Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-318020160006&lang=en vol. 134 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Knowing for whom the bell tolls: acting locally and thinking globally. Brazil, Latin America and the Global Burden of Diseases, 2015]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600469&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetic patients using metformin: a cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600473&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency varies from 5.8% to 30% among patients undergoing long-term treatment with metformin. Because of the paucity of data on Brazilian patients, this study aimed to determine the frequency of B12 deficiency and related factors among Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using metformin. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a public university hospital. METHODS: Patients with T2DM and a control group of non-diabetics were included. Serum B12 levels were measured and biochemical B12 deficiency was defined as serum levels &lt; 180 pg/ml. Associations between B12 deficiency and age, duration of T2DM, duration of use and dosage of metformin, and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine H2 antagonists were determined. RESULTS: 231 T2DM patients using metformin (T2DM-met) and 231 controls were included. No difference in the frequency of PPI or H2-antagonist use was seen between the groups. B12 deficiency was more frequent in the T2DM-met group (22.5% versus 7.4%) and this difference persisted after excluding PPI/H2-antagonist users (17.9% versus 5.6%). The factors that interfered with serum B12 levels were PPI/H2-antagonist use and duration of metformin use ≥ 10 years. Use of PPI/H2-antagonists was associated with B12 deficiency, with an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.34-5.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among T2DM patients, treatment with metformin and concomitant use of PPI/H2-antagonists are associated with a higher chance of developing B12 deficiency than among non-diabetics.<hr/>RESUMO: CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 varia de 5,8% a 30% nos pacientes em tratamento a longo prazo com metformina. Devido à escassez de dados em pacientes brasileiros, este estudo determinou a frequência de deficiência de B12 e fatores relacionados em pacientes brasileiros com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) usando metformina. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal em hospital público universitário. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com DM2 e um grupo controle de não diabéticos foram incluídos. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram dosados e deficiência bioquímica de B12 foi definida como níveis séricos &lt; 180 pg/ml. Foi investigada a associação entre deficiência de B12 e idade, duração do DM2, duração do uso e dose de metformina, uso de inibidores de bomba de prótons (IBP) ou antagonistas dos receptores histamínicos H2 (antagonistas-H2). RESULTADOS: 231 pacientes DM2 usando metformina (DM2-met) e 231 controles foram incluídos. Não houve diferença na frequência de uso de IBP/antagonistas-H2 entre os grupos. Deficiência de B12 foi mais frequente no grupo DM2-met (22,5% versus 7,4%) e essa diferença persistiu após exclusão dos usuários de IBP/antagonistas-H2 (17,9% versus 5,6%). Fatores que interferiram nos níveis séricos de B12 foram: uso de IBP/antagonistas-H2 e duração do uso de metformina ≥ 10 anos. O uso de IBP/antagonistas-H2 associou-se com deficiência de B12, com um risco relativo de 2,60 (95% intervalo de confiança, 1,34-5,04). CONCLUSÕES: Considerando pacientes com DM2, o tratamento com metformina e uso concomitante de IBP/antagonistas-H2 estão associados com maior chance de desenvolver deficiência de B12 quando comparado aos não diabéticos. <![CDATA[Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600480&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P &lt; 0.001) and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P &lt; 0.001). Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P &lt; 0.001). A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P &lt; 0.001) was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Rinoplastia é uma das operações mais procuradas por indivíduos com o transtorno dismórfico corporal. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar culturalmente e validar a Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo de validação cultural desenvolvido no ambulatório de cirurgia plástica de um hospital universitário público. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pacientes consecutivos de ambos os gêneros que desejavam submeter-se à rinoplastia foram selecionados entre fevereiro de 2014 e março de 2015. Trinta pacientes participaram da fase de adaptação cultural do instrumento. A reprodutibilidade foi testada em 20 pacientes e a validade de construto em 50 pacientes, correlacionando-se a escala com a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale para transtorno dismórfico corporal. RESULTADOS: A versão brasileira do instrumento mostrou alfa de Cronbach de 0,805 e excelente reprodutibilidade interobservador (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, CCI = 0,873; P &lt; 0,001) e intraobservador (CCI = 0,939; P &lt; 0,001). Houve diferença significante entre os escores totais de pacientes com e sem sintomas (P &lt; 0,001). Observou-se forte correlação (r = 0,841; P &lt; 0,001) entre a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale para transtorno dismórfico corporal e a Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. A área sob a curva característica de operação do receptor (ROC) foi de 0,981, revelando boa acurácia para discriminar a presença de sintomas para transtorno dismórfico corporal; 46% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal e 54% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos moderados a graves relacionados com a aparência. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira da Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale é um instrumento reprodutível que apresenta validade de face, conteúdo e construto. <![CDATA[Medication and nutritional supplement use before and after bariatric surgery]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600491&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery has been an effective alternative treatment for morbid obesity and has resulted in decreased mortality, better control over comorbidities and reduced use of drugs. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on medication drug and nutritional supplement use. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study of before-and-after type, on 69 morbidly obese patients in a public hospital in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Through interviews, the presence of comorbidities and use of drugs with and without prescription were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 69 patients interviewed, 85.5% had comorbidities in the preoperative period, with an average of 2.3 (± 1.5) per patient. The main comorbidities reported were hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. 84.1% of the patients were using prescribed drugs in the preoperative period. The mean drug use per patient was 4.8, which decreased to 4.4 after the procedure. The surgery enabled significant reduction in use of most antidiabetic (84%), antilipemic (77%) and antihypertensive drugs (49.5%). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in use of multivitamins and drugs for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The dosages of most of the drugs that continued to be prescribed after surgery were decreased, but not significantly. CONCLUSION: After bariatric surgery, there were increases in the use of vitamins, gastric antisecretory drugs and antianemic drugs. Nevertheless, there was an overall reduction in drug use during this period, caused by suspension of drugs or dose reduction.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A cirurgia bariátrica tem sido uma alternativa efetiva de tratamento para a obesidade mórbida, resultando na diminuição da mortalidade, melhor controle das comorbidades e redução no uso de medicamentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o impacto da cirurgia bariátrica sobre a utilização de medicamentos e suplementos nutricionais. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo longitudinal do tipo antes e depois com 69 pacientes obesos mórbidos em um hospital público de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Nas entrevistas, foram avaliados a presença de comorbidades e o uso de medicamentos com e sem prescrição médica. RESULTADOS: De 69 pacientes entrevistados, 85,5% apresentaram comorbidades no período pré-cirúrgico, média de 2,3 (± 1,5) por paciente. As principais comorbidades relatadas foram hipertensão, diabetes e dislipidemias. 84,1% dos pacientes estavam em uso de medicamentos sob prescrição médica, no período pré-cirúrgico. A média de uso de medicamentos por paciente foi de 4,8, reduzindo para 4,4 após o procedimento. A cirurgia proporcionou diminuição significativa do uso da maioria dos antidiabéticos (84%), antilipêmicos (77%) e anti-hipertensivos (49,5%). Por outro lado, observou-se aumento significativo na utilização de multivitamínicos e medicamentos para desordens do trato gastrointestinal. A maior parte dos medicamentos que continuaram sendo prescritos após a cirurgia teve sua dose reduzida, no entanto, esta redução não foi significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Após a cirurgia bariátrica, observou-se aumento na utilização de vitaminas, antisecretores gástricos e antianêmicos. No entanto, de forma geral, houve redução na utilização de medicamentos neste período, ocasionada pela suspensão de medicamentos ou redução de doses. <![CDATA[Frequency of pain and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The pursuit of perfection can cause anxiety and lead dancers to exceed their physical limits. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of pain symptoms and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study; Curitiba, PR, Brazil. METHODS: Data on 150 professional and non-professional practitioners of ballet, jazz and street dance were collected through specific questionnaires: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-T-6 (STAI-T-6). RESULTS: Pain was observed in 58.6% of the sample, equally between professionals and amateurs (P = 0.19). Ballet dancers had more lower-limb pain than the other groups (P = 0.05). EAT-26 showed a tendency towards more eating disorders among the amateurs (P = 0.06). Higher risk of eating disorders was found among ballet dancers (P = 0.004) and jazz practitioners (P = 0.02) than among street dancers. Amateurs had more symptoms on the BITE scale (P &lt; 0.0001), more pain (P = 0.002) and higher anxiety (P &lt; 0.0001). Eating disorders were more common among females (P = 0.01) and singles (P = 0.02). Professionals were more satisfied with their own body image than amateurs (P &lt; 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pain symptoms were found in almost half of the sample, equally among professionals and amateurs as well as between the three dance styles. Female and singles had more eating disorders. Those with eating disorders had higher levels of pain and anxiety.