônica infantil como variável dependente incluiu um maior número de residentes na casa, ausência do pai biológico na residência e incapacidade materna relacionada ao TMCs como variáveis independentes. CONCLUSÕES: Se confirmada, a associação entre desnutrição crônica infantil e incapacidade materna relacionada a TMCs pode ser útil para ajudar a identificar a cadeia causal entre a desnutrição infantil e os TMCs maternos e indicar fatores de risco ambientais associados com a desnutrição crônica infantil. <![CDATA[The effect of red grape seed extract on serum paraoxonase activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Red grape seed extract (RGSE) contains oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes as a class of flavonoids. These compounds are potent antioxidants and exert many health-promoting effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of RGSE on serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI) levels and paraoxonase (PON) activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia (MMH). DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Shahid-Modarres Hospital (Tehran, Iran) and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy MMH patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment (200 mg/day of RGSE) or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: Significant elevation in serum levels of apo-AI (P = 0.001), HDL-C (P = 0.001) and PON activity (P = 0.001) and marked decreases in concentrations of TC (P = 0.015), TG (P = 0.011) and LDL-C (P = 0.014) were found in the cases. PON activity was significantly correlated with apo-AI (r = 0.270; P &lt; 0.01) and HDL-C (r = 0.45; P &lt; 0.001). Significant differences between the RGSE and control groups (before and after treatment) for TC (P = 0.001), TG (P = 0.001), PON (P = 0.03), apo-AI (P = 0.001) and LDL-C (P = 0.002) were seen. CONCLUSION: It is possible that RGSE increases PON activity mostly through increasing HDL-C and apo-AI levels in MMH patients. It may thus have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in these patients.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Extrato de semente de uva vermelha (RGSE) contém complexos de proantocianidinas oligoméricas como classe de flavonoides. Estes compostos são antioxidantes potentes e exercem muitos efeitos de promoção da saúde. Este estudo visou determinar os efeitos de RGSE nos níveis séricos de triglicérides (TG), colesterol total (TC), colesterol de lipoproteína alta-densidade (HDL-C), colesterol de lipoproteína baixa-densidade (LDL-C), apolipoproteína AI (apo-AI) e atividade de paraoxonase (PON) em pacientes com hiperlipidemia leve a moderada (MMH). DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo clínico randomizado duplo-cego controlado com placebo, realizado no Hospital Shahid-Modarres (Teerã, Irã) e na Universidade de Ciências Médicas de Tabriz. Setenta pacientes com MMH foram aleatoriamente designados para receber tratamento (200 mg/dia de RGSE) ou placebo durante oito semanas. RESULTADOS: Elevação significativa nos níveis séricos de apo-AI (P = 0,001), HDL-C (P = 0,001) e atividade de PON (P = 0,001) e diminuição marcada nas concentrações de TC (P = 0,015), TG (P = 0,011) e LDL-C (P = 0,014) foram encontradas nos casos. Atividade de PON mostrou correlação significativa com apo-AI (r = 0,270; P &lt; 0,01) e HDL-C (r = 0,45; P &lt; 0,001). Diferenças significativas entre os grupos RGSE e controle (antes e após tratamento) para TC (P = 0,001), TG (P = 0,001), PON (P = 0,03), apo-AI (P = 0,001) e LDL-C (P = 0,002) foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: É possível que RGSE aumente atividade de PON principalmente através da elevação dos níveis de HDL-C e apo-AI em pacientes MMH. Ele pode, assim, ter efeitos benéficos potenciais na prevenção de estresse oxidativo e aterosclerose nesses pacientes. <![CDATA[Frequency of cholecystectomy and associated sociodemographic and clinical risk factors in the ELSA-Brasil study]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are few data in the literature on the frequency of cholecystectomy in Brazil. The frequency of cholecystectomy and associated risk factors were evaluated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study using baseline data on 5061 participants in São Paulo. METHODS: The frequency of cholecystectomy and associated risk factors were evaluated over the first two years of follow-up of the study and over the course of life. A multivariate regression analysis was presented: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 4716 individuals (93.2%) with information about cholecystectomy were included. After two years of follow-up, 56 had undergone surgery (1.2%: 1.7% of the women; 0.6% of the men). A total of 188 participants underwent cholecystectomy during their lifetime. The risk factors associated with surgery after the two-year follow-up period were female sex (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.53-5.32), indigenous ethnicity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 2.28-15.85) and body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19 per 1 kg/m2 increase). The risk factors associated over the lifetime were age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05 per one year increase), diabetes (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.34-2.76) and previous bariatric surgery (OR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.53-18.82). No association was found with parity or fertile age. CONCLUSION: Female sex and high BMI remained as associated risk factors while parity and fertile age lost significance. New factors such as bariatric surgery and indigenous ethnicity have gained importance in this country.