Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-318020160004&lang=en vol. 134 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Thyroid disorders in Brazil: time for action]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400277&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Post-thoracotomy pain relief with subpleural analgesia or thoracic epidural analgesia: randomized clinical trial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400280&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Post-thoracotomy pain is a severe and intense pain caused by trauma to ribs, muscles and peripheral nerves. The current study aimed to compare subpleural analgesia (SPA) with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in patients undergoing thoracotomy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized study at Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, in Turkey. METHODS: Thirty patients presenting American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III were scheduled for elective diagnostic thoracotomy. The patients were randomized to receive either patient-controlled SPA or patient-controlled TEA for post-thoracotomy pain control over a 24-hour period. The two groups received a mixture of 3 µg/ml fentanyl along with 0.05% bupivacaine solution through a patient-controlled analgesia pump. Rescue analgesia was administered intravenously, consisting of 100 mg tramadol in both groups. A visual analogue scale was used to assess pain at rest and during coughing over the course of 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: In the SPA group, all the patients required rescue analgesia, and five patients (33%) required rescue analgesia in the TEA group (P &lt; 0.05). Patients who received subpleural analgesia exhibited higher visual analogue scores at rest and on coughing than patients who received thoracic epidural analgesia. None of the patients had any side-effects postoperatively, such as hypotension or respiratory depression. CONCLUSION: Thoracic epidural analgesia is superior to subpleural analgesia for relieving post-thoracotomy pain. We suggest that studies on effective drug dosages for providing subpleural analgesia are necessary.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Dor pós-toracotomia é severa e intensa, causada por trauma de nervos periféricos, músculos e costelas. O objetivo foi comparar analgesia subpleural (SPA) com analgesia epidural torácica (TEA) em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo randomizado no Hospital Educação e Pesquisa de Numune, em Ancara, Turquia. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes com o estado físico I-III da Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologistas foram agendados para toracotomia diagnóstica eletiva e escolhidos aleatoriamente para receber, num período de 24 horas, SPA ou TEA, ambas controladas pelo próprio paciente, para controle da dor pós-toracotomia. Os dois grupos receberam mistura de 3 ug/ml de fentanil com solução de 0,05% de bupivacaína por meio de bomba de analgesia controlada pelo paciente. Foi administrada analgesia de resgate por via intravenosa, com 100 mg de tramadol, nos dois grupos. No pós-operatório, a escala visual analógica foi utilizada para medir presença de dor durante a tosse ou em repouso, ao longo de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: No grupo SPA, todos os pacientes necessitaram de analgesia de resgate. Cinco pacientes (33%) necessitaram de analgesia de resgate no grupo TEA (P &lt; 0,05). Os pacientes com SPA exibiram pontuações superiores na escala visual analógica, em repouso e ao tossir, em comparação aos que receberam TEA. Nenhum dos pacientes teve quaisquer efeitos secundários no pós-operatório, como hipotensão ou depressão respiratória. CONCLUSÃO: A analgesia peridural torácica é superior à analgesia subpleural no alívio da dor pós-toracotomia. Consideramos que estudos sobre a dosagem de drogas eficazes para proporcionar analgesia subpleural são necessários. <![CDATA[Effect of preoperative gabapentin on pain intensity and development of chronic pain after carpal tunnel syndrome surgical treatment in women: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400285&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Effective postoperative analgesia is important for reducing the incidence of chronic pain. This study evaluated the effect of preoperative gabapentin on postoperative analgesia and the incidence of chronic pain among patients undergoing carpal tunnel syndrome surgical treatment. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Randomized, double-blind controlled trial, Federal University of São Paulo Pain Clinic. METHODS: Forty patients aged 18 years or over were randomized into two groups: Gabapentin Group received 600 mg of gabapentin preoperatively, one hour prior to surgery, and Control Group received placebo. All the patients received intravenous regional anesthesia comprising 1% lidocaine. Midazolam was used for sedation if needed. Paracetamol was administered for postoperative analgesia as needed. Codeine was used additionally if the paracetamol was insufficient. The following were evaluated: postoperative pain intensity (over a six-month period), incidence of postoperative neuropathic pain (over a six-month period), need for intraoperative sedation, and use of postoperative paracetamol and codeine. The presence of neuropathic pain was established using the DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4) questionnaire. Complex regional pain syndrome was diagnosed using the Budapest questionnaire. RESULTS: No differences in the need for sedation, control over postoperative pain or incidence of chronic pain syndromes (neuropathic or complex regional pain syndrome) were observed. No differences in postoperative paracetamol and codeine consumption were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative gabapentin (600 mg) did not improve postoperative pain control, and did not reduce the incidence of chronic pain among patients undergoing carpal tunnel syndrome surgery.