Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Sao Paulo Medical Journal]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-318020140002&lang=pt vol. 132 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Significância estatística e significado clínico]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200071&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Prevalência e fatores de risco de lesões escrotais em uma população de brasileiros com idade ? 40 anos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200073&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for cutaneous lesions of the scrotum and intrascrotal lesions/anomalies among men included in a prostatic cancer screening program in a Brazilian metropolitan city. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, private outpatient healthcare service. METHODS: 1731 men aged 40 years or over, participating in a prostate cancer screening program conducted by the municipal public employees' healthcare system, underwent systematic urological assessment by a single examiner. RESULTS: The prevalence of scrotal diseases in our sample was 44.7% (773/1731). Tinea cruris occurred in 203 (11.7%) of the participants, with higher risk among diabetics and lower prevalence among nonwhite individuals; scrotal tinea in eight (0.5%), with higher risk among hypertensive men; subcutaneous nodules in 12 (0.7%), especially in individuals with low schooling level; hydrocele in 283 (16.4%), with higher frequency among participants over the age of 60 years, diabetics or individuals with previous histories of nonspecific urethritis; spermatoceles in 174 (10.1%), with greater prevalence among individuals over the age of 60 years or diabetics, and lower frequency among individuals who underwent vasectomy; unilateral testicular hypotrophy/atrophy in 167 (9.7%) and bilateral hypotrophy/atrophy in 93 (5.4%), both occurring more frequently in individuals over the age of 60 years; absence of palpable testicles due to cryptorchidism in 7 (0.4%); and epididymitis/orchitis in 5 (0.3%), with higher prevalence among diabetics. No cases of cancer were identified in this sample. CONCLUSIONS: Scrotal diseases were highly prevalent in this population of Brazilian men. <hr/> OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e fatores de risco de lesões cutâneas do escroto e de lesões/anomalias intraescrotais entre participantes de programa de rastreamento para câncer de próstata em uma cidade metropolitana brasileira. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal, serviço privado de atendimento ambulatorial à saúde. MÉTODOS: 1.731 homens com idade igual ou superior a 40 anos, participantes do programa de rastreamento de câncer de próstata conduzido pelo sistema de saúde dos funcionários públicos municipais, foram submetidos à avaliação urológica sistemática por um único examinador. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de doenças escrotais nossa amostra foi de 44.7% (773/1731). Tinea cruris ocorreu em 203 (11,7%) dos participantes, com maior risco em diabéticos e menor prevalência em indivíduos não brancos; tinea escrotal em oito (0,5%), com maior risco em homens hipertensos; nódulos subcutâneos em 12 (0,7%), especialmente em indivíduos com baixa escolaridade; hidrocele em 283 (16,4%), com maior frequência nos participantes com mais de 60 anos, diabetes ou história prévia de uretrite inespecífica; espermatoceles em 174 (10,1%), com maior prevalência acima dos 60 anos de idade ou com diabetes, e menor frequência naqueles submetidos a vasectomia; hipotrofia/atrofia testicular unilateral em 167 (9,7%) e hipotrofia/atrofia bilateral em 93 (5,4%), ambas ocorrendo mais frequentemente nos indivíduos com mais de 60 anos; ausência de testículos palpáveis devido à criptorquidia em 7 (0,4%); e epididimite/orquite em 5 (0,3%), com prevalência aumentada em diabéticos. Não foram identificados casos de câncer nesta amostra. CONCLUSÕES: As doenças escrotais foram altamente prevalentes nesta população de homens brasileiros. <![CDATA[Adaptação a prótese em pacientes com amputações maiores de membros inferiores e sua associação com os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200080&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lower-limb amputation compromises patients' independence and autonomy, and therefore they should be referred for rehabilitation in order to adapt to prostheses and regain autonomy. The aim here was to assess adaptation to prostheses among patients with major lower-limb amputations and its association with sociodemographic and clinical data. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in the city of Aracaju, Brazil. METHODS: The patients were identified by primary healthcare teams. The inclusion criterion was that these should be patients who underwent major lower-limb amputations of any etiology. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the adaptation to lower-limb prostheses were assessed. RESULTS: 149 patients were examined. Adaptation to the prosthesis occurred in 40% (60/149) of them, but only 62% (37/60) were using it. Adaptation occurred more often among male patients (P = 0.017) and among those who had a higher educational level (P = 0.013), with a longer time since amputation (P = 0.049) and when the etiology was trauma (P = 0.003). The result from logistic regression analysis showed that only patients with low education (P = 0.031) were significantly associated with a lower frequency of adaptation to prostheses. CONCLUSION: It was found that patients with a low educational level became adapted to the prosthesis less frequently. CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A amputação de membros inferiores compromete a independência e a autonomia dos pacientes, por isso, eles devem ser encaminhados para a reabilitação para a adaptação das próteses e assim viabilizar a recuperação da autonomia. O objetivo foi avaliar a adaptação de prótese em pacientes com amputações maiores de membros inferiores e sua associação com dados sócio-demográficos e clínicos. <hr/> TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado na cidade de Aracaju, Brasil. MÉTODO: Os pacientes foram identificados pelas equipes de atenção primária à saúde. O critério de inclusão foi pacientes submetidos a amputações de membros inferiores principais de todas as etiologias. Foram avaliadas as associações entre variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e a adaptação de próteses de membros inferiores. RESULTADOS: Foram examinados 149 pacientes. A adaptação da prótese ocorreu em 40% (60/149) deles, mas apenas 62% (37/60) a utilizavam. Adaptação ocorreu mais frequentemente em pacientes do sexo masculino (P = 0,017) e naqueles que tinham maior nível de escolaridade (P = 0,013), com maior tempo de amputação (P = 0,049) e quando a etiologia (P = 0,003) foi o trauma. O resultado da análise de regressão logística mostrou que apenas a com baixa escolaridade (P = 0,031) foi significativamente associada com uma menor frequência na adaptação de próteses. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que pacientes com baixa escolaridade tiveram menor frequência de ajuste para a prótese. <![CDATA[Incidência e fatores de risco para retinopatia da prematuridade em um serviço de referência brasileiro]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200085&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a known cause of blindness in which diagnosis and timely treatment can prevent serious harm to the child. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ROP and its association with known risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal incidence study in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros. METHODS: Newborns admitted to the NICU with gestational age less than 32 weeks and/or birth weight less than 1,500 grams, were followed up over a two-year period. The assessment and diagnosis of ROP were defined in accordance with a national protocol. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to determine associations between independent variables and ROP. Analysis on the independent effect of the variables on the results was performed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The incidence of ROP was 44.5% (95% confidence interval, CI = 35.6-46.1) in the study population. The risk factors associated with the risk of developing the disease were: birth weight less than 1,000 grams (odds ratio, OR = 4.14; 95% CI = 1.34-12.77); gestational age less than 30 weeks (OR = 6.69; 95% CI = 2.10-21.31); use of blood derivatives (OR = 4.14; 95% CI = 2.99-8.99); and presence of sepsis (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.45-2.40). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ROP was higher than that found in the literature. The main risk factors were related to extreme prematurity. CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP) é causa conhecida de cegueira e diagnóstico e tratamento oportunos podem evitar graves danos à criança. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a incidência da ROP e sua associação com fatores de risco conhecidos. <hr/> TIPO E LOCAL DE ESTUDO: Estudo longitudinal de incidência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros. MÉTODOS: Foram acompanhados neonatos admitidos na UTIN, com idade gestacional menor que 32 semanas e/ou peso ao nascimento inferior a 1.500 gramas, por um período de dois anos. Avaliação e diagnóstico de ROP foram definidos conforme protocolo nacional. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher para determinar a associação entre as variáveis independentes e ROP. A análise do efeito independente das variáveis sobre o resultado (ROP) foi realizada por meio de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: A incidência de ROP foi de 44,5% (intervalo de confiança, IC 95% = 35,6-46,1) entre a população estudada. Os fatores de risco pesquisados que apresentaram relação de risco para o desenvolvimento da doença foram: peso de nascimento menor que 1000 gramas (odds ratio, OR = 4,14; IC 95% = 1,34;12,77), idade gestacional menor que 30 semanas (OR = 6,69; IC 95% = 2,10;21,31), uso de hemoderivados (OR = 4,14; IC 95% = 2,99;8,99) e presença de sepse (OR = 1,99; IC 95% = 1,45;2,40). CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de ROP foi maior que a encontrada na literatura. Os principais fatores de risco estão relacionados à prematuridade extrema. <![CDATA[Estudo retrospectivo sobre lesões intraepiteliais cervicais de baixo grau e de significado indeterminado: evolução, fatores associados e correlação citohistológica]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200092&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. There is some controversy about the factors that may be associated with infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that may favor or protect against evolution from a low-grade intraepithelial lesion to a high-grade intraepithelial lesion or invasive neoplasia. The objective here was to evaluate