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Há escassez de dados na literatura sobre a frequência de colecistectomia no Brasil. Avaliou-se a frequência de colecistectomia e os fatores de risco associados no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal com dados da linha de base de 5061 participantes em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Avaliou-se a frequência de colecistectomia e fatores de risco associados nos dois primeiros anos de seguimento do estudo e ao longo da vida. Apresentou-se regressão logística [razão de chances (RC); intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%)] multivariada. RESULTADOS: Um total de 4716 (93,2%) indivíduos com informação sobre colecistectomia foi incluído. Após 2 anos de seguimento, 56 participantes tinham sido operados (1,2%: 1,7% nas mulheres; 0,6% nos homens), totalizando 188 participantes com colecistectomia durante a vida. Os fatores de risco associados à cirurgia após dois dois anos de seguimento foram sexo feminino (RC, 2,85; IC 95%, 1,53-5,32), etnia indígena (RC, 2,1; IC 95%, 2,28-15,85) e índice de massa corpórea, IMC (RC, 1,10; IC 95%, 1,01-1,19 por aumento de 1 kg/m2); e, ao longo da vida: idade (RC, 1,03; IC 95%, 1,02-1,05 por um ano de aumento), diabetes (RC, 2,10; IC 95%, 1,34-2,76) e cirurgia bariátrica prévia (RC, 5.37; IC 95%, 1,53-18,82). Não se observou associação com paridade ou idade fértil. CONCLUSÃO: Sexo feminino e IMC elevado permanecem sendo fatores de risco associados à colecistectomia, mas paridade e idade fértil perderam significância. Novos fatores de risco, como cirurgia bariátrica prévia e etnia indígena, ganharam relevância no país. <![CDATA[Prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity among Brazilian children according to different epidemiological scenarios: systematic review and meta-analysis]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Within the Brazilian nutritional panorama, coexistence of antagonistic nutritional disorders can be seen, especially the increasing prevalence of overweight and the persistence of significant rates of chronic malnutrition in vulnerable groups of the population. Because these are major public health problems, this study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity among Brazilian children according to different epidemiological scenarios. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a systematic review of prevalence studies, developed at the State University of Paraíba. METHODS: The SciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases were searched for articles, using specific keywords. Articles published between 2006 and 2014 were selected. The review was conducted by two reviewers who worked independently. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted, for which the studies were grouped within different epidemiological settings. RESULTS: Among the 33 articles recovered, 9 involved samples from daycare centers, 4 had samples from public healthcare services or social registers, 5 related to populations in situations of social inequity and 15 were population-based. Higher chances of stunting were found in populations in situations of social inequity and in those at public healthcare services or on social registers, in relation to reference populations. For overweight/obesity, none of the scenarios had a higher chance than the reference. CONCLUSION: Among Brazilian children, stunting continues to be a socially determined public health problem that mainly affects marginalized populations. This problem coexists with significant rates of overweight/obesity affecting all social groups.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O panorama nutricional brasileiro revela a coexistência de agravos nutricionais antagônicos, com destaque para as prevalências crescentes de excesso de peso e a persistência de taxas expressivas de desnutrição crônica em grupos vulneráveis da população. Por constituírem importantes problemas de saúde pública, este artigo teve por objetivo verificar as prevalências de déficit de estatura e de sobrepeso/obesidade em crianças brasileiras segundo diferentes cenários epidemiológicos. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão sistemática de estudos de prevalência, desenvolvida na Universidade Estadual da Paraíba. MÉTODOS: Os artigos foram pesquisados nos bancos de dados SciELO, Lilacs e PubMed, usando-se palavras-chave específicas. Selecionaram-se artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2014. A revisão foi conduzida por dois revisores de forma independente. Realizou-se revisão sistemática com metanálise, para a qual os estudos foram agrupados em diferentes cenários epidemiológicos. RESULTADOS: Dentre os 33 artigos recuperados, 9 envolveram amostras obtidas em creches, 4 de serviços públicos de saúde ou de cadastros sociais, 5 foram referentes a populações com iniquidades sociais e 15 tinham base populacional. Maiores chances de déficit de estatura foram constatadas nas populações com iniquidade social e naquelas provenientes de serviços públicos de saúde ou de cadastros sociais, em relação às populações de referência. Para o sobrepeso/obesidade, nenhum cenário apresentou maior risco do que a referência. CONCLUSÕES: Nas crianças brasileiras, o déficit de estatura continua representando um problema de saúde pública de determinação social que atinge, principalmente, populações marginalizadas. Essa problemática coexiste com taxas expressivas de sobrepeso/obesidade que afetam todos os grupos sociais. <![CDATA[Paracoccidioidomycosis in the spine: case report and review of the literature]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic form of mycosis that spreads hematogenously, secondarily to reactivation of lung infection or infection at another site or to new exposure to the causative agent. Few cases of bone involvement have been reported in the literature and involvement of the spine is extremely rare. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 68-year-old male patient with spondylodiscitis at the levels L4-L5 caused by presence of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which was diagnosed through percutaneous biopsy. The patient was treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for 36 months, with complete resolution of the symptoms. CONCLUSION: Spondylodiscitis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is uncommon. However, in patients with chronic low-back pain who live or used to live in endemic regions, this infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO: Paracoccidioidomicose é uma micose sistêmica de disseminação hematogênica, secundária a reativação de uma infecção pulmonar ou de outro sítio, ou a uma nova exposição ao agente causador. Poucos casos de envolvimento ósseo são relatados na literatura, e o acometimento da coluna vertebral é extremamente raro. RELATO DE CASO: Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 68 anos, apresentando espondilodiscite no nível L4-L5, causada pela presença do fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, diagnosticada após biópsia percutânea. O paciente foi tratado com sulfametoxazol e trimetoprim por 36 semanas, com resolução completa dos sintomas. CONCLUSÃO: A espondilodiscite causada pelo fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é incomum, mas, em pacientes portadores de lombalgia crônica que viveram ou vivem em regiões endêmicas, deve ser considerada como um possível diagnóstico diferencial. <![CDATA[Pneumonia caused by <em>Bordetella bronchiseptica</em> in two HIV-positive patients]]> ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bordetella bronchiseptica (BB) is a Gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for respiratory diseases in dogs, cats and rabbits. Reports on its development in humans are rare. However, in immunosuppressed patients, especially in those with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV), BB can cause severe pulmonary infections. We report on two cases of pneumonia caused by BB in HIV-positive male patients in a university hospital. CASE REPORT: The first case comprised a 43-year-old patient who was admitted presenting chronic leg pain and coughing, with suspected pneumonia. BB was isolated from sputum culture and was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in association with levofloxacin. The second case comprised a 49-year-old patient who was admitted presenting fever, nausea, sweating and a dry cough, also with suspected pneumonia. BB was isolated from sputum culture, tracheal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage. The disease was treated with ciprofloxacin but the patient died. CONCLUSION: BB should be included in the etiology of pneumonia in immunodeficient HIV patients. As far as we know, these two were the first cases of pneumonia due to BB to occur in this university hospital.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Bordetella bronchiseptica (BB) é um cocobacilo Gram-negativo responsável por causar doenças no trato respiratório de cães, gatos e coelhos. São raros os relatos do desenvolvimento desse microrganismo em seres humanos. Porém, em pacientes imunodeprimidos, especialmente nos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), a BB pode causar infecções pulmonares graves. Nós relatamos dois casos de pneumonia por BB em pacientes do sexo masculino, HIV-positivos em um hospital universitário. RELATO DE CASO: No primeiro caso, o paciente de 43 anos foi internado apresentando dor crônica nos membros inferiores e tosse com suspeita de pneumonia. Na cultura de escarro, foi isolado BB, e a infecção foi tratada com sucesso com a associação de