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Analgesia pós-operatória eficaz é importante para reduzir a incidência de dor crônica. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da gabapentina pré-operatória na analgesia pós-operatória e na incidência de dor crônica em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para tratamento da síndrome do túnel do carpo. DESENHO E LOCAL: Randomizado, duplo cego, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Os 40 pacientes com 18 anos ou mais de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o Grupo Gabapentina recebeu 600 mg de gabapentina no pré-operatório uma hora antes da cirurgia, e o Grupo Controle recebeu placebo. Todos os pacientes receberam anestesia regional intravenosa com lidocaína a 1%. Midazolam foi utilizado para sedação, se necessário. Paracetamol foi administrado para analgesia pós-operatória, conforme necessário, e codeína, se o paracetamol fosse insuficiente. Foram avaliados: a intensidade da dor pós-operatória (durante seis meses), a incidência de dor neuropática pós-operatória (durante seis meses), a necessidade de sedação intra-operatória e o uso de paracetamol e codeína no pós-operatório. A presença de dor neuropática foi estabelecida utilizando-se o questionário DN4 (dor neuropática 4). Síndrome de dor regional complexa foi diagnosticada através do questionário Budapeste. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças na necessidade de sedação, no controle da dor pós-operatória e na incidência de síndromes dolorosas crônicas (neuropáticas ou síndrome de dor regional complexa). Não foram observadas diferenças no consumo de paracetamol e codeína. CONCLUSÕES: Gabapentina pré-operatória (600 mg) não melhorou o controle da dor pós-operatória e não reduziu a incidência de dor crônica em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para tratamento da síndrome do túnel do carpo. <![CDATA[Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400292&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. DESIGN AND SETTING : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. METHODS :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. RESULTS : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P &lt; 0.05) and had a marginal trend toward significance with more advanced phases of stress (OR 4.7; CI: 0.99-22.51; P = 0.053). CONCLUSION :Stress and coping strategies may have implications for understanding and managing nonadherent behavior among transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO :Aderência à medicação é uma questão chave para o resultado do transplante e é influenciada por diversos fatores, tais como o estresse e estratégias de enfrentamento ou coping . Entretanto, esses aspectos têm sido pouco explorados. Compararmos o estresse e as estratégias de coping em paciente transplantados renais, aderentes e não aderentes, em uso de imunossupressores. TIPO DE ESTUDOE LOCAL : Realizamos estudo comparativo, transversal e observacional em uma clínica universitária de transplantes em Juiz de Fora, Brasil. MÉTODO :Cinquenta pacientes foram selecionados e classificados como aderentes e não aderentes a partir da escala Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. O estresse foi avaliado pelo Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adulto de Lipp e as estratégias de coping foram avaliadas pela escala Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas. RESULTADOS : O estudo inclui 25 pacientes não aderentes e 25 controles com idade média de 44,1 ± 12,8 anos e mediana de tempo de transplante de 71,8 meses. Estresse esteve presente em 50% dos pacientes. Por regressão linear simples, a não aderência foi associada com o coping paliativo (OR 3,4, CI: 1,02-11,47; P &lt; 0,05) e teve uma tendência marginal a significância com as fases mais avançadas do estresse (OR 4,7, CI: 0,99-22,51; P = 0,053). CONCLUSÃO : Estresse e estratégias de coping podem trazer implicações na compreensão e manejo do comportamento de não aderência dos pacientes transplantados e deveriam ser considerados nas estratégias na redução da não aderência. <![CDATA[Development of a strategy of physician-patient relationship for improving care for patients with disorders of sex development: a qualitative study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400300&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Care for patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) should be provided in integrated-care centers by a multidisciplinary team. Implementation of this project within the teaching clinic routine presents several challenges: 1) difficulties in relationships between the medical team and patients and their families; 2) age, ethnic and cultural differences; 3) DSD-related prejudice; and 4) physicians' anxiety. We report on a psychologist's work strategy that focused on creating arrangements that could contribute towards development of the relationship between the medical team and patients and their families, as a way of preparing the clinical staff to manage treatment of adult DSD patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective qualitative study. METHODS: Between February 2010 and April 2015, we conducted a qualitative study in the Adrenal Outpatient Clinic of Escola Paulista de Medicina (São Paulo, Brazil), based on interviews, team discussions and group dynamics with resident physicians, postgraduate students and attending physicians. RESULTS: Implementation of the project allowed residents to build a story of differentiated care for their patients, thus facilitating dialog between them and making it possible to address taboo topics. Sequential care provided by the same resident led patients to feel that their doctor cared for them, with individuality, continuity and a sense of interest in their story. CONCLUSION: Presence of a psychologist in the outpatient routine enabled inclusion of subjective factors in the routine of medical consultations, thus broadening the notion of healthcare for patients with DSD, facilitating bonds and providing support for difficulties faced.