Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-318020140005&lang=es vol. 132 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Smartphones and health promotion]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500259&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Icatibant, an inhibitor of bradykinin receptor 2, for hereditary angioedema attacks: prospective experimental single-cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500261&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent episodes of edema involving the skin, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. It can be lethal due to asphyxia. The aim here was to evaluate the response to therapy for these attacks using icatibant, an inhibitor of the bradykinin receptor, which was recently introduced into Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective experimental single-cohort study on the efficacy and safety of icatibant for HAE patients. METHODS: Patients with a confirmed HAE diagnosis were enrolled according to symptoms and regardless of the time since onset of the attack. Icatibant was administered in accordance with the protocol that has been approved in Brazil. Symptom severity was assessed continuously and adverse events were monitored. RESULTS: 24 attacks in 20 HAE patients were treated (female/male 19:1; 19-55 years; median 29 years of age). The symptoms were: subcutaneous edema (22/24); abdominal pain (15/24) and upper airway obstruction (10/24). The time taken until onset of relief was: 5-10 minutes (5/24; 20.8%); 10-20 (5/24; 20.8%); 20-30 (8/24; 33.4%); 30-60 (5/24; 20.8%); and 2 hours (1/24; 4.3%). The time taken for complete resolution of symptoms ranged from 4.3 to 33.4 hours. Adverse effects were only reported at injection sites. Mild to moderate erythema and/or feelings of burning were reported by 15/24 patients, itching by 3 and no adverse effects in 6. CONCLUSION: HAE type I patients who received icatibant responded promptly; most achieved improved symptom severity within 30 minutes. Local adverse events occurred in 75% of the patients. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O angioedema hereditário (AEH) com deficiência de inibidor de C1 manifesta-se por episódios recorrentes de edema envolvendo pele, trato respiratório superior e gastrointestinal. Pode ser letal por asfixia. O objetivo foi avaliar a resposta à terapia dos ataques com icatibanto, inibidor do receptor de bradicinina, recentemente introduzido no Brasil. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo experimental prospectivo de coorte, sem grupo controle, da eficácia e segurança do icatibanto em paciente com AEH. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de AEH foram incluídos de acordo com os sintomas, independentemente do tempo de início do ataque. Icatibanto foi administrado segundo protocolo aprovado no Brasil. A gravidade do sintoma foi estabelecida continuamente e os eventos adversos foram monitorados. RESULTADOS: 24 ataques em 20 pacientes com AEH foram tratados (19 F:1 M; 19-55 anos; mediana 29 anos). Os sintomas foram: edema subcutâneo (22/24), dor abdominal (15/24) e obstrução de vias aéreas superiores (10/24). O tempo para o início do alívio foi: 5-10 minutos, 5/24 (20,8%); 10-20, 5/24 (20,8%); 20-30, 8/24 (33,4%); 30-60, 5/24 (20,8%) e 2 horas, 1/24 (4,3%). O tempo para a resolução completa variou de 4,3-33,4 horas. Somente efeitos adversos nos locais das injeções foram relatados. Eritema leve a moderado e/ou sensação de ardor foram relatados por 15/24 pacientes, prurido em 3, e 6 não tiveram efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com AEH tipo I receberam icatibanto com pronta resposta; a maioria teve melhora na gravidade dos sintomas em 30 minutos. Eventos adversos locais ocorreram em 75% dos pacientes. <![CDATA[Audiometric thresholds and auditory processing in children with early malnutrition: a retrospective cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500266&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is one of the causes of changes in cell metabolism. The inner ear has few energy reserves and high metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze whether malnutrition at an early age is related to impairment of auditory processing abilities and hearing abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: 45 children participated, divided as follows: G1, children diagnosed with malnutrition in their first two years of life; G2, children without history of malnutrition but with learning difficulties; G3, children without history of malnutrition and without learning difficulties. Tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry and the Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW) test (auditory processing) were performed. Statistical inferences were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 5%) and the test of equality of proportions between two samples (α = 1.7%). RESULTS: None of the 45 children participating in this study presented hearing deficiencies. However, at six of the eight frequencies analyzed, the children in G1 presented hearing thresholds lower than those of the other groups. In the auditory processing evaluation test, it was observed that 100% of the children in G1 presented abnormal auditory processing and that G1 and G2 had similar proportions of abnormalities (P-values: G1/G2 = 0.1; G1/G3 &gt; 0.001; G2/G3 = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition at an early age caused lowering of the hearing levels, although this impairment could not be considered to be a hearing deficiency. Every child in this group presented abnormalities in auditory processing abilities. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A subnutrição é uma das causas das alterações no metabolismo celular. A orelha interna possui poucas reservas energéticas e alto metabolismo. O objetivo deste estudo foi de analisar se a subnutrição em idade precoce está relacionada a prejuízos em habilidades do processamento auditivo e a alterações auditivas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo conduzido em hospital público terciário. MÉTODOS: Participaram 45 crianças divididas em: G1, crianças que tiveram o diagnóstico de subnutrição nos dois primeiros anos de vida; G2, crianças sem histórico de subnutrição, mas com dificuldades de aprendizagem; G3, crianças sem histórico de subnutrição e sem dificuldades escolares. Realizou-se a timpanometria, audiometria tonal limiar e o teste de SSW [Staggered Spondaic Word] (processamento auditivo). Para a inferência estatística, usou-se o Kruskal-Wallis (α = 5%) e o teste igualdade de proporções entre duas amostras (α = 1,7%). RESULTADOS: Nenhuma das 45 crianças participantes neste estudo apresentou deficiência auditiva, porém em seis das oito frequências avaliadas, as crianças do G1 apresentaram limiares auditivos rebaixados quando comparadas às de outros grupos. No teste que avaliou o processamento auditivo, constatou-se que 100% das crianças do G1 possuem alteração do processamento auditivo, e que G1 e G2 possuem proporção semelhante de presença de alterações (valor de P: G1/G2 = 0,1; G1/G3 = &gt; 0,001; G2/G3 = 0,008). CONCLUSÕES: A subnutrição em idade precoce causou rebaixamento nos níveis de audição, apesar de este prejuízo auditivo não ser considerado como deficiência auditiva. Todas as crianças deste grupo possuem alterações em habilidades do processamento auditivo. <![CDATA[Relationship between birth weight and overweight/obesity among students in Florian√≥polis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: a retrospective cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500273&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Being born heavier than 4 kg is associated with current overweight and obesity over the long term. The objective here was to ascertain whether birth weight was related to overweight or obese status, among 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, taking into consideration the possible interactions between socioeconomic factors and other biological variables. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study on a probabilistic sample of 2,696 children and adolescents living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: The following data were collected: anthropometric (student's weight, height and age; and parents' weight and height), socioeconomic (family income, number of people in house and parental schooling level), birth weight and gestational age. Overweight and obesity were classified using percentiles of body mass index and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The outcome variables were overweight and obesity and the main explanatory variables were birth weight and birth weight according to gestational age. The control variables were the parents' nutritional status, their schooling level and the per capita family income. Poisson multivariate regressions were carried out. RESULTS: Higher prevalence of high birth weight was observed among overweight male adolescents (PR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02-1.27; P = 0.03), but this was not observed among obese male adolescents. Low birth weight and being born small for gestational age were also not associated with the outcomes. Among overweight and obese children, birth weight was not significantly different from that of normal-weight children. CONCLUSION: No significant association between birth weight and obesity was observed. However, there was a weak but significant association between high birth weight and overweight, among male adolescents. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Nascer com peso &gt; 4 kg se associa a sobrepeso e/ou obesidade em longo prazo. O objetivo foi verificar se o peso ao nascer foi um fator relacionado ao estado de sobrepeso ou obesidade atuais, em escolares de 7-14 anos, levando em consideração interações possíveis com fatores socioeconômicos e outras variáveis biológicas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo coorte retrospectivo numa amostra probabilística de 2.696 crianças e adolescentes residentes em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados antropométricos (peso, estatura e idade dos escolares, peso e estatura dos pais), socioeconômicos (renda familiar, número de pessoas na casa, escolaridade dos pais) e de peso ao nascer e idade gestacional. Sobrepeso e obesidade foram definidos utilizando-se os percentis de índice de massa corporal e as dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular. Sobrepeso e obesidade foram desfechos, e peso ao nascer e peso ao nascer/por idade gestacional foram variáveis explanatórias principais. As variáveis de controle foram: estado nutricional dos pais, seu nível de escolaridade e renda familiar per capita. Foram realizadas regressões de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Nos adolescentes do sexo masculino com sobrepeso, houve maior prevalência de elevado peso ao nascer (RP = 1,14; 95% IC = 1,02-1,27; P = 0,03). Naqueles com obesidade, não foi observado o mesmo. Baixo peso ao nascer e nascer pequeno para a idade gestacional também não se associaram aos desfechos. Nas crianças com sobrepeso ou obesidade, o peso ao nascer não diferiu daquele entre as eutróficas. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observou associação significativa entre peso ao nascer e obesidade. Porém, houve associação significativa, ainda que fraca, entre elevado peso ao nascer e sobrepeso, nos adolescentes do sexo masculino. <![CDATA[Relationship between lower-limb muscle strength and functional independence among elderly people according to frailty criteria: a cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500282&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength and functional independence are considered to be determinants of frailty levels among elderly people. The aim here was to compare lower-limb muscle strength (LLMS) with functional independence in relation to sex, age and number of frailty criteria, and to ascertain the influence of these variables on elderly outpatients' independence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Quantitative cross-sectional study, in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted on 150 elderly outpatients of both sexes who were in a cognitive condition allowing oral communication, between October 2005 and October 2007. The following instruments were used: five-times sit-to-stand test (FTSST), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) and Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL). Descriptive, comparative, multivariate, univariate and Cronbach alpha analyses were performed. RESULTS: The mean time taken in the FTSST was 21.7 seconds; the mean score for FIM was 82.2 and for IADL was 21.2; 44.7% of the subjects presented 1-2 frailty criteria and 55.3% &gt; 3 criteria. There was a significant association between LLMS and functional independence in relation to the number of frailty criteria, without homogeneity regarding sex and age. Functional independence showed significant influence from sex and LLMS. CONCLUSION: Elderly individuals with 1 or 2 frailty criteria presented greater independence in all FTSST scores. The subjects with higher LLMS presented better functional independence. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A força muscular e a independência funcional são consideradas indicadores de níveis de fragilidade em idosos. O objetivo foi comparar a força muscular de membros inferiores (FM de MMII) com a independência funcional em função de sexo, idade e número de critérios de fragilidade e verificar a influência dessas variáveis na independência em idosos ambulatoriais. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal quantitativo, em hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado entre outubro de 2005 e outubro de 2007 com 150 idosos ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, com condições cognitivas suficientes para comunicação oral, sendo utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira cinco vezes consecutivas, Medida de Independência Funcional (MIFm) e Escala de Atividades Instrumentais (AIVDt) de Lawton. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, de comparação, multivariadas, univariadas e de alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio no teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira foi de 21,7 segundos, a pontuação média da MIFm de 82,2 e da AIVDt de 21,2; 44,7% dos sujeitos apresentaram 1-2 critérios de fragilidade e 55,3% &gt; 3 critérios. Houve associação significativa entre FM de MMII e independência funcional em função do número de critérios de fragilidade, sem homogeneidade em relação ao sexo e idade. A independência funcional sofreu influência significativa de sexo e FM de MMII. CONCLUSÕES: Os idosos com um ou dois critérios de fragilidade apresentaram melhor independência em todos os escores do teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira. Os sujeitos com maior FM de MMII apresentaram melhor independência funcional. <![CDATA[Nebivolol reduces central blood pressure in stage I hypertensive patients: experimental single cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500290&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of central blood pressure (BP) has grown substantially over recent years because evidence has shown that central BP is more relevant to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral BP. Thus, different classes of antihypertensive drugs have different effects on central BP despite similar reductions in brachial BP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nebivolol, a β-blocker with vasodilator properties, on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of hypertensive patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental single cohort study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR), central BP and augmentation index) before and after 3 months of using nebivolol. RESULTS: 88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm). There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020), diastolic BP (P = 0.0049), HR (P &lt; 0.0001) and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083) after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol use seems to be associated with significant reduction of central BP in stage I hypertensive patients, in addition to reductions in brachial systolic and diastolic BP. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: A avaliação da pressão arterial central (PAc) tem crescido substancialmente nos últimos anos porque as evidências mostraram que PAc central é mais relevante para os desfechos cardiovasculares do que pressão arterial (PA) periférica. Assim, diferentes classes de anti-hipertensivos têm efeitos diferentes sobre PAc apesar de reduções semelhantes na PA braquial. O objetivo foi investigar o efeito do nebivolol, β-bloqueador com propriedades vasodilatadoras, nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hemodinâmicos de pacientes hipertensos. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte única experimental realizado em ambulatório de hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Todos os 26 pacientes recrutados foram submetidos à avaliação bioquímica e hemodinâmica (PA, frequência cardíaca, FC, PAc, augmentation index) antes e após três meses usando nebivolol. RESULTADOS: 88,5% dos indivíduos eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 49,7 ± 9,3 anos, predominância de sobrepeso (29,6 ± 3,1 kg/m2) e aumento da cintura abdominal (102,1 ± 7,2 cm). Houve diminuição significativa da PA sistólica periférica (P = 0,0020) e diastólica (P = 0,0049), da FC (P &lt; 0,0001) e da PAc (129,9 ± 12,3 x 122,3 ± 10,3 mmHg, P = 0,0083) após o tratamento em comparação aos valores basais. Não houve diferença no augmentation index, nem nos parâmetros bioquímicos antes e após o período de tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de nebivolol parece estar associado à redução significativa da PAc em hipertensos estágio 1, além da redução da pressão sistólica e diastólica braquial. <![CDATA[Natural history and surgical treatment of chordoma: a retrospective cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500297&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chordoma is a rare tumor with a high risk of locoregional recurrences. The aim of this study was analyze the long-term results from treating this pathological condition. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study in a single hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on 42 patients with chordoma who were treated at Hospital A. C. Camargo between 1980 and 2006. The hospital records were reviewed and a descriptive analysis was performed on the clinical-pathological variables. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and these were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were men and 23 were women. Twenty-five tumors (59.5%) were located in the sacrum, eleven (26.2%) in the skull base and six (14.3%) in the mobile spine. Surgery was performed on 28 patients (66.7%). The resection was considered to have negative margins in 14 cases and positive margins in 14 cases. The five-year overall survival (OS) was 45.4%. For surgical patients, the five-year OS was 64.3% (82.2% for negative margins and 51.9% for positive margins). In the inoperable group, OS was 37.7% at 24 months and 0% at five years. CONCLUSION: Complete resection is related to local control and definitively has a positive impact on long-term survival. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Cordoma é um tumor raro e com alto risco de recidiva locorregional. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os resultados a longo prazo do tratamento dessa doença. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo de coorte realizado em um único hospital em São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 42 pacientes com cordoma tratados de 1980 e 2006 no Hospital A. C. Camargo. Os prontuários foram revistos e foi realizada a análise descritiva das variáveis clínicas e patológicas. As curvas de sobrevida foram estimadas pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e a comparação entre elas, pelo teste de log-rank. RESULTADOS: Dezenove pacientes eram homens e 23, mulheres. Vinte e cinco tumores (59,5%) estavam localizados no sacro, 11 (26,2%) na base do crânio e 6 (14,3%), na coluna móvel. A cirurgia foi realizada em 28 pacientes (66,7%). A ressecção foi considerada como tendo margens negativas em 14 casos e margens comprometidas em 14 pacientes. A sobrevida global (SG) em 5 anos foi de 45,4%. Para os pacientes cirúrgicos, a SG em 5 anos foi de 64,3% (82,2% para as margens negativas e 51,9% de margens positivas). No grupo inoperável, a SG em 24 meses foi de 37,7% e 0% em 5 anos. CONCLUSÃO: A ressecção completa está relacionada com o controle local e, definitivamente, tem impacto positivo na sobrevida a longo prazo. <![CDATA[Leadership, management and teamwork learning through an extra-curricular project for medical students: descriptive study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500303&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Professionalism in medicine requires preparation for the globalized world. Our objective was to describe a project that introduces medical students to the community, hospital and laboratory activities, thereby allowing them to gain experience in people management, leadership and teamwork. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study of the process applied at a philanthropic medical school in Curitiba, Paraná. METHOD: Inclusion of management and leadership practices as part of the medical degree program. RESULTS: The study groups consisted of fifteen students. After six months, any of the participants could be elected as a subcoordinator, with responsibility for managing tasks and representing the team in hospital departments and the community. The activities required increasing levels of responsibility. In medical schools, students' involvement in practical activities is often limited to observation. They are not required to take responsibilities or to interact with other students and stakeholders. However, they will become accountable, which thus has an adverse effect on all involved. The learning space described here aims to fill this gap by bringing students closer to the daily lives and experiences of healthcare professionals. CONCLUSION: Being a physician requires not only management and leadership, but also transferrable competencies, communication and critical thinking. These attributes can be acquired through experience of teamwork, under qualified supervision from teaching staff. Students are thus expected to develop skills to deal with and resolve conflicts, learn to share leadership, prepare others to help and replace them, adopt an approach based on mutual responsibility and discuss their performance. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Profissionalismo na medicina requer formação para o mundo globalizado. Nosso objetivo é descrever um projeto que introduz os estudantes de medicina em atividades laboratoriais, comunitárias e hospitalares, oferecendo experiência em gestão de pessoas, liderança e trabalho em equipe. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo do processo aplicado a uma escola medica filantrópica de Curitiba, Paraná. MÉTODO: Inclusão de práticas de gestão e liderança como parte do programa de graduação médica. RESULTADOS: Os grupos de trabalho eram constituídos por 15 estudantes. Após seis meses de participação, o estudante podia ser eleito como subcoordenador, responsável por gerenciar tarefas e representar a equipe junto aos setores do hospital e na comunidade. Na faculdade de medicina, frequentemente, o envolvimento dos alunos em atividades práticas restringe-se à observação, não existem demandas sobre a sua responsabilidade ou sua interação com outros alunos e atores. Entretanto, serão cobrados por isso, resultando em efeito adverso sobre todos os envolvidos. O espaço de aprendizagem aqui descrito visa preencher essa lacuna, trazendo os alunos para mais perto do cotidiano e das experiências dos profissionais de saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Ser médico exige, ao lado de gestão e liderança, competências transferíveis, comunicação e pensamento crítico. Atributos adquiridos pela experiência do trabalho em equipe sob supervisão qualificada do corpo docente, quando os estudantes devem desenvolver habilidades para lidar e resolver conflitos, aprender a compartilhar a liderança, preparar outras pessoas para ajudar e substituir, adotar uma abordagem baseada na mútua responsabilidade e na análise de desempenho. <![CDATA[Renal autotransplantation to treat renal artery aneurysm: case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500307&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT: Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is uncommon and usually asymptomatic, but complications like rupture or thromboembolism of the aneurysm can occur, with consequent renal infarction. Most of the clinical findings are found incidentally through imaging examinations, in investigating other diseases. Renal autotransplantation (RAT) is an alternative treatment for complex RAA, with satisfactory results described in the literature. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 48-year-old man with a history of systemic arterial hypertension, thrombocytopenia and advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. He complained of right lumbar pain, which was investigated through imaging examinations (computed tomography and angiotomography). These revealed right RAA of 2.5 cm in diameter. Evaluation by the vascular surgery team found that this was untreatable using endovascular methods. The treatment performed was open right nephrectomy with kidney preservation in solution, followed by aneurysmectomy, suturing of the injured artery and kidney reimplantation in the right iliac fossa with anastomosis of the iliac vessels and ureter. The durations of the surgery and kidney ischemia were 385 and 140 minutes, respectively. The patient was discharged on the 20th postoperative day, with creatinine concentration of 1.4 mg/dL, urea 41 mg/dL, urine volume 1400 mL/24 h and ascites treated with diuretics. CONCLUSION: RAT is indicated basically in three situations: extracorporeal reconstruction of complex aneurysms of the renal pedicle, extensive ureteral injury, and conservative kidney cancer surgery in patients with a single kidney. This study presents a case of a patient with advanced liver disease and RAA that was untreatable using endovascular methods and was successfully treated using RAT. <hr/> CONTEXTO: O aneurisma de artéria renal (AAR) é incomum e, em geral, assintomático, mas podem ocorrer complicações como rotura ou embolia de trombos do aneurisma com consequente infarto renal. A maioria dos achados clínicos é encontrada acidentalmente por exames de imagem na investigação de outras doenças. O autotransplante renal (ATR) constitui-se em alternativa de tratamento de AAR com resultados satisfatórios descritos na literatura. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masculino, 48 anos, com histórico de hipertensão arterial sistêmica, plaquetopenia e esquistossomose hepatoesplênica avançada. Referia dor lombar direita que após exames de imagem (tomografia computadorizada e angiotomografia) revelou AAR direita com 2,5 cm de diâmetro não tratável por via endovascular após avaliação da equipe de cirurgia vascular. O tratamento realizado foi uma nefrectomia aberta direita com preservação renal em solução, seguida de aneurismectomia, sutura da artéria lesada e reimplante do rim na fossa ilíaca direita com anastomoses dos vasos ilíacos e do ureter. O tempo cirúrgico e de isquemia renal foram de 385 e 140 minutos, respectivamente. Recebeu alta hospitalar no vigésimo dia do pós-operatório, com concentrações de creatinina de 1,4 mg/dL, ureia de 41 mg/dL, volume urinário de 1400 mL/24 h e ascite tratada com diuréticos. CONCLUSÃO: O ATR está indicado basicamente em três casos: reconstrução extracorpórea de aneurismas complexos do pedículo renal, lesão ureteral extensa e cirurgia conservadora de câncer renal em pacientes com único rim. Este estudo apresenta caso de paciente com doença hepática avançada e AAR intratável por método endovascular e tratado com sucesso por ATR. <![CDATA[Comorbidity between Klinefelter syndrome and diaphragmatic hernia. A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500311&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es CONTEXT: Intrathoracic cystic lesions have been diagnosed in a wide variety of age groups, and the increasing use of prenatal imaging studies has allowed detection of these defects even in utero. CASE REPORT: A 17-year-old pregnant woman in her second gestation, at 23 weeks of pregnancy, presented an ultrasound with evidence of a cystic anechoic image in the fet al left hemithorax. A morphological ultrasound examination performed at the hospital found that this cystic image measured 3.7 cm x 2.1 cm x 1.6 cm. Polyhydramnios was also present. At this time, the hypothesis of cystic adenomatoid malformation was raised. Fet al echocardiography showed only a dextroposed heart. Fet al magnetic resonance imaging produced an image compatible with a left diaphragmatic hernia containing the stomach and at least the first and second portions of the duodenum, left lobe of the liver, spleen, small intestine segments and portions of the colon. The stomach was greatly distended and the heart was shifted to the right. There was severe volume reduction of the left lung. Fet al karyotyping showed the chromosomal constitution of 47,XXY, compatible with Klinefelter syndrome. In our review of the literature, we found only one case of association between Klinefelter syndrome and diaphragmatic hernia. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the association observed in this case was merely coincidental, since both conditions are relatively common. The chance of both events occurring simultaneously is estimated to be 1 in 1.5 million births. <hr/> CONTEXTO: Lesões císticas intratorácicas são diagnosticadas em ampla variedade de faixas etárias, e o uso aumentado dos estudos de imagem pré-natal tem permitido a detecção desses defeitos ainda intraútero. RELATO DO CASO: Uma gestante de 17 anos que estava em sua segunda gravidez, com 23 semanas de gestação, apresentava ultrassom com evidência de imagem cística anecoica no hemitórax esquerdo fet al. O ultrassom morfológico realizado no hospital verificou que esta media 3,7 cm x 2,1 cm x 1,6 cm. Evidenciou-se também a presença de polidrâmnio. Neste momento, levantou-se a hipótese de malformação adenomatoide cística. A ecocardiografia fet al mostrou apenas coração desviado para a direita. A ressonância magnética fet al revelou imagem compatível com hérnia diafragmática à esquerda, contendo estômago e, pelo menos, primeira e segunda partes do duodeno, lobo esquerdo do fígado, baço, segmentos de intestino delgado e porções do cólon. O estômago mostrava-se muito distendido e o coração, deslocado para a direita. Havia redução importante do volume do pulmão esquerdo. O cariótipo fet al mostrou constituição cromossômica 47,XXY, compatível com a síndrome de Klinefelter. Em nossa revisão da literatura, encontramos apenas um caso de associação entre síndrome de Klinefelter e hérnia diafragmática. CONCLUSÃO: Acreditamos que a associação observada neste caso foi puramente uma coincidência, uma vez que ambas as condições são relativamente comuns. A chance de os dois eventos ocorrerem simultaneamente é estimada em 1 em 1,5 milhões de nascimentos. <![CDATA[HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for people with chronic kidney disease not requiring dialysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500314&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), for whom the absolute risk of cardiovascular events is similar to people who have existing coronary artery disease. This is an update of a review published in 2009, and includes evidence from 27 new studies (25,068 participants) in addition to the 26 studies (20,324 participants) assessed previously; and excludes three previously included studies (107 participants). This updated review includes 50 studies (45,285 participants); of these 38 (37,274 participants) were meta-analysed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits (such as reductions in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, MI and stroke; and slow progression of CKD to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)) and harms (muscle and liver dysfunction, withdrawal, and cancer) of statins compared with placebo, no treatment, standard care or another statin in adults with CKD who were not on dialysis. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 5 June 2012 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared the effects of statins with placebo, no treatment, standard care, or other statins, on mortality, cardiovascular events, kidney function, toxicity, and lipid levels in adults with CKD not on dialysis were the focus of our literature searches. Data collection and analysis: Two or more authors independently extracted data and assessed study risk of bias. Treatment effects were expressed as mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes (lipids, creatinine clearance and proteinuria) and risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (major cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), fatal or non-fatal stroke, ESKD, elevated liver enzymes, rhabdomyolysis, cancer and withdrawal rates) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: We included 50 studies (45,285 participants): 47 studies (39,820 participants) compared statins with placebo or no treatment and three studies (5547 participants) compared two different statin regimens in adults with CKD who were not yet on dialysis. We were able to meta-analyse 38 studies (37,274 participants). <![CDATA[Perioperative corticosteroids for preventing complications following facial plastic surgery]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000500316&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: Early recovery is an important factor for people undergoing facial plastic. However, the normal inflammatory processes that are a consequence of surgery commonly cause oedema (swelling) and ecchymosis (bruising), which are undesirable complications. Severe oedema and ecchymosis delay full recovery, and may make patients dissatisfied with procedures. Perioperative corticosteroids have been used in facial plastic surgery with the aim of preventing oedema and ecchymosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects, including safety, of perioperative administration of corticosteroids for preventing complications following facial plastic surgery in adults. METHODS: Search strategy: In January 2014, we searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &amp; Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase; EBSCO CINAHL; and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication. Selection criteria: We included RCTs that compared the administration of perioperative systemic corticosteroids with another intervention, no intervention or placebo in facial plastic surgery. ata collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened the trials for inclusion in the review, appraised trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 trials, with a total of 422 participants, that addressed two of the outcomes of interest to this review: swelling (oedema) and bruising (ecchymosis). Nine studies on rhinoplasty used a variety of different types, and doses, of corticosteroids. Overall, the results of the included studies showed that there is some evidence that perioperative administration of corticosteroids decreases formation of oedema over the first two postoperative days. Meta-analysis was only possible for two studies, with a total of 60 participants, and showed that a single perioperative dose of 10 mg dexamethasone decreased oedema formation in the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.16, 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.61, low quality evidence). The evidence for ecchymosis was less consistent across the studies, with some contradictory results, but overall there was some evidence that perioperatively administered corticosteroids decreased ecchymosis formation over the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.06, 95% CI:-1.47 to -0.65, two studies, 60 participants, low quality evidence). The difference was not maintained after this initial period. One study, with 40 participants, showed that high doses of methylprednisolone (over 250 mg) decreased both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The only study that assessed facelift surgery identified no positive effect on oedema with preoperative administration of corticosteroids. Five trials did not report on harmful (adverse) effects; four trials reported that there were no adverse effects; and one trial reported adverse effects in two participants treated with corticosteroids as well as in four participants treated with placebo. None of the studies reported recovery time, patient satisfaction or quality of life. The studies included were all at an unclear risk of selection bias and at low risk of bias for other domains. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence for rhinoplasty that a single perioperative dose of corticosteroids decreases oedema and ecchymosis formation over the first two postoperative days, but the difference is not maintained after this period. There is also limited evidence that high doses of corticosteroids decrease both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The clinical significance of this decrease is unknown and there is little evidence available regarding the safety of this intervention. More studies are needed because at present the available evidence does not support the use of corticosteroids for prevention of complications following facial plastic surgery.