Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-318020140006&lang=en vol. 132 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Time to say goodbye]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600319&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation: observational, single cohort, retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600321&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Tubal ligation is one of the most commonly used contraceptive methods worldwide. Since the controversy over the potential effects of tubal sterilization still continues, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, single cohort, retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to 130 women aged 21-46 years who underwent videolaparoscopic tubal ligation by means of tubal ring insertion or bipolar electrocoagulation and sectioning, between January 1999 and December 2007. Menstrual cycle interval, intensity and duration of bleeding, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, noncyclic pelvic pain and degree of sexual satisfaction were assessed in this questionnaire. Each woman served as her own control, and comparisons were made between before and after the surgical procedure and between the two techniques used. RESULTS: The clinical and psychological repercussions were significant, with increases in bleeding (P = 0.001), premenstrual symptoms (P &lt; 0.001), dysmenorrhea (P = 0.019) and noncyclic pelvic pain (P = 0.001); and reductions in the number of sexual intercourse occurrences per week (P = 0.001) and in libido (P = 0.001). Women aged ≤ 35 years at the time of sterilization were more likely to develop menstrual abnormalities. The bipolar electrocoagulation method showed greater clinical and psychological repercussions. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the technique used, videolaparoscopic tubal ligation had repercussions consisting of increased menstrual flow and premenstrual symptoms, especially in women aged ≤ 35 years, and also had a negative influence on sexual activity. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A ligadura tubária é um dos métodos contraceptivos mais utilizados em todo o mundo. Como a controvérsia sobre seus possíveis efeitos ainda continua, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as repercussões clínicas e psíquicas da laqueadura videolaparoscópica. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo observacional de coorte único, retrospectivo, conduzido em hospital público terciário. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário a 130 mulheres, entre 21-46 anos, submetidas à ligadura tubária videolaparoscópica, pelas técnicas de eletrocoagulação bipolar/secção ou inserção do anel tubário, entre janeiro de 1999 e dezembro de 2007. Nesse questionário avaliou-se: intervalo do ciclo menstrual, intensidade e duração do sangramento, sintomas pré-menstruais, dismenorreia, dispareunia, dor pélvica não cíclica e grau de satisfação sexual. Cada mulher serviu como seu próprio controle, foi realizada análise comparativa entre os períodos pré- e pós-cirúrgico e entre as duas técnicas utilizadas. RESULTADOS: As repercussões clínicas e psicológicas mostraram-se significativas, com aumento de sangramento (P = 0,001), de sintomas pré-menstruais (P &lt; 0,001), dismenorreia (P = 0,019), dor pélvica não cíclica (P = 0,001), e redução no número de relações sexuais por semana (P = 0,001) e na libido (P = 0,001). Mulheres com idade ≤ 35 anos, no momento da laqueadura, mostraram-se mais propensas a desenvolverem alterações menstruais. A técnica de eletrocoagulação bipolar mostrou maiores repercussões clínicas e psíquicas. CONCLUSÃO: A ligadura tubária videolaparoscópica, independentemente da técnica, repercutiu com aumento do fluxo menstrual e de sintomas pré-menstruais, principalmente em mulheres com idade ≤ 35 anos, tendo também influenciado negativamente na atividade sexual. <![CDATA[45,X/46,XY mosaicism: report on 14 patients from a Brazilian hospital. A retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600332&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or mixed gonadal dysgenesis, is considered to be a rare disorder of sex development. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of patients with this mosaicism. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study in a referral hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: Our sample consisted of patients diagnosed at the clinical genetics service of a referral hospital in southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2012. Clinical and cytogenetic data were collected from the medical records. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were included in the sample, with ages at the first evaluation ranging from 2 days to 38 years. Nine of them had female sex of rearing and five, male. Regarding the external genitalia, most were ambiguous (n = 10). One patient presented male phenotype and was treated for a history of azoospermia, while three patients presented female phenotype, of whom two had findings of Turner syndrome and one presented secondary amenorrhea alone. Some findings of Turner syndrome were observed even among patients with ambiguous genitalia. None presented gonadal malignancy. One patient underwent surgical correction for genital ambiguity and subsequent exchange of sex of rearing. Regarding cytogenetics, we did not observe any direct correlation between percentages of cell lines and phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism can present with a wide variety of phenotypes resulting from the involvement of different aspects of the individual. All these observations have important implications for early recognition of these patients and their appropriate management. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O mosaicismo 45,X/46,XY, ou disgenesia gonadal mista, é considerado uma doença rara do desenvolvimento sexual. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi verificar as características clínicas e citogenéticas de pacientes com este mosaicismo. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo retrospectivo em um hospital de referência no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Nossa amostra foi composta por pacientes diagnosticados em um serviço de genética clínica de um hospital de referência no sul do Brasil, no período de 1975 até 2012. Os dados clínicos e citogenéticos foram coletados a partir dos prontuários médicos. RESULTADOS: Catorze pacientes foram incluídos na amostra, idades na primeira avaliação variando de 2 dias a 38 anos. Nove deles apresentavam sexo feminino de criação e cinco, masculino. A genitália externa, na maioria, era ambígua (n = 10). O paciente com fenótipo masculino foi tratado por história de azoospermia, enquanto que das três pacientes do fenótipo feminino, duas apresentavam achados da síndrome de Turner e a outra, amenorreia secundária isolada. Alguns achados da síndrome de Turner foram observados mesmo entre pacientes com genitália ambígua. Nenhum deles apresentou neoplasia gonadal. Um paciente foi submetido à correção cirúrgica de ambiguidade genital e posterior troca de sexo de criação. Quanto à citogenética, não observamos correlação direta entre a porcentagem de linhas de células e o fenótipo. CONCLUSÕES: O mosaicismo 45,X/46,XY pode apresentar grande variedade de fenótipos resultantes do envolvimento de diferentes aspectos do indivíduo. Todas essas observações têm implicações importantes para o reconhecimento precoce desses pacientes e seu adequado manejo. <![CDATA[Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) for Brazil: validation study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600339&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that causes joint damage. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the general health status of these patients but few have specifically evaluated the hands. The objective of this study was to translate, perform cultural adaptation and assess the validity of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire for Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study conducted at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: Firstly, the questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and back-translated into English. The Portuguese version was tested on 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and proved to be understandable and culturally adapted. After that, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were evaluated three times. On the first occasion, two evaluators applied the questionnaire to check inter-rater reproducibility. After 15 days, one of the evaluators reassessed the patients to verify intra rater reproducibility. To check the construct validity at the first assessment, one of the evaluators also applied other similar instruments. RESULTS: There were strong inter and intra rater correlations in all the domains of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.90 for all the domains of the questionnaire, thus indicating excellent internal validity. Almost all domains of the questionnaire presented moderate or strong correlation with other instruments, thereby showing good construct validity. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted successfully, and it showed excellent internal consistency, reproducibility and construct validity. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Artrite reumatoide é uma doença crônica, sistêmica, que provoca danos articulares. Diversos métodos têm sido usados para avaliar o estado geral de saúde desses pacientes, mas poucos avaliam especificamente as mãos. O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir, realizar a adaptação cultural e testar a validade do Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire para o Brasil. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de validação feito em um hospital universitário em Curitiba, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Na primeira etapa, o questionário foi traduzido para o português do Brasil e traduzido de volta para o inglês. A versão em português foi testada em 30 pacientes com artrite reumatoide e mostrou-se compreensível e adaptada culturalmente. Na segunda etapa, 30 pacientes com artrite reumatoide foram avaliados três vezes. Na primeira vez, dois avaliadores aplicaram o questionário para verificação da reprodutibilidade interavaliadores. Após 15 dias, um dos avaliadores reavaliou os pacientes para verificação da reprodutibilidade intra-avaliadores. Para verificar a validade construtiva, na primeira avaliação, um dos avaliadores aplicou também outros instrumentos de avaliação similares. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas fortes correlações interavaliadores e intra-avaliadores em todos os domínios do Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. O alfa de Cronbach foi maior que 0.90 para todos os domínios, indicando ótima validade interna. A maioria dos domínios do questionário apresentou correlação moderada ou forte com outros instrumentos, determinando boa validade construtiva. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira do Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire foi traduzida, adaptada culturalmente com sucesso e apresentou ótima consistência interna, reprodutibilidade e validade construtiva. <![CDATA[Does hypericin boost the efficacy of high-power laser? A preliminary experimental study on rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600348&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lasers are widely used in treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. In current practice, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) lasers are the most common type of laser systems used. The aim here was to evaluate the rapid effect of high-power laser systems after application of hypericin. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental animal study conducted in the Department of Urology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey, in 2012. METHODS: Sixteen rats were randomized into four groups: 120 W KTP laser + hypericin; 120 W KTP laser alone; 80 W KTP laser + hypericin; and 80 W KTP laser alone. Hypericin was given intraperitoneally two hours prior to laser applications. The laser incisions were made through the quadriceps muscle of the rats. The depth and the width of the laser incisions were evaluated histologically and recorded. RESULTS: To standardize the effects of the laser, we used the ratio of depth to width. These new values showed us the depth of the laser application per unit width. The new values acquired were evaluated statistically. Mean depth/width values were 231.6, 173.6, 214.1 and 178.9 in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The most notable result was that higher degrees of tissue penetration were achieved in the groups with hypericin (P &lt; 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The encouraging results from our preliminary study demonstrated that hypericin may improve the effects of KTP laser applications. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Lasers são amplamente utilizados no tratamento de hiperplasia benigna de próstata sintomática. Na prática atual, lasers de fosfato de titanilo de potássio (KTP) são os tipos mais comuns usados dos sistemas. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito rápido do sistema laser de alta potência após a aplicação de hipericina. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo experimental animal, realizado no Departamento de Urologia, Academia de Medicina Militar de Gülhane, Ancara, Turquia, em 2012. MÉTODOS: 16 ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos: 120W KTP laser + hipericina; 120W KTP laser somente; 80W KTP laser + hipericina; 80W KTP laser somente. Hipericina foi dada intraperitonealmente duas horas antes da aplicação do laser. As incisões a laser foram feitas através do músculo quadríceps dos ratos. A profundidade e a largura das incisões a laser foram avaliadas histologicamente e registradas. RESULTADOS: Para padronizar o efeito do laser foi utilizada a razão entre profundidade e largura. Estes novos valores nos mostraram a profundidade da aplicação do laser de largura por unidade. Os novos valores adquiridos foram avaliados estatisticamente. Os valores da média de profundidade/largura foram 231,6, 173,6, 214,1 e 178,9 nos grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O resultado mais notável foi atingir altos graus de penetração tecidual nos grupos com hipericina (P &lt; 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados promissores do nosso estudo preliminar mostraram que hipericina pode melhorar os efeitos das aplicações do laser KTP. <![CDATA[Environmental pollution and deaths due to stroke in a city with low levels of air pollution: ecological time series study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600353&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Little has been discussed about the increased risk of stroke after exposure to air pollutants, particularly in Brazil. The mechanisms through which air pollution can influence occurrences of vascular events such as stroke are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to some air pollutants and risk of death due to stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time series study with data from São José dos Campos, Brazil. METHODS: Data on deaths due to stroke among individuals of all ages living in São José dos Campos and on particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were used. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression with the Statistica software, in unipollutant and multipollutant models. The percentage increase in the risk of increased interquartile difference was calculated. RESULTS: There were 1,032 deaths due to stroke, ranging from 0 to 5 per day. The statistical significance of the exposure to particulate matter was ascertained in the unipollutant model and the importance of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, in the multipollutant model. The increases in risk were 10% and 7%, for particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify exposure to air pollutants as a risk factor for death due to stroke, even in a city with low levels of air pollution. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Pouco se tem discutido sobre o aumento do risco de acidente vascular cerebral após exposição a poluentes do ar, principalmente no Brasil. Os mecanismos pelos quais a poluição pode influenciar a ocorrência de eventos vasculares, tais como acidente vascular cerebral, ainda são pouco compreendidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a associação entre exposição a alguns poluentes do ar e risco de morte por acidente vascular cerebral. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados de São José dos Campos, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dados sobre mortes por acidente vascular cerebral em indivíduos de todas as idades que vivem em São José dos Campos e sobre material particulado, dióxido de enxofre e ozônio foram utilizados. A análise estatística utilizou modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson com o software Statistica, em modelos "unipollutant" e "multipollutant". Foi calculado o percentual de aumento no risco para o aumento da diferença interquartil. RESULTADOS: Houve 1.032 mortes por acidente vascular cerebral, que variou de 0 a 5 por dia. A significância estatística da exposição ao material particulado em modelo "unipoluente" e a importância do material particulado e dióxido de enxofre no modelo "multipoluente" foram verificadas. O aumento do risco foi de 10% e 7%, respectivamente para material particulado e dióxido de enxofre. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível identificar exposição a poluentes do ar como um fator de risco para morte por acidente vascular cerebral, mesmo em uma cidade com baixos níveis de poluição do ar. <![CDATA[Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600359&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. METHODS: 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. RESULTS: There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A ocorrência de fibrilação atrial (FA) assintomática é comum. A identificação da FA é importante e está associada com maior morbimortalidade. O Holter de 24 horas vem sendo utilizado para a detecção de FA paroxística (FAP). O objetivo desse estudo é investigar a relação entre a ocorrência de FAP no Holter de 24 horas e os sintomas na população estudada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado em um hospital de cardiologia. MÉTODOS: Análise de 11.321 exames consecutivos de Holter de 24 horas realizados em serviço de referência. Foram excluídos pacientes com marcapasso e aqueles com FA durante toda a gravação. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 75 (0,67%) exames apresentando FAP. A idade média foi de 67 ± 13 anos e 45% eram do sexo feminino. A frequência cardíaca (FC) encontrada nas 24 horas foi mínima de 45 ± 8 bpm, média de 74 ± 17 bpm e máxima de 151 ± 32 bpm. Entre os exames apresentando FAP, apenas 26% apresentaram sintomas. O único fator testado que evidenciou correlação com FA sintomática foi a FC máxima (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0,03). O uso de betabloqueadores teve efeito protetor para ocorrência de sintomas na FA (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSÕES: A FAP é um evento raro em Holter de 24 horas. A FC máxima nas 24 horas foi o único fator relacionado com FA sintomática e o uso de betabloqueadores teve efeito protetor para ocorrência de sintomas na FA. <![CDATA[Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600364&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3%) were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6%) were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7%) for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A doença celíaca é uma doença autoimune, com prevalência média de 1% na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. Em função da forte ascendência europeia no sul do Brasil, este estudo objetiva relatar a soroprevalência de doença celíaca em indivíduos com tireoidite autoimune. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal em um hospital público universitário. MÉTODOS: Este estudo transversal de prevalência incluiu pacientes com tireoidite autoimune que foram submetidos a testes de anticorpos antiendomísio e antitransglutaminase entre agosto de 2010 e julho de 2011. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 53 pacientes com tireoidite autoimune, 92,5% mulheres, com idade média de 49,0 ± 13,5 anos. Cinco (9,3%) pacientes apresentaram sorologia positiva para doença celíaca, sendo três (5,6%) com anticorpo antiendomísio positivo e dois (3,7%) com antitransglutaminase positivo. Nenhum paciente apresentou anemia e um apresentou diarreia. Apenas dois pacientes realizaram endoscopia: um com histologia normal e outro apresentou infiltrado linfocitário e atrofia vilositária. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de doença celíaca entre pacientes com doença autoimune da tireoide foi de 9,3%; um paciente queixou-se de diarreia e ninguém apresentou anemia. Em populações de risco, como é o caso de pacientes com tireoidite autoimune, a presença de diarreia ou anemia não devem ser utilizados como critério para indicar investigação de doença celíaca, que deve ser feita em todos os indivíduos com tireoidite autoimune devido a sua alta prevalência. <![CDATA[Bilateral maculopathy following electrical burn: case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600372&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT: Electrical burns are an important etiology in dealing with patients suffering from burns. In situations of extensive deep lesions of multiple organs and systems affecting young and economically active people, there is a need for expensive multidisciplinary treatment, with a high socioeconomic cost for the community. Among the permanent injuries that explain this high cost, eye injuries stand out, since they are widely disabling. Although rare, lesions of the posterior segment of the eye are associated with higher incidence of major sequelae, and thus deserve special attention for dissemination and discussion of the few cases observed. CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a patient who suffered high-voltage electrical burns and presented bilateral maculopathy, which evolved with a need for a surgical approach to repair retinal detachment and permanent low visual acuity. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the rarity of the etiology of maculopathy and the need for campaigns for prevention not only of burns in general, but also especially of electrical burns. <hr/> CONTEXTO: As queimaduras elétricas representam etiologia importante na abordagem de pacientes vítimas de queimaduras. Lesões extensas e profundas de múltiplos órgãos e sistemas e o acometimento de população jovem economicamente ativa apontam para a necessidade de tratamento multidisciplinar dispendioso, com alto custo socioeconômico para as comunidades. Dentre as lesões permanentes que justificam esse alto custo, as oculares têm local de destaque, porque são amplamente incapacitantes. Embora raras, as lesões do segmento posterior do olho estão associadas a maior incidência de sequelas importantes, merecendo atenção especial para divulgação e discussão dos poucos casos observados. RELATO DE CASO: Os autores relatam o caso de paciente vítima de queimadura elétrica com fio de alta voltagem que apresentou maculopatia bilateral, evoluindo com necessidade de abordagem cirúrgica para correção de descolamento de retina e baixa acuidade visual permanente. CONCLUSÃO: Este relato destaca a raridade da etiologia da maculopatia e a necessidade de campanhas de prevenção não só das queimaduras em geral, mas especialmente das queimaduras elétricas. <![CDATA[Pituitary macroadenoma presenting as a nasal tumor: case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600377&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en CONTEXT: Pituitary macroadenomas are rare intracranial tumors. In a few cases, they may present aggressive behavior and invade the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, causing unusual symptoms. In this paper, we report an atypical case of pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasal mass. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had had amenorrhea and galactorrhea for ten months, with associated nasal obstruction, macroglossia and acromegaly. Both growth hormone and prolactin levels were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass originating from the lower surface of the pituitary gland, associated with sella turcica erosion and tumor extension through the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a chromophobe pituitary adenoma with densely packed rounded epithelial cells, with some atypias and rare mitotic figures. There was no evidence of metastases. CONCLUSION: Macroadenoma invading the nasal cavity is a rare condition and few similar cases have been reported in the literature. This study contributes towards showing that tumor extension to the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx needs to be considered and investigated in order to make an early diagnosis when atypical symptoms like nasal obstruction are present. <hr/> CONTEXTO: Macroadenomas hipofisários são tumores intracraniais raros. Em alguns casos, podem apresentar comportamento agressivo e invadir o seio esfenoidal e a cavidade nasal, causando sintomas não usuais. Neste relato de caso, descrevemos um caso atípico de adenoma hipofisário manifestando-se como uma massa nasal. RELATO DE CASO: A paciente de 44 anos, do sexo feminino, apresentava amenorreia e galactorreia por 10 meses associando-se a obstrução nasal, macroglossia e acromegalia. Os níveis do hormônio de crescimento e de prolactina apresentaram-se aumentados. Ressonância magnética mostrou uma grande massa originada da superfície inferior da glândula hipofisária associada com erosão da sela túrcica e extensão do tumor através do seio esfenoidal e cavidade nasal. Análise histopatológica demonstrou adenoma hipofisário cromófobo com células epiteliais arrendondadas densamente agrupadas com algumas atipias e escassas figuras de mitose. Não houve evidências de metástase. CONCLUSÃO: O macroadenoma invasivo para a cavidade nasal é uma condição rara e há poucos relatos similares descritos na literatura. Este trabalho contribui para mostrar que, na presença de sintomas atípicos como a obstrução nasal, a extensão para o seio esfenoidal e para a nasofaringe deve ser considerada e investigada para um diagnóstico precoce. <![CDATA[Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600382&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers). METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (9 September 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (2005 to August Week 5 2011), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &amp; Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 September 2011), Ovid EMBASE (2007 to 2010 Week 35), Ovid AMED (1985 to September 2011) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 September 2011). We did not apply date or language restrictions. Selection criteria: We included all randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of Aloe vera, aloe-derived products and a combination of Aloe vera and other dressings as a treatment for acute or chronic wounds. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. An objective measure of wound healing (either proportion of completely healed wounds or time to complete healing) was the primary endpoint. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently carried out trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, checked by a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials were eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 347 participants. Five trials in people with acute wounds evaluated the effects of Aloe vera on burns, haemorrhoidectomy patients and skin biopsies. Aloe vera mucilage did not increase burn healing compared with silver sulfadiazine (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 2.85). A reduction in healing time with Aloe vera was noted after haemorrhoidectomy (RR 16.33 days, 95% CI 3.46 to 77.15) and there was no difference in the proportion of patients completely healed at follow up after skin biopsies. In people with chronic wounds, one trial found no statistically significant difference in pressure ulcer healing with Aloe vera (RR 0.10, 95% CI -1.59 to 1.79) and in a trial of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention Aloe vera significantly delayed healing (mean difference 30 days, 95% CI 7.59 to 52.41). Clinical heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. The poor quality of the included trials indicates that the trial results must be viewed with extreme caution as they have a high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently an absence of high quality clinical trial evidence to support the use of Aloe vera topical agents or Aloe vera dressings as treatments for acute and chronic wounds <![CDATA[Decentralising HIV treatment in lower- and middle-income countries]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000600383&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Policy makers, health staff and communities recognise that health services in lower- and middle-income countries need to improve people's access to HIV treatment and retention to treatment programmes. One strategy is to move antiretroviral delivery from hospitals to more peripheral health facilities or even beyond health facilities. This could increase the number of people with access to care, improve health outcomes, and enhance retention in treatment programmes. On the other hand, providing care at less sophisticated levels in the health service or at community-level may decrease quality of care and result in worse health outcomes. To address these uncertainties, we summarised the research studies examining the risks and benefits of decentralising antiretroviral therapy service delivery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of various models that decentralised HIV treatment and care to more basic levels in the health system for initiating and maintaining antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Search methods: We conducted a comprehensive search to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress) from 1 January 1996 to 31 March 2013, and contacted relevant organisations and researchers. The search terms included "decentralisation", "down referral", "delivery of health care", and "health services accessibility". Selection criteria: Our inclusion criteria were controlled trials (randomised and non-randomised), controlled-before and after studies, and cohorts (prospective and retrospective) in which HIV-infected people were either initiated on antiretroviral therapy or maintained on therapy in a decentralised setting in lower- and middle-income countries. We define decentralisation as providing treatment at a more basic level in the health system to the comparator. Data collection and analysis: Two authors applied the inclusion criteria and extracted data independently. We designed a framework to describe different decentralisation strategies, and then grouped studies against these strategies. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Because loss to follow up in HIV programmes is known to include some deaths, we used attrition as our primary outcome, defined as death plus loss to follow-up. We assessed evidence quality with GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, all but one were from Africa, comprising two cluster randomised trials and 14 cohort studies. Antiretroviral therapy started at a hospital and maintained at a health centre (partial decentralisation) probably reduces attrition (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.71, 4 studies, 39 090 patients, moderate quality evidence). There may be fewer patients lost to care with this model (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.69, low quality evidence). We are uncertain whether there is a difference in attrition for antiretroviral therapy started and maintained at a health centre (full decentralisation) compared to a hospital at 12 months (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.02; four studies, 56 360 patients, very low quality evidence), but there are probably fewer patients lost to care with this model (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.54, moderate quality evidence). When antiretroviral maintenance therapy is delivered at home by trained volunteers, there is probably no difference in attrition at 12 months (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.46, two trials, 1453 patients, moderate quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Decentralisation of HIV care aims to improve patient access and retention in care. Most data were from good quality cohort studies but confounding between site of treatment and outcomes cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, this review found that attrition appears to be lower in partial decentralisation models of treatment, where antiretrovirals were started at hospital and continued in the health centre; with antiretroviral drugs started and continued at health centres, no difference in attrition was detected, but there were fewer patients lost to care. For antiretroviral therapy provided at home by trained volunteers, no difference in outcomes were detected when compared to facility-based care.