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Pacientes com desordens do desenvolvimento do sexo (DDS) e seus familiares devem ser atendidos em centros de atenção integral, por equipe multidisciplinar. A efetivação desse projeto no cotidiano da clínica-escola apresenta vários desafios: 1) dificuldades nas relações entre equipe médica, paciente e família, 2) diferenças etárias, étnicas e culturais, 3) preconceitos relacionados às DDS, e 4) angústia dos médicos. Relatamos o desenvolvimento de uma estratégia de trabalho do psicólogo, que teve como foco a criação de dispositivos que contribuíssem para o aprimoramento da relação entre equipe médica, paciente e família, preparando o staff clínico para administrar o tratamento de pacientes adultos com DDS. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo qualitativo prospectivo. MÉTODOS: De fevereiro de 2010 até abril de 2015, realizamos uma pesquisa qualitativa no Ambulatório de Adrenal da Escola Paulista de Medicina (São Paulo, Brasil), baseada em entrevistas, discussões de equipe e dinâmica de grupo com médicos residentes, pós-graduandos e assistentes. RESULTADOS: A implementação do projeto possibilitou aos residentes construir uma história de atendimento diferenciado com seus pacientes, facilitando o diálogo entre eles e permitindo que temas-tabus fossem abordados. O fato de ter sido atendido seguidamente pelo mesmo residente possibilitou ao paciente a sensação de cuidado, individualidade, continuidade e a sensação de que havia interesse, por parte do médico, sobre a sua história. CONCLUSÃO: A presença do psicólogo no cotidiano do ambulatório permitiu que aspectos subjetivos fossem incluídos na rotina das consultas médicas, ampliando a noção de saúde e cuidado aos pacientes com DDS, facilitando o vínculo e dando suporte para as dificuldades encontradas. <![CDATA[Predictors for choosing the specialty of Family Medicine from undergraduate knowledge and attitudes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400306&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A cold climate towards primary care (PC) within medical academia could form a barrier against choosing family medicine (FM) as a career option. This study was designed to determine whether medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards FM predicted their career choice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted at two different medical schools. METHODS: After completing a PC course at the Albacete Medical School in 2005-2006, 81 second-year students were asked to give responses to a questionnaire. In their sixth year (2009-2010), 79 students in Albacete and 42 in Seville (taken as an unexposed cohort) were asked to give responses too. Their choice of specialty was investigated in 2011. RESULTS: In Albacete, the questionnaire was answered by 79 second-year and 76 sixth-year students; in Seville, it was answered by 26 sixth-year students. After completing the PC course, 69.3% said they would like to become a family doctor. This percentage decreased to 40.3% at the end of the undergraduate course (P &lt; 0.0001). In the sixth year, the attitudes towards FM worsened, yet these were significantly more favorable than those in Seville. Only 12 students chose FM; they obtained significantly worse scores in their specialty selection examination than their peers (P &lt; 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In the Albacete Medical School, the students' opinion about FM worsened over the undergraduate course, although it was still better than the Seville students' stance. In any case, FM was seen to be a minority option.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Um clima frio para a atenção primária na academia médica constitui uma barreira para escolher Medicina de Família (MF) como opção de carreira. Este estudo foi concebido para determinar se o conhecimento e as atitudes dos estudantes de medicina em relação à MF predizem a escolha da carreira. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte realizado em duas faculdades de medicina. MÉTODOS: Depois de terem completado um curso de Cuidados Primários na Faculdade de Medicina de Albacete, em 2005-2006, 81 alunos do segundo ano foram convidados a responder a um questionário. No seu sexto ano (2009-2010), 79 estudantes de Albacete assim como 42 de Sevilha, tomados como coorte não exposta, foram convidados a responder também. Todos eles foram investigados sobre a escolha da especialidade em 2011. RESULTADOS: Em Albacete, 79 e 76 estudantes responderam no segundo e sexto anos, respectivamente, e 26 em Sevilha. Depois de terem concluído o curso de cuidados primários, 69,3% disseram que gostariam de se tornar médicos de família. Esta percentagem diminuiu para 40,3% no final da graduação (P &lt; 0,0001). No sexto ano, as atitudes com relação à MF pioraram, mas estas foram significativamente mais favoráveis do que as de Sevilla. Apenas 12 alunos escolheram a MF; eles obtiveram pontuação significativamente piores no exame do que seus pares (P &lt; 0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Na Faculdade de Medicina de Albacete, a opinião dos alunos sobre a MF ao longo da graduação piorou; contudo ainda era melhor que as dos estudantes de Sevilha. Em qualquer caso, MF foi opção minoritária. <![CDATA[Air pollution and respiratory diseases: ecological time series]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400315&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Exposure to air pollutants is one of the factors responsible for hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. The objective here was to estimate the effect of exposure to particulate matter (such as PM2.5) on hospitalizations due to certain respiratory diseases among residents in Volta Redonda (RJ). DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time series study using data from Volta Redonda (RJ). METHODS: Data on hospital admissions among