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Buscar a perfeição pode causar ansiedade e levar bailarinos a ultrapassar seus limites físicos. O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência de sintomas dolorosos e distúrbios alimentares entre bailarinos profissionais e amadores. TIPO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal observacional; Curitiba, PR, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dados de 150 praticantes profissionais e não profissionais de ballet, jazz e street dance foram coletados por meio de questionários específicos: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE) e State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-T-6 (STAI-T-6). RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se dor em 58,6% da amostra, igualmente entre profissionais e amadores (P = 0,19). Praticantes de ballet tinham mais dor em membros inferiores que os demais (P = 0,05). No EAT- 26, encontrou-se uma tendência para mais transtornos alimentares entre os amadores (P = 0,06). Alto risco para transtornos alimentares apareceu naqueles que praticavam o ballet (P = 0,004) e jazz (P = 0,02) mais do que street dance ; amadores tinham mais sintomas no BITE (P &lt; 0,0001), mais dor (P = 0,002) e ansiedade (P &lt; 0,0001). Transtornos alimentares foram mais comuns em mulheres (P = 0,01) e solteiros (P = 0,02). Bailarinos profissionais estavam mais satisfeitos com sua imagem corporal do que amadores (P &lt; 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Encontrou-se sintomatologia dolorosa em quase metade da amostra, tanto em bailarinos profissionais como amadores, bem como nos três estilos de dança. Mulheres e pessoas solteiras tiveram mais transtornos alimentares. Aqueles com distúrbios alimentares tinham níveis mais elevados de dor e ansiedade. <![CDATA[A five-year review of vertical HIV transmission in a specialized service: cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600508&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals need to instill the process of prevention, control and treatment of people infected with HIV into care practice. Through maintaining preventive treatment among HIV-infected pregnant women, it has been demonstrated that prophylactic antiretroviral therapy, scheduled cesarean section and the prohibition of breastfeeding significantly reduce vertical HIV transmission. This study aimed to assess the rates of vertical HIV transmission in a specialized service and identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (RS), Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 198 notification forms and medical records of HIV-positive pregnant women and exposed children. RESULTS: The vertical transmission rate was 2.4%, and three children had been infected by vertical HIV transmission. The statistically significant risk factor was the use of injectable drugs. Delayed reporting of pregnancy, absence of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, lack of proper prenatal care, incapacity to perform viral load detection tests and CD4+ T cell counts and obstetric and maternal clinical complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The vertical transmission rate was high and the recommended intervention measures were not adopted in full. Adequate prophylactic measures need to be implemented in HIV-positive pregnant women prenatally and during the antenatal, delivery and postpartum periods.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Os profissionais de saúde precisam introduzir o processo de prevenção, controle e tratamento das pessoas infectadas com HIV na prática assistencial. Manter o tratamento preventivo em gestantes infectadas pelo HIV demonstra que a terapia antirretroviral profilática, a cesariana programada e a proibição da amamentação reduzem significativamente a transmissão vertical do HIV. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar as taxas de transmissão vertical do HIV em um serviço especializado e identificar os fatores associados. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal desenvolvido no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (RS), Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal foi conduzido utilizando amostra de 198 fichas de notificação e prontuários de mulheres grávidas HIV-positivas e crianças expostas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 2,4%, e três crianças foram infectadas por transmissão vertical do HIV. O fator de risco estatisticamente significativo foi o uso de drogas injetáveis. Comunicação tardia da gravidez, ausência de terapia antirretroviral durante a gravidez, falta de cuidados pré-natais adequados, incapacidade de realizar testes virais de detecção de carga e contagem de células T CD4+ e complicações clínicas obstétricas e maternas foram relatadas. CONCLUSÕES: A taxa de transmissão vertical foi elevada e medidas de intervenção recomendadas não foram adotadas na íntegra. Medidas profiláticas adequadas precisam ser implementadas em mulheres grávidas HIV-positivas no pré-natal e durante os períodos pré-natal, intraparto e pós-parto. <![CDATA[Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography compared with biopsy for evaluating hepatic fibrosis after liver transplantation: a cross-sectional diagnostic study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600513&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Biopsies are