sulfametoxazol/trimetroprima e levofloxacino. No segundo caso, o paciente de 49 anos foi internado apresentando febre, náuseas, sudorese e tosse seca, também com suspeita de pneumonia. Das culturas de escarro, secreção traqueal e lavado bronco-alveolar, foi isolado BB, infecção tratada com ciprofloxacino: porém, o paciente foi a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: BB deve ser incluído na etiologia de pneumonia em pacientes imunocomprometidos com HIV. Pelo que é de nosso conhecimento, estes dois relatos foram os primeiros casos de pneumonia por BB que ocorreram neste hospital universitário. <![CDATA[Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women]]> ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012), contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When in dispute, we consulted a third author. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25) compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this common postpartum condition. <![CDATA[Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy]]> ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015) and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015). Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this response was highly heterogeneous. Also, data from two trials involving 219 women suggest that women who received vitamin D supplements may have a lower risk of pre-eclampsia than those receiving no intervention or placebo (8.9% versus 15.5%; risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.05, low quality). Data from two trials involving 219 women suggest a similar risk of gestational diabetes among those taking vitamin D supplements or no intervention/placebo (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.05, 3.45, very low quality). There were no clear differences in adverse effects, with only one reported case of nephritic syndrome in the control group in one study (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women, low quality). Given the scarcity of data for this outcome, no firm conclusions can be drawn. No other adverse effects were reported in any of the other studies. With respect to infant outcomes, data from three trials involving 477 women suggest that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk preterm birth compared to no intervention or placebo (8.9% versus 15.5%; RR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.93, moderate quality). Data from three trials involving 493 women also suggest that women who receive vitamin D supplements during pregnancy less frequently had a baby with a birthweight below 2500 g than those receiving no intervention or placebo (RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67, moderate quality). In terms of other outcomes, there were no clear differences in caesarean section (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.31; two trials; 312 women); stillbirths (RR 0.35 95% CI 0.06, 1.99; three trials, 540 women); or neonatal deaths (RR 0.27; 95% CI 0.04, 1.67; two trials, 282 women). There was some indication that vitamin D supplementation increases infant length (mean difference (MD) 0.70, 95% CI -0.02 to 1.43; four trials, 638 infants) and head circumference at birth (MD 0.43, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.83; four trials, 638 women). Vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation or a placebo Women who received vitamin D with calcium had a lower risk of pre-eclampsia than those not receiving any intervention (RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.80; three trials; 1114 women, moderate quality), but also an increased risk of preterm birth (RR 1.57; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.43, three studies, 798 women, moderate quality). Maternal vitamin D concentration at term, gestational diabetes, adverse effects and low birthweight were not reported in any trial or reported only by one study. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: New studies have provided more evidence on the effects of supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D alone or with calcium on pregnancy outcomes. Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D in a single or continued dose increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term and may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, low birthweight and preterm birth. However, when vitamin D and calcium are combined, the risk of preterm birth is increased. The clinical significance of the increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations is still unclear. In light of this, these results need to be interpreted with caution. Data on adverse effects were lacking in all studies. The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation should be given as a part of routine antenatal care to all women to improve maternal and infant outcomes remains unclear. While there is some indication that vitamin D supplementation could reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and increase length and head circumference at birth, further rigorous randomized trials are required to confirm these effects.