residents of Volta Redonda (RJ), between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, due to pneumonia, acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma, were analyzed. Daily data on PM2.5 concentrations were estimated through the CCATT-BRAMS model. The generalized additive Poisson regression model was used, taking the daily number of hospitalizations to be the dependent variable and the PM2.5 concentration to be the independent variable, with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity, seasonality and day of the week, and using lags of zero to seven days. Excess hospitalization and its cost were calculated in accordance with increases in PM2.5 concentration of 5 µg/m3. RESULTS: There were 752 hospitalizations in 2012; the average concentration of PM2.5 was 17.2 µg/m3; the effects of exposure were significant at lag 2 (RR = 1.017), lag 5 (RR = 1.022) and lag 7 (RR = 1,020). A decrease in PM2.5 concentration of 5 µg/m3 could reduce admissions by up to 76 cases, with a decrease in spending of R$ 84,000 a year. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study provide support for implementing public health policies in this municipality, which is an important steelmaking center.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A exposição aos poluentes do ar é um dos fatores responsáveis por internações por doenças respiratórias; o objetivo foi estimar o efeito da exposição a material particulado (como PM2,5) sobre as hospitalizações devido a certas doenças respiratórias em moradores de Volta Redonda (RJ). TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais utilizando dados de Volta Redonda (RJ). MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de internação hospitalar, entre 1 de janeiro de 2012 e 31 de dezembro de 2012, devida a pneumonia, bronquite aguda, bronquiolite e asma, em residentes em Volta Redonda (RJ), e dados diários das concentrações de PM2,5 obtidos a partir do modelo CCATT-BRAMS. Utilizou-se o modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson, sendo o número diário de internações a variável dependente e a concentração PM2,5 a variável independente, ajustado para temperatura, umidade relativa, sazonalidade e dia da semana e defasagens entre zero e sete dias. Excesso de internação hospitalar e seu custo, de acordo com o aumento de 5 ug/m3 na concentração de PM2,5, foram calculados. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 752 internações em 2012; a concentração média de PM2,5 foi de 17,2 ug/m3; os efeitos da exposição foram significativos em lag 2 (RR = 1,017), lag 5 (RR = 1,022) e lag 7 (RR = 1,020). A redução em 5 ug/m3 na concentração de PM2,5 poderia reduzir até 76 casos as internações com diminuição nos gastos de R$ 84 mil/ano. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados deste estudo fornecem subsídios para implantar políticas públicas de saúde neste município, que é importante polo siderúrgico. <![CDATA[Economic evaluation of the new oral anticoagulants for the prevention of thromboembolic events: a cost-minimization analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400322&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Randomized clinical trials have shown that the new oral anticoagulants have at least similar impact regarding reduction of thromboembolic events, compared with warfarin, with similar or improved safety profiles. There is little data on real costs within clinical practice. Our aim here was to perform economic analysis on these strategies from the perspective of Brazilian society and the public healthcare system. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cost-minimization analysis; anticoagulation clinic of Hospital Municipal Odilon Behrens, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. METHODS: Patients at the anticoagulation clinic were recruited between August and October 2011, with minimum follow-up of four weeks. Operational and non-operational costs were calculated and corrected to 2015. RESULTS: This study included 633 patients (59% women) of median age 62 years (interquartile range ­49-73). The mean length of follow-up was 64 ± 28 days. The average cost per patient per month was $ 54.26 (US dollars). Direct costs accounted for 32.5% of the total cost. Of these, 69.5% were related to healthcare professionals. With regards to indirect costs, 52.4% were related to absence from work and 47.6% to transportation. Apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban were being sold to Brazilian public institutions, on average, for $ 49.87, $ 51.40 and $ 52.16 per patient per month, respectively, which was lower than the costs relating to warfarin treatment. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian context, from the perspective of society and the public healthcare system, the cumulative costs per patient using warfarin with follow-up in anticoagulation clinics is currently higher than the strategy of prescribing the new oral anticoagulants.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Estudos clínicos randomizados demonstraram que novos anticoagulantes orais têm pelo menos impacto semelhante em reduzir eventos tromboembólicos quando comparados à varfarina, com perfil de segurança similar ou superior. Há pouca evidência acerca de custos reais na prática clínica. Nosso objetivo é realizar análise econômica dessas estratégias, na perspectiva do sistema de saúde pública e da sociedade brasileiros. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Análise de custo-minimização; Clínica de Anticoagulação do Hospital Municipal Odilon Behrens, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes da clínica de anticoagulação foram recrutados de agosto a outubro de 2011, com tempo mínimo de acompanhamento de quatro semanas. Custos operacionais e não operacionais foram computados e corrigidos para 2015. RESULTADOS: Este estudo incluiu 633 pacientes, com idade mediana de 62 (intervalo interquartil 49-73) anos, sendo 59% mulheres. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 64 ± 28 dias. O custo médio por paciente por mês foi de $ 54.26 (dólares). Custos diretos foram responsáveis por 32,5% do custo total. Destes, 69,5% foram relacionados aos profissionais de saúde. Em relação aos custos indiretos, 52,4% estavam relacionados ao absenteísmo ao trabalho e 47,6% ao transporte. Apixaban, dabigatran e rivaroxaban são vendidos a órgãos públicos brasileiros, respectivamente, a um preço médio mensal de $ 49.87, $ 51.40 e $ 52.26 por paciente por mês, valores inferiores aos custos relacionados ao tratamento com varfarina. CONCLUSÃO: No contexto brasileiro, na perspectiva do sistema de saúde pública e da sociedade, os custos cumulativos por paciente em uso de varfarina acompanhados em clínica de anticoagulação são atualmente superiores à estratégia de prescrever novos anticoagulantes orais. <![CDATA[Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400330&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS) has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP) and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI) in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR), Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2). RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP). The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7%) presented normal BP, eleven (11.3%) prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4%) presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2): 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015). CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic).<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O aumento da expectativa de vida das pessoas com síndrome de Down (SD) introduziu novos fatores ambientais que podem afetar a pressão sanguínea e/ou levar a obesidade nessa população. O objetivo foi investigar os níveis de pressão arterial (PA) e o índice de massa corporal (IMC) em adultos com SD, correlacionando estes dados com a idade e o gênero dos pacientes. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo observacional, transversal e analítico, realizado em escolas especiais em Curitiba (PR), Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 97 pacientes adultos. A aferição da PA foi feita de acordo com as diretrizes estabelecidas. O IMC foi calculado dividindo-se o peso pela altura ao quadrado (kg/m2). RESULTADOS: O gênero não influenciou o IMC, a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD). A idade variou de 18 a 56 anos. Não foi observada correlação entre aumento da idade e maior IMC ou pressão arterial. 86 indivíduos (88,7%) apresentaram PA normal, 11 (11,3%) pré-hipertensão e nenhum hipertensão. Vinte (20,4%) apresentaram PA inferior a 90 × 60 mmHg. O IMC variou entre 18 e 48 kg/m2 (média de 28,8 ± 3,92), 21,9% tinham peso normal, 40,7% sobrepeso, 25,3% obesidade grau I, 9,9 % grau II e 2,2% obesidade grau III. Aumento significativo da PAS e PAD foi associado com elevação do IMC (P = 0,0175 e P = 0,0015). CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que sexo e idade não influenciaram PAS, PAD e IMC em adultos brasileiros com SD. O aumento significativo da PAS e PAD foi associado com o aumento do IMC. <![CDATA[Hematological approaches to multiple myeloma: trends from a Brazilian subset of hematologists. A cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400335&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: For the last nine years, hematologists and oncologists have gathered annually at an educational symposium organized by a Brazilian and an American hospital. During the 2015 Board Review, a survey among the attendees evaluated the differences in management and treatment methods for multiple myeloma (MM). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study during an educational hematology symposium in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hematologists present at the symposium gave responses to an electronic survey by means of mobile phone. RESULTS: Among the 350 attendees, 217 answered the questionnaire. Most of the participants believed that immunotargeting agents (iTA) might be effective for slowing MM progression in heavily pretreated patients (67%) and that continued exposure to therapy might lead to emergence of resistant clones in patients with MM (76%). Most of the physicians use maintenance therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (95%) and 45% of them would further restrict it to post-transplantation patients with underlying high-risk disease. The first-line drugs used for transplantation-ineligible patients (TI-MM) were bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (31%), bortezomib-dexamethasone (28%), lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd; 17%) and melphalan-based therapy (10%). Lenalidomide was the drug of choice for post-transplantation maintenance for half of the participants. No significant differences were observed regarding age or length of experience. CONCLUSION: The treatment choices for TI-MM patients were highly heterogenous and the melphalan-based regimen represented only 10% of the first-line options. Use of maintenance therapy after transplantation was a common choice. Some results from the survey were divergent from the evidence in the literature.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Há nove anos, hematologistas e oncologistas se reúnem anualmente em um simpósio educacional organizado por um hospital brasileiro e outro norte-americano. Durante o Board Review 2015, uma pesquisa foi conduzida entre os participantes e avaliou as diferenças na conduta e opções de tratamento para o mieloma múltiplo (MM). DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal no simpósio educacional de hematologia em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Hematologistas presentes no simpósio responderam a uma pesquisa por celular. RESULTADOS: Dos 350 inscritos, 217 responderam o questionário. A maioria dos participantes acredita que a terapia-alvo imune (iTA) pode ser efetiva para desacelerar a progressão do MM em pacientes que já foram muito tratados previamente, e que a exposição contínua à terapia pode gerar clones resistentes em pacientes com MM (76%). A maioria usa terapia de manutenção após transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas (95%) e 45% dos médicos a restringiriam a pacientes pós-transplante com doença de base de alto risco. As drogas de primeira linha adotada para os pacientes inelegíveis para transplante (PIT) foram bortezomibe-talidomida-dexametasona (31%), bortezomibe-dexametasona (28%), lenalidomina-dexametasona (Rd; 17%) e terapia baseada em melfalan (10%). A lenalidomida foi a droga de escolha para a manutenção pós-transplante para metade dos participantes. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada para idade ou tempo de experiência. CONCLUSÃO: As escolhas de tratamento para PIT foram altamente heterogêneas e o regime baseado em melfalan representou somente 10% das opções de primeira linha. Terapia de manutenção após transplante é opção comum. Alguns dos resultados do levantamento foram divergentes das evidências na literatura. <![CDATA[Perspectives for treating Alzheimer's disease: a review on promising pharmacological substances]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400342&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by functional and cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia and has high prevalence among the elderly. It is known that there is no drug capable of interfering with the course of the disease. Research on treatments for AD has been marked by the appearance of new drugs and their abandonment. This study aimed to describe drugs that have been studied with regard to treating AD and which are capable of influencing the course of the disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review on original articles published worldwide. METHODS: A systematized search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library/Cochrane and SciELO/Bireme databases. The descriptors "Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action" and "Drug Therapy" were each combined with the descriptor "Alzheimer disease". All of these can be found in MeSH and DeCS. These descriptors were used alone or in combination, and a filter specifying publication between January 2009 and October 2015 in English, Spanish or Portuguese was set. RESULTS: 6,888 articles were found, of which 37 were included in this review; 70.3% of the articles selected were of good quality with low or unclear risk of bias. 86 drugs were considered promising for AD treatment and these were classified into 20 pharmacological categories. CONCLUSION: There are no drugs capable of influencing the course of AD such that treatments are safe and effective. However, immunomodulators stood out as promising, given their effectiveness and quality in the articles analyzed.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A demência é uma síndrome caracterizada por declínio funcional e cognitivo, sendo a doença de Alzheimer (DA) uma das causas mais comuns e de alta prevalência em idosos. Sabe-se que não há medicamento capaz de interferir no curso da doença e as pesquisas para o tratamento da DA têm sido marcadas pelo surgimento e abandono de novas drogas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as drogas capazes de influenciar o curso da DA que têm sido estudadas para o tratamento da doença. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa de artigos originais publicados mundialmente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma busca sistematizada nas bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library/Cochrane e SciELO/Bireme. Cada um dos seguintes descritores "Mecanismos Moleculares de Ação Farmacológica" e "Quimioterapia" foram combinados com o descritor "Doença de Alzheimer", todos encontrados no MeSH e DeCS. Os descritores foram usados sozinhos ou em combinação, fixando como filtros as publicações de 2009 a 2015, em língua inglesa, espanhola e portuguesa. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 6.888 artigos, dos quais 37 foram incluídos nesta revisão; 70,3% dos artigos selecionados tiveram boa qualidade com baixo ou indefinido risco de viés. Foram elencadas 86 drogas promissoras ao tratamento da AD. Elas foram classificadas em 20 categorias farmacológicas. CONCLUSÃO: Não há fármacos capazes de interferir no curso da DA com efetividade e segurança no tratamento. Contudo, os imunomoduladores foram considerados promissores devido ao fato de apresentarem efetividade e qualidade nos artigos analisados. <![CDATA[Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical artery - case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400355&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Umbilical cord thrombosis is related to greater fetal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is usually associated with umbilical cord abnormalities that lead to mechanical compression with consequent vascular ectasia. Its correct diagnosis and clinical management remains a challenge that has not yet been resolved. CASE REPORT: This study reports a case of umbilical artery thrombosis that occurred in the second half of a pregnancy. The umbilical cord was long, thin and overly twisted and the fetus presented severe intrauterine growth restriction. The clinical and histopathological findings from this case are described. CONCLUSIONS: This case report emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing and clinically managing abnormalities of intrauterine life with a high chance of perinatal complications.