used after liver transplantation to evaluate fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the elasticity of transplanted livers by means of a non-invasive examination, acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) elastography, correlating the results with the histological analysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: All patients consecutively operated between 2002 and 2010 with an indication for biopsy were evaluated by means of elastography. The radiologist evaluating ARFI and the pathologist doing anatomopathological examinations were blinded to each other's evaluations. RESULTS: During the study period, 33 patients were included. The indication for transplantation was cirrhosis due to hepatitis C in 21 cases (63%). Liver biopsies showed absence of fibrosis (F0) in 10 patients, F1 in 11, F2 in 8 and F3 in 4. There were no cases of F4 (cirrhosis). The difference in ARFI values (degree of fibrosis) was 0.26 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.52) between the groups F0-F1 and F2-F4 (P = 0.04). An area under the curve of 0.74 (CI: 0.55-0.94) and a cutoff of 1.29 m/s between the groups resulted in the best relationship between sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity (0.66; CI: 0.50-0.83) was lower than specificity (0.85; CI: 0.72-0.97). There was no significant difference in ARFI between patients with hepatitis C and those with other diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The values obtained from elastography were not affected by inflammatory reaction or anatomical alterations. A cutoff point of 1.29 m/s separating patients with or without significant fibrosis was identified.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Biópsias são utilizadas para avaliar fibrose após transplante de fígado. O estudo objetivou avaliar a elasticidade hepática após transplante por meio de um exame não invasivo, a elastografia ARFI (acoustic radiation force imaging ), correlacionando-a com a análise histológica. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal em hospital público universitário. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes consecutivamente operados entre 2002 e 2010, com indicação para biópsia, foram avaliados por elastografia. O radiologista avaliando ARFI e o patologista fazendo exames anatomopatológicos estavam cegos para as avaliações um do outro. RESULTADOS: No período do estudo, 33 pacientes foram incluídos. A indicação para o transplante foi cirrose por hepatite C em 21 (63%). As biópsias mostraram ausência de fibrose (F0) em 10 pacientes, F1 em 11, F2 em 8, F3 em 4 e nenhum caso de F4 (cirrose). A diferença nos valores de ARFI (grau de fibrose) foi de 0,26 (intervalo de confiança, IC, de 95%: 0,07-0,52) entre os grupos F0-F1 e F2-F4 (P = 0,04). A área sob a curva de 0,74 (IC: 0,55-0,94) e o valor de corte de 1,29 m/s entre os grupos resultaram na melhor relação entre sensibilidade e especificidade, de 0,57. A sensibilidade (0,66; IC: 0,50-0,83) foi menor que a especificidade (0,85; IC: 0,72-0,97). Não houve diferença significativa em ARFI entre pacientes com hepatite C e aqueles com outras doenças. CONCLUSÕES: Os valores obtidos com a elastografia não foram afetados por reação inflamatória ou alterações anatômicas. Foi identificado ponto de corte de 1,29 m/s que separa pacientes com ou sem fibrose significativa. <![CDATA[Cutoffs and cardiovascular risk factors associated with neck circumference among community-dwelling elderly adults: a cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600519&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In elderly people, measurement of several anthropometric parameters may present complications. Although neck circumference measurements seem to avoid these issues, the cutoffs and cardiovascular risk factors associated with this parameter among elderly people remain unknown. This study was developed to identify the cutoff values and cardiovascular risk factors associated with neck circumference measurements among elderly people. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in two community centers for elderly people. METHODS: 435 elderly adults (371 women and 64 men) were recruited. These volunteers underwent morphological evaluations (body mass index and waist, hip, and neck circumferences) and hemodynamic evaluations (blood pressure values and heart rate). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the predictive validity of cutoff values for neck circumference, for identifying overweight/obesity. Multivariate analysis was used to identify cardiovascular risk factors associated with large neck circumference. RESULTS: Cutoff values for neck circumference (men = 40.5 cm and women = 35.7 cm), for detection of obese older adults according to body mass index, were identified. After a second analysis, large neck circumference was shown to be associated with elevated body mass index in men; and elevated body mass index, blood pressure values, prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in women. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that neck circumference can be used as a screening tool to identify overweight/obesity in older people. Moreover, large neck circumference values may be associated with cardiovascular risk factors.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Em idosos, diversas ferramentas antropométricas podem apresentar complicações durante a mensuração. Embora a circunferência do pescoço pareça evitar tais problemas, os pontos de corte e fatores de risco cardiovascular associados a essa ferramenta em idosos permanecem desconhecidos. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para identificar os valores de ponto de corte e fatores de risco cardiovascular associados à circunferência do pescoço em idosos. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal, realizado em dois centros comunitários para idosos. MÉTODOS: 435 idosos (371 mulheres e 64 homens) foram recrutados. Os voluntários foram submetidos a avaliação morfológica (índice de massa corporal e cintura, quadril, e circunferência do pescoço) e hemodinâmica (valores da pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca). A análise pela curva receiver operating characteristic foi usada para determinar o valor preditivo dos valores de ponto de corte da circunferência do pescoço para identificação de sobrepeso/obesidade. Análise multivariada foi usada para identificar os fatores de risco cardiovascular associados com circunferência do pescoço larga. RESULTADOS: Os valores de corte para circunferência do pescoço (homens = 40,5 cm e mulheres = 35,7 cm) para detectar adultos idosos obesos, de acordo com o índice de massa corporal, foram identificados. Depois da segunda análise, circunferência do pescoço larga foi associada com elevado índice de massa corporal em homens e mulheres e elevados valores de pressão arterial, prevalência de diabetes mellitus tipo II e hipertensão em mulheres. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados indicam que a circunferência do pescoço pode ser utilizada como ferramenta de rastreio para identificar sobrepeso/obesidade em idosos. Ademais, altos valores de circunferência do pescoço podem estar associados com fatores de risco cardiovascular. <![CDATA[Human immunodeficiency virus in institutionalized elderly people]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600528&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0.8 x 0.2 or 0.3. RESULTS: Four men were HIV-positive, with mean age 71.2 ± 8.6 years, LTCI stay 74.2 ± 38.1 months and length of HIV diagnosis 24.5 ± 17 months (confirmed by HICC standard screening). Three had stroke sequelae; one, dementia syndrome; two, seropositivity for syphilis; two, hepatitis B and one, hepatitis C. The main drugs used were lamivudine, zidovudine, lopinavir, ritonavir, levothyroxine, omeprazole, ranitidine, lactulose and risperidone. The estimated CD4 count was 341 ± 237/mm3. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive individuals are present in LTCIs, diagnosable through serological screening and treatable with antiretroviral drugs.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Busca nos portais SciELO e PubMed encontrou poucos estudos sobre indivíduos positivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) em instituições de longa permanência para idosos (ILPIs), fato este que justifica o presente estudo. O objetivo foi verificar se há soropositivos para o HIV em instituições de ILPIs. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal por consulta à Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH) de ILPI com 405 leitos. MÉTODOS: Solicitaram-se 405 prontuários de pacientes internados, nos quais se pesquisou sorologia reagente ao HIV para análise de: [1] idade e gênero; [2] período de internação na ILPI (meses); [3] causa(s) e diagnósticos à internação na ILPI pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10a edição; [4] data do diagnóstico do HIV; [5] soropositividade para sífilis e vírus da hepatite B e C; [6] medicamentos em uso na última prescrição no prontuário; e [7] média de linfócitos CD4 baseada em: número total de linfócitos/6 e número total de linfócitos x 0,8 x 0,2 ou 0,3. RESULTADOS: Quatro homens eram HIV-positivos. Eles tinham 71,2 ± 8,6 anos de idade; 74,2 ± 38,1 meses na ILPI e 24,5 ± 17 meses de soropositividade (diagnósticos realizados como triagem padrão da CCIH). Havia sequelas de acidente vascular cerebral em 3 e síndrome demencial em 1; sorologias positivas para sífilis em 2, vírus hepatite B em 2 e C em 1. Os principais fármacos utilizados eram: lamivudina, zidovudina, lopinavir, ritonavir, levotiroxina, omeprazol, ranitidina, lactulona e risperidona. O CD4 foi estimado em 341 ± 237/mm3. CONCLUSÕES: Há soropositivos para o HIV em ILPIs, passíveis de diagnóstico em triagens sorológicas e de tratamento com antirretrovirais. <![CDATA[Targeting stroke risk and improving outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation in Latin America]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600534&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: To examine stroke risk factors, including atrial fibrillation, management and prevention, and stroke outcomes across Latin America. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at Piedmont Heart Institute, United States. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for stroke AND "Latin America" AND epidemiology (between January 2009 and March 2015). Further studies in the SciELO, World Health Organization and Pan-American Health Organization databases were used to address specific points. RESULTS: Countries categorized as low or middle-income nations by the World Bank, which includes most of Latin America, account for two-thirds of all strokes. Globally, fewer than half of patients (median treatment level: 43.9%) with atrial fibrillation receive adequate anticoagulation to reduce stroke risk, which correlates with data from Latin America, where 46% of outpatients did not receive guideline-compliant anticoagulation, ranging from 41.8% in Brazil to 54.8% in Colombia. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation-related stroke carries a heavy burden. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anti-coagulants provide options for reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation-related stroke. However, cost-effectiveness comparisons with warfarin are warranted before observational health-economics study results can be applied clinically. Initiatives to remedy inequalities and improve access to care across Latin America should accompany risk factor modification and guideline-based prevention.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Examinar os fatores de risco para acidente vascular cerebral (derrame), incluindo fibrilação atrial, manejo e prevenção, e desfechos do derrame na América Latina. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa da literatura, realizada no Instituto do Coração Piedmont, Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Os termos "derrame" E "América Latina" E epidemiologia (entre janeiro de 2009 e março de 2015) foram buscados nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Cochrane. Estudos adicionais nas bases de SciELO, Organização Mundial da Saúde e Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde foram utilizados para discutir pontos específicos. RESULTADOS: Os países classificados como de baixa ou média renda pelo Banco Mundial, que incluem a maior parte da América Latina, representam dois terços de todos os derrames. Mundialmente, menos da metade dos pacientes (nível de tratamento mediano: 43,9%) com fibrilação atrial recebe anticoagulação adequada para reduzir o risco de derrame, o que correlaciona com os dados da América Latina, onde 46% dos pacientes ambulatoriais não receberam anticoagulação conforme as diretrizes, variando de 41,8% no Brasil a 54,8% na Colômbia. CONCLUSÕES: Derrames associados à fibrilação atrial impõem um ônus significativo. Anticoagulantes orais antagônicos sem vitamina K oferecem opções de redução do risco de derrames associados a fibrilação atrial. No entanto, comparações do custo-benefício com varfarina são justificáveis antes da aplicação clínica de resultados dos estudos observacionais relativos à economia da saúde. Iniciativas para solucionar diferenças e melhorar o acesso aos cuidados médicos na América Latina devem acompanhar a modificação dos fatores de risco e a prevenção baseada em orientações. <![CDATA["EMMA Study: a Brazilian community-based cohort study of stroke mortality and morbidity"]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600543&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stroke has a high burden of disability and mortality. The aim here was to evaluate epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis for stroke in the EMMA Study (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity). DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective community-based cohort carried out in Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, 2006-2014. METHODS: Stroke data based on fatal and non-fatal events were assessed, including sociodemographic data, mortality and predictors, which were evaluated by means of logistic regression and survival analyses. RESULTS: Stroke subtype was better defined in the hospital setting than in the local community. In the hospital phase, around 70% were first events and the ischemic subtype. Among cerebrovascular risk factors, the frequency of alcohol intake was higher in hemorrhagic stroke (HS) than in ischemic stroke (IS) cases (35.4% versus 12.3%, P &lt; 0.001). Low education was associated with higher risk of death, particularly after six months among IS cases (odds ratio, OR, 4.31; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.34-13.91). The risk of death due to hemorrhagic stroke was greater than for ischemic stroke and reached its maximum 10 days after the event (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.55-7.05). Four-year survival analysis on 665 cases of first stroke (82.6% ischemic and 17.4% hemorrhagic) showed an overall survival rate of 48%. At four years, the highest risks of death were in relation to ischemic stroke and illiteracy (hazard ratio, HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.68) and diabetes (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.97). Major depression presented worse one-year survival (HR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.36-15.55). CONCLUSION: Over the long term, the EMMA database will provide additional information for planning resources destined for the public healthcare system.<hr/>RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) tem alta carga de incapacidade e mortalidade. Objetivou-se avaliar a epidemiologia, fatores de risco e prognóstico do AVC no Estudo EMMA (Estudo da Mortalidade e Morbidade do AVC). TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo longitudinal prospectivo de base comunitária conduzido em hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Dados sobre AVC baseados em eventos fatais e não fatais foram avaliados, incluindo dados sociodemográficos, mortalidade e preditores, por meio de regressão logística e análises de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: O subtipo de AVC foi melhor definido no ambiente hospitalar do que na comunidade local. Na fase hospitalar, cerca de 70% eram eventos primários e do subtipo isquêmico. Entre os fatores de risco cerebrovascular, a frequência de ingestão de álcool foi mais alta no AVC hemorrágico comparado com o isquêmico (35,4% versus 12,3%, P &lt; 0,001). O risco de morte depois de AVC hemorrágico foi maior que o do AVC isquêmico e este gradiente foi máximo aos 10 dias após o evento (razão das chances, 3,31; intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%: 1,55-7,05). Análise de sobrevivência em 4 anos com 665 casos de AVC primário (82,6% AVC isquêmico e 17,4% AVC hemorrágico) demonstrou taxa de sobrevida global de 48%. Aos 4 anos, maiores riscos de morte foram para casos de AVC isquêmico e pacientes analfabetos (hazard ratio, HR: 1,83; 95% IC: 1,26-2,68) ou com diabetes (HR:1,45; IC 95%: 1,07-1,97). ­Casos com depressão maior apresentaram pior sobrevida de 1 ano (HR: 4,60; IC 95%: 1,36-15,55). CONCLUSÃO: Em longo prazo, dados do EMMA fornecerão informações adicionais para planejamento de recursos destinados ao sistema de saúde público. <![CDATA[Statins for aortic valve stenosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600555&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO) was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants) with placebo (1175 participants). We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD) -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2), valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2), and aortic jet velocity (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.14; participants = 155; study = 1). Moderate-quality evidence showed no effect on freedom from valve replacement with statins (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06; participants = 2360; studies = 4), and no effect on muscle pain as an adverse event (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.09; participants = 2204; studies = 3; moderate-quality evidence). Low- and very low-quality evidence showed uncertainty around the effect of statins on death from cardiovascular cause (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.15; participants = 2297; studies = 3; low-quality evidence) and hospitalization for any reason (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.84; participants = 155; study = 1; very low-quality evidence). None of the four included studies reported on overall mortality and patient quality of life. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: Result findings showed uncertainty surrounding the effect of statins for aortic valve stenosis. The quality of evidence from the reported outcomes ranged from moderate to very low. These results give support to European and USA guidelines (2012 and 2014, respectively) that so far there is no clinical treatment option for aortic valve stenosis. <![CDATA[Immediate versus delayed treatment for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802016000600557&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The timing of surgery for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis remains controversial. Early cerebral revascularization may prevent a disabling or fatal ischemic recurrence, but it may also increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation, or of dislodging a thrombus. This review examined the randomized controlled evidence that addressed whether the increased risk of recurrent events outweighed the increased benefit of an earlier intervention. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risks and benefits of performing very early cerebral revascularization (within two days) compared with delayed treatment (after two days) for people with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register in January 2016, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to 26 January 2016), EMBASE (1974 to 26 January 2016), LILACS (1982 to 26 January 2016), and trial registers (from inception to 26 January 2016). We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, and searched reference lists. There were no language restrictions. We contacted colleagues and pharmaceutical companies to identify further studies and unpublished trials Selection criteria: All completed, truly randomized trials (RCT) that compared very early cerebral revascularization (within two days) with delayed treatment (after two days) for people with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Data collection and analysis: We independently selected trials for inclusion according to the above criteria, assessed risk of bias for each trial, and performed data extraction. We utilized an intention-to-treat analysis strategy. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one RCT that involved 40 participants, and addressed the timing of surgery for people with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. It compared very early surgery with surgery performed after 14 days of the last symptomatic event. The overall quality of the evidence was very low, due to the small number of participants from only one trial, and missing outcome data. We found no statistically significant difference between the effects of very early or delayed surgery in reducing the combined risk of stroke and death within 30 days of surgery (risk ratio (RR) 3.32; confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 29.23; very low-quality evidence), or the combined risk of perioperative death and stroke (RR 0.47; CI 0.14 to 1.58; very low-quality evidence). To date, no results are available to confirm the optimal timing for surgery. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no high-quality evidence available to support either very early or delayed cerebral revascularization after a recent ischemic stroke. Hence, further randomized trials to identify which patients should undergo very urgent revascularization are needed. Future studies should stratify participants by age group, sex, grade of ischemia, and degree of stenosis. Currently, there is one ongoing RCT that is examining the timing of cerebral revascularization.