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO: A trombose do cordão umbilical está relacionada com o aumento da morbimortalidade fetal e perinatal. É geralmente associada a alterações do cordão umbilical que levam à compressão mecânica com consequente ectasia vascular. Seu correto diagnóstico e manejo clínico é um desafio que não está ainda bem esclarecido. RELATO DE CASO: Neste relato se descreve caso de trombose da artéria umbilical de ocorrência na segunda metade da gravidez associada a cordão umbilical longo, fino, excessivamente retorcido, associado a feto com restrição de crescimento intrauterino grave. São descritos seus achados clínicos e histopatológicos correlacionados. CONCLUSÃO: Este relato de caso reforça a dificuldade diagnóstica e de manejo clínico em alteração da vida intrauterina com grande possibilidade de complicações perinatais. <![CDATA[Splenic diffuse red-pulp small B-cell lymphoma associated with hepatitis B virus: a report of two cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400359&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Splenic diffuse red-pulp small B-cell lymphoma is a rare disease, representing less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). This entity is characterized by involvement of bone marrow sinusoids and peripheral blood. The majority of cases are at an advanced stage when diagnosed. Its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. CASE REPORTS: We report on two patients with chronic non-replicating hepatitis B virus (HBV) who developed splenic diffuse red-pulp small B-cell lymphoma. Both of them were in stage IV at diagnosis and evolved with aggressive disease. Both of them achieved a complete response through chemotherapy, but one of them died due to infectious complications during bone marrow transplantation. The other decided not to undergo transplantation and continues not to show any evidence of disease today (three years after treatment). Some studies have shown a possible association between B-cell NHL and HBV. Nonetheless, the mechanism through which this oncogenic virus interacts with B-cell NHL is still poorly understood. HBV is lymphotropic and may insert into the host's genome, thus causing overexpression of oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressor genes. Therefore, chronic stimulation by HBV can increase B-cell proliferation, which promotes monoclonal expansion of these cells and results in malignancy. CONCLUSION: HBV may be implicated in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma, although no direct association between these two entities could be proved in the present study. Further investigations are necessary.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO: Linfoma esplênico difuso da polpa vermelha, de linfócitos B pequenos, é uma doença rara, representando menos do que 1% de todos os linfomas não Hodgkin. Essa entidade é caracterizada por envolvimento de sinusoides da medula óssea e sangue periférico. A maioria dos casos está em estádio avançado ao diagnóstico. Sua patogênese ainda é pouco compreendida. RELATOS DE CASOS: Reportamos dois pacientes com vírus da hepatite B (HBV) crônica não replicante que desenvolveram linfoma esplênico difuso da polpa vermelha, de linfócitos B pequenos. Ambos estavam em estádio IV ao diagnóstico e evoluíram com doença agressiva. Ambos alcançaram resposta completa com a quimioterapia, porém um deles evoluiu a óbito por intercorrências infecciosas durante o transplante de medula óssea e o outro optou por não realizar o transplante e encontra-se sem evidência de doença até os dias atuais (três anos após tratamento). Alguns estudos demonstraram a possível associação entre linfomas não Hodgkin B e HBV. Entretanto, o mecanismo pelo qual esse vírus oncogênico interage com linfoma não Hodgkin B ainda é pouco compreendido. HBV é linfotrópico e pode se inserir no genoma do receptor, causando superexpressão de oncogenes e downregulation de genes supressores tumorais. Portanto, o estímulo crônico pelo HBV pode aumentar a proliferação de células B, promovendo expansão monoclonal dessas células, resultando em malignidade. CONCLUSÃO: HBV pode estar implicado na patogênese desse linfoma, entretanto, uma associação direta entre essas duas entidades não pôde ser provada no presente estudo e investigações adicionais são necessárias. <![CDATA[Pilates for low back pain]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400366&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. METHODS: Search methods: We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. Selection criteria: We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Data collection and analysis: Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) &lt; 10% of the scale), medium (MD 10% to 20% of the scale) or large (MD &gt; 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used MAIN RESULTS: The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias. A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is low quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared with minimal intervention, with a medium effect size at short-term follow-up (less than three months after randomization) (MD -14.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -18.91 to -9.19). For intermediate-term follow-up (at least three months but less than 12 months after randomization), two trials provided moderate quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared to minimal intervention, with a medium effect size (MD -10.54, 95% CI -18.46 to -2.62). Based on five trials, there is low quality evidence that Pilates improves disability compared with minimal intervention, with a small effect size at short-term follow-up (MD -7.95, 95% CI -13.23 to -2.67), and moderate quality evidence for an intermediate-term effect with a medium effect size (MD -11.17, 95% CI -18.41 to -3.92). Based on one trial and low quality evidence, a significant short-term effect with a small effect size was reported for function (MD 1.10, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.97) and global impression of recovery (MD 1.50, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.30), but not at intermediate-term follow-up for either outcome. Four trials compared Pilates to other exercises. For the outcome pain, we presented the results as a narrative synthesis due to the high level of heterogeneity. At short-term follow-up, based on low quality evidence, two trials demonstrated a significant effect in favour of Pilates and one trial did not find a significant difference. At intermediate-term follow-up, based on low quality evidence, one trial reported a significant effect in favour of Pilates, and one trial reported a non-significant difference for this comparison. For disability, there is moderate quality evidence that there is no significant difference between Pilates and other exercise either in the short term (MD -3.29, 95% CI -6.82 to 0.24) or in the intermediate term (MD -0.91, 95% CI -5.02 to 3.20) based on two studies for each comparison. Based on low quality evidence and one trial, there was no significant difference in function between Pilates and other exercises at short-term follow-up (MD 0.10, 95% CI -2.44 to 2.64), but there was a significant effect in favour of other exercises for intermediate-term function, with a small effect size (MD -3.60, 95% CI -7.00 to -0.20). Global impression of recovery was not assessed in this comparison and none of the trials included quality of life outcomes. Two trials assessed adverse events in this review, one did not find any adverse events, and another reported minor events. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any high quality evidence for any of the treatment comparisons, outcomes or follow-up periods investigated. However, there is low to moderate quality evidence that Pilates is more effective than minimal intervention for pain and disability. When Pilates was compared with other exercises we found a small effect for function at intermediate-term follow-up. Thus, while there is some evidence for the effectiveness of Pilates for low back pain, there is no conclusive evidence that it is superior to other forms of exercises. The decision to use Pilates for low back pain may be based on the patient's or care provider's preferences, and costs. <![CDATA[Yoga for asthma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000400368&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy, yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma. METHODS: Search methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched PEDro. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP search portal. We searched all databases from their inception to 22 July 2015, and used no restriction on language of publication. We checked the reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles for additional studies. We attempted to contact investigators of eligible studies and experts in the field to learn of other published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared yoga with usual care (or no intervention) or sham intervention in people with asthma and reported at least one of the following outcomes: quality of life, asthma symptom score, asthma control, lung function measures, asthma medication usage, and adverse events. Data collection and analysis: We extracted bibliographic information, characteristics of participants, characteristics of interventions and controls, characteristics of methodology, and results for the outcomes of our interest from eligible studies. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to denote the treatment effects, if the outcomes were measured by the same scale across studies. Alternatively, if the outcomes were measured by different scales across studies, we used standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI to measure the treatment effects. We performed meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.3. We used the fixed-effect model to pool the data, unless there was substantial heterogeneity among studies, in which case we used the random-effects model instead. For outcomes inappropriate or impossible to pool quantitatively, we conducted a descriptive analysis and summarized the findings narratively. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs with a total of 1048 participants. Most of the trials were conducted in India, followed by Europe and the United States. The majority of participants were adults of both sexes with mild to moderate asthma for six months to more than 23 years. Five studies included yoga breathing alone, while the other studies assessed yoga interventions that included breathing, posture, and meditation. Interventions lasted from two weeks to 54 months, for no more than six months in the majority of studies. The risk of bias was low across all domains in one study and unclear or high in at least one domain for the remainder. There was some evidence that yoga may improve quality of life (MD in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score per item 0.57 units on a 7-point scale, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77; 5 studies; 375 participants), improve symptoms (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.65; 3 studies; 243 participants), and reduce medication usage (RR 5.35, 95% CI 1.29 to 22.11; 2 studies) in people with asthma. The MD for AQLQ score exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 0.5, but whether the mean changes exceeded the MCID for asthma symptoms is uncertain due to the lack of an established MCID in the severity scores used in the included studies. The effects of yoga on change from baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (MD 0.04 liters, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.19; 7 studies; 340 participants; I2 = 68%) were not statistically significant. Two studies indicated improved asthma control, but due to very significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98%) we did not pool data. No serious adverse events associated with yoga were reported, but the data on this outcome was limited. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that yoga probably leads to small improvements in quality of life and symptoms in people with asthma. There is more uncertainty about potential adverse effects of yoga and its impact on lung function and medication usage. RCTs with a large sample size and high methodological and reporting quality are needed to confirm the effects of yoga for asthma