the evolution of low-grade intraepithelial lesions and squamous or glandular lesions of undetermined significance, the associated factors and cytohistological correlations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted in a public tertiary-level university hospital. METHODS: Information was obtained by reviewing patient records and/or colposcopy reports. A statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression, calculating the odds ratio and applying chi-square tests. RESULTS: Of the 3390 patients, 409 evolved to high-grade intraepithelial lesions, of which 354 had an initial diagnosis of HPV infection, 27 of squamous atypia of undetermined significance, 22 of low-grade intraepithelial lesions with or without cytological diagnosis of infection by associated HPV and six of glandular cell atypia of undetermined significance. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus sp and bacterial vaginosis on the smears, smoking and immunodepression were factors associated with evolution. A single partner, use of hormonal contraceptives, lower parity, age and a cytological diagnosis of cytolytic vaginosis, T. vaginalis, Candida sp or cocci were factors associated with protection. With regard to cytohistological correlation, there was a 74.08% agreement among patients with high-grade lesions and a biopsy obtained during the same period. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: O câncer do colo uterino é importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade no mundo. Existem controvérsias sobre fatores que podem estar associados à infecção por papilomavírus humano (HPV) e favorecer ou proteger contra a evolução de lesão intraepitelial de baixo grau até lesão intraepitelial de alto grau ou neoplasia invasiva. O objetivo aqui foi de avaliar a evolução de lesões intraepiteliais de baixo grau e de significado indeterminado, escamosas ou glandulares, os fatores associados e as correlações citohistológicas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital universitário público terciário. MÉTODOS: As informações foram obtidas por meio de revisão de prontuários e/ou fichas de colposcopia. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio de regressão logística, calculando-se o odds ratio e aplicando-se o teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Das 3.390 pacientes, 409 evoluíram para lesão intraepitelial de alto grau, das quais 354 tinham diagnóstico inicial de infecção por HPV, 27 de atipias escamosas de significado indeterminado, 22 de lesão intraepitelial de baixo grau com ou sem diagnóstico citológico de infecção por HPV associado e 6 de atipias em células glandulares de significado indeterminado. CONCLUSÕES: Lactobacillus sp e vaginose bacteriana nos esfregaços, tabagismo e imunodepressão foram fatores associados com a evolução. Único parceiro, uso de contraceptivo hormonal, baixa paridade, idade e diagnóstico citológico de vaginose citolítica, T. vaginalis, Candida sp ou cocos foram fatores associados a proteção. Com relação à correlação citohistológica, encontramos concordância de 74,08% nas pacientes com lesão de alto grau e biópsia no mesmo período. <![CDATA[Relação entre os fatores de risco cardiovascular e a ecogenicidade e o padrão do complexo íntima-média carotídeo em homens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200097&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The thickness of the carotid intima-media complex (C-IMC) is considered to be a marker of early atherosclerosis, but visual and echogenic changes to the C-IMC can also be noted. The objective here was to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the echogenicity of the C-IMC and identify those most associated with an "abnormal" C-IMC. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the ultrasound sector of the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Eighty men were evaluated. Measurements of arterial blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), lipid profile, fasting glucose, uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were obtained. The thickness of the C-IMC was measured by means of B-mode ultrasound, and the intima-media gray-scale mean (IM-GSM) and standard deviation (IM-SD) were calculated. RESULTS: The following were discriminating variables: fasting glucose (r2 = 0.036; P = 0.013), uric acid (r2 = 0.08; P = 0.03), IM-SD (r2 = 0.43; P &lt; 0.001), IM-GSM (r2 = 0.35; P &lt; 0.001) and thickness of the C-IMC (r2 = 0.29; P &lt; 0.001). IM-GSM showed significant correlations with WC (r = -0.22; P = 0.005), fasting glucose (r = -0.24; P = 0.002) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.27; P = 0.0007). CONCLUSION: IM-GSM showed correlations with WC, fasting glucose and HDL-C. However, uric acid and IM-SD presented the greatest discriminating impact. These results suggest that visual changes in C-IMC may help identify patients with potential cardiovascular risk, independently of the thickness of the C-IMC. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A espessura do complexo íntima-média carotídeo (CIM-C) é considerada um marcador da aterosclerose precoce, mas alterações visuais e da ecogenicidade do CIM-C também podem ser observadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a relação entre os fatores de risco cardiovascular e a ecogenicidade do CIM-C e identificar aqueles mais relacionados com o CIM-C "alterado". TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal no setor de ultrassonografia do Departamento de Diagnóstico por Imagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Oitenta homens foram avaliados. Aferição da pressão arterial, medida da circunferência abdominal (CA), perfil lipídico, glicemia de jejum (GLI), ácido úrico (AU) e proteína C-reativa de alta sensibilidade foram obtidos. A espessura do CIM-C foi medida por ultrassom modo B e a média da escala de cinza (GSM) e do desvio padrão do CIM (DPIM) foram calculados. RESULTADOS: As variáveis discriminantes foram GLI (r2 = 0,036; P = 0,013), AU (r2 = 0,08; P = 0,03), DPIM (r2 = 0,43; P &lt; 0,001), GSM (r2 = 0,35; P &lt; 0,001) e espessura do CIM-C (r2 = 0.29; P &lt; 0,001). Houve correlação significativa entre GSM e CA (r = -0,22; P = 0,005), GLI (r = -0,24; P = 0,002) e lipoproteína de alta densidade do colesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0,27; P = 0,0007). CONCLUSÃO: A GSM teve correlação com CA, GLI, HDL-C. Entretanto, AU e DPIM apresentaram maior impacto discriminante, sugerindo que alterações visuais do CIM-C, independentemente da espessura, podem auxiliar na identificação de pacientes com potencial risco cardiovascular. <![CDATA[Mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares nas Américas segundo região, 2000-2009]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200105&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim here was to evaluate trends in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in three different regions of the Americas. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a time series study in which mortality data from three different regions in the Americas from 2000 to the latest year available were analyzed. METHODS: The source of data was the Mortality Information System of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). Data from 27 countries were included. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze trends. RESULTS: During the study period, the age-adjusted mortality rates for men were higher than those of females in all regions. North America (NA) showed lower rates than Latin America countries (LAC) and the Non-Latin Caribbean (NLC). Premature deaths (30-69 years old) accounted for 22.8% of all deaths in NA, 38.0% in LAC and 41.8% in NLC. The trend analysis also showed a significant decline in the three regions. NA accumulated the largest decline. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence interval was -3.9% [-4.2; -3.7] in NA; -1.8% [-2.2; -1.5] in LAC; and -1.8% [-2.7; -0.9] in NLC. CONCLUSION: Different mortality rates and reductions were observed among the three regions. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: As doenças cardiovasculares são as causas principais de morte em todo o mundo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as tendências na mortalidade decorrente das doenças cardiovasculares em três diferentes regiões das Américas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Este é um estudo de série temporal que analisa dados de mortalidade em três diferentes regiões das Américas, de 2000 até o último ano disponível. MÉTODOS: A fonte de dados foi a Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS). Dados de 27 países foram incluídos. Utilizou-se joinpoint regression para analisar as tendências. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de estudo, as taxas ajustadas por idade padronizadas de mortalidade dos homens foram mais altas que a das mulheres em todas as regiões. As taxas da América do Norte (AN) foram inferiores que as dos países da América Latina (AL) e do Caribe Não Latino (CNL). As mortes prematuras (30-69 anos) foram 22,8% do total de mortes na AN, 38,0% na AL e 41,8% no CNL. A análise das tendências mostrou diminuição significativa nas três regiões. A AN acumulou a maior diminuição. A porcentagem média de mudança anual (AAPC) e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% foram -3,9% [-4,2; -3,7] na AN; na AL foi -1.8% [-2.2; -1.5]; e -1,8% [-2,7; -0,9] no CNL. CONCLUSÕES: Foram observadas diferentes taxas de mortalidade e diferentes reduções nas três regiões. <![CDATA[Associação entre globulina de ligação a hormônio sexual (SHBG) e síndrome metabólica em homens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200111&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome consists of a set of factors that imply increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), sex hormones and metabolic syndrome among men. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis on data from the study "Endogenous oestradiol but not testosterone is related to coronary artery disease in men", conducted in a hospital in São Paulo. METHODS: Men (aged 40-70) who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The age, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index and prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes of each patient were registered. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP-ATPIII). Serum samples were collected to assess the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein), triglycerides, albumin, SHBG, estradiol and total testosterone (TT). The levels of LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) were calculated using Friedewald's formula and free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) using Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: 141 patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first SHBG tercile than in the second and third terciles. A statistically significant positive association between the SHBG and TT values was observed, but no such association was seen between SHBG, BT and FT. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of SHBG are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male patients, but further studies are required to confirm this association. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A síndrome metabólica (SM) consiste em um conjunto de fatores que implicam risco elevado para doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre a globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuais (SHBG), hormônios sexuais e a SM em homens. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Análise retrospectiva de dados do estudo "Estradiol mas não testosterona se correlaciona com doença arterial coronariana em homens", conduzido em um hospital em São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados pacientes do sexo masculino com idade entre 40 e 70 anos, submetidos a angiografia coronária. A idade, a prevalência de dislipidemia, hipertensão e diabetes, o peso, a altura, cintura e o índice de massa corpórea de cada paciente foram coletados. A definição de SM seguiu os critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. Amostras séricas foram coletadas para análises da glicose, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL (high density lipoprotein), triglicerídeos, albumina, SHBG, estradiol e testosterona total (TT). O colesterol-LDL (low density lipoprotein) foi calculado pela fórmula de Friedewald e as testosteronas livre (TL) e biodisponível (TB) pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Entraram no estudo 141 pacientes. A prevalência de SM foi significativamente maior no primeiro tercil de SHBG em comparação ao segundo e terceiro tercis. Foi verificada uma associação positiva e significativa ente os valores de SHBG e TT, porém essa associação não foi verificada entre SHBG e TB e TL. CONCLUSÃO: Baixos níveis séricos de SHBG estiveram associados com alta prevalência da SM em pacientes do sexo masculino. Faz-se necessário que estudos avaliem essa associação. <![CDATA[Prevalência de <em>Candida albicans</em> e não <em>albicans</em> isoladas de secreção vaginal: avaliação comparativa entre colonização, candidíase vaginal e candidíase vaginal recorrente em mulheres diabéticas e não diabéticas]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200116&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups. <hr/> CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) é causada pelo crescimento anormal de fungos do tipo leveduras na mucosa do trato genital feminino. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) são mais susceptíveis a infecções fúngicas, incluindo por espécies de Candida. O presente estudo investigou a frequência de isolamento total de Candida spp. vaginal, e diferentes quadros clínicos (CVV e CVV recorrente- CVVR) em mulheres com DM tipo 2 comparadas às não diabéticas. A razão de cura do tratamento com fluconazol também foi avaliada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado no sistema público de saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 717 mulheres de 17-74 anos de idade e, destas, 48 (6,7%) tinham DM 2 (média de 53,7 anos), independentemente de sinais e sintomas de CVV. As leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por métodos fenotípicos clássicos. RESULTADOS: No grupo de não diabéticas (controle), leveduras vaginais totais foram isoladas em 79 (11,8%) mulheres, e no grupo de diabéticas, em 9 (18,8%) (P = 0,000). O grupo de diabéticas mostrou mais mulheres sintomáticas (CVV + CVVR = 66,66%) do que colonizadas (33.33%), e significativamente mais colonização, CVV e CVVR, que as controle. A razão média de cura com fluconazol foi de 75.0% no grupo diabéticas e 86.7% no controle (P = 0.51). CONCLUSÃO: Nós encontramos que DM 2 em mulheres brasileiras associou-se com colonização vaginal por leveduras, CVV e CVVR, razão similar de isolamento de C. albicans e espécies não albicans. Boa taxa de cura foi obtida com fluconazol em ambos os grupos. <![CDATA[Abscesso do tronco encefálico de origem indeterminada: drenagem microcirúrgica e antibioticoterapia curta]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200121&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT: Solitary brainstem abscesses are rare and they are usually associated with other infections. They are severe conditions with high morbidity and mortality. The surgical options are stereotactic aspiration and microsurgical drainage. Systemic antibiotic therapy is used for more than six weeks. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a young man with a solitary abscess at the pons, without other systemic infections. The patient was treated by means of microsurgical drainage and antibiotic therapy for three weeks. His postoperative recovery was good. CONCLUSIONS: A microsurgical approach may be considered to be an important option for large abscesses that are multiloculated, close to the surface or contain thick fluid. Complete emptying of the purulent accumulation may diminish the required duration of antibiotic therapy. <hr/> CONTEXTO: Abscessos isolados do tronco encefálico são raros e geralmente associados a outras infecções. Trata-se de condição grave, com grande morbidade e mortalidade. Opções cirúrgicas são aspiração com estereotaxia e drenagem microcirúrgica. Antibioticoterapia sistêmica tem sido usada por mais de seis semanas. RELATO DE CASO: Apresentamos o caso de um jovem com abscesso pontino sem outras infecções sistêmicas. O paciente foi tratado com drenagem microcirúrgica e antibioticoterapia por três semanas. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória. CONCLUSÕES: Acesso microcirúrgico pode ser considerado uma opção importante no tratamento de grandes abscessos do tronco encefálico, que são multiloculados, próximos da superfície ou que contenham líquido espesso. Drenagem completa do material purulento pode diminuir o período de antibioticoterapia. <![CDATA[Triagem para a síndrome de deleção 22q11 entre pacientes com cardiopatia congênita]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200125&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt CONTEXT: Solitary brainstem abscesses are rare and they are usually associated with other infections. They are severe conditions with high morbidity and mortality. The surgical options are stereotactic aspiration and microsurgical drainage. Systemic antibiotic therapy is used for more than six weeks. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a young man with a solitary abscess at the pons, without other systemic infections. The patient was treated by means of microsurgical drainage and antibiotic therapy for three weeks. His postoperative recovery was good. CONCLUSIONS: A microsurgical approach may be considered to be an important option for large abscesses that are multiloculated, close to the surface or contain thick fluid. Complete emptying of the purulent accumulation may diminish the required duration of antibiotic therapy. <hr/> CONTEXTO: Abscessos isolados do tronco encefálico são raros e geralmente associados a outras infecções. Trata-se de condição grave, com grande morbidade e mortalidade. Opções cirúrgicas são aspiração com estereotaxia e drenagem microcirúrgica. Antibioticoterapia sistêmica tem sido usada por mais de seis semanas. RELATO DE CASO: Apresentamos o caso de um jovem com abscesso pontino sem outras infecções sistêmicas. O paciente foi tratado com drenagem microcirúrgica e antibioticoterapia por três semanas. Houve boa evolução pós-operatória. CONCLUSÕES: Acesso microcirúrgico pode ser considerado uma opção importante no tratamento de grandes abscessos do tronco encefálico, que são multiloculados, próximos da superfície ou que contenham líquido espesso. Drenagem completa do material purulento pode diminuir o período de antibioticoterapia. <![CDATA[Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200127&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt BACKGROUND: About 15% of the world population have fungal infections of the feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot). There are many clinical presentations of tinea pedis, and most commonly, tinea pedis is seen between the toes (interdigital) and on the soles, heels, and sides of the foot (plantar). Plantar tinea pedis is known as moccasin foot. Once acquired, the infection can spread to other sites including the nails, which can be a source of re-infection. Oral therapy is usually used for chronic conditions or when topical treatment has failed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot (tinea pedis). METHODS: Search methods: For this update we searched the following databases to July 2012: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), and CINAHL (from 1981). We checked the bibliographies of retrieved trials for further references to relevant trials, and we searched online trials registers. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of oral treatments in participants who have a clinically diagnosed tinea pedis, confirmed by microscopy and growth of dermatophytes (fungi) in culture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently undertook study selection, "Risk of bias" assessment, and data extraction. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 trials, involving 1,438 participants. The 2 trials (71 participants) comparing terbinafine and griseofulvin produced a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 2.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49 to 3.44) in favors of terbinafine's ability to cure infection. No significant difference was detected between terbinafine and itraconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole, or between griseofulvin and ketoconazole, although the trials were generally small. Two trials showed that terbinafine and itraconazole were effective compared with placebo: terbinafine (31 participants, RR 24.54, 95%CI 1.57 to 384.32) and itraconazole (72 participants, RR 6.67, 95%CI 2.17 to 20.48). All drugs reported adverse effects, with gastrointestinal effects most commonly reported. Ten of the trials were published over 15 years ago, and this is reflected by the poor reporting of information from which to make a clear "Risk of bias" assessment. Only one trial was at low risk of bias overall. The majority of the remaining trials were judged as "unclear" risk of bias because of the lack of clear statements with respect to methods of generating the randomization sequence and allocation concealment. More trials achieved blinding of participants and personnel than blinding of the outcome assessors, which was again poorly reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that terbinafine is more effective than griseofulvin; and terbinafine and itraconazole are more effective than no treatment. In order to produce more reliable data , a rigorous evaluation of different drug therapies needs to be undertaken with larger sample sizes to ensure they are large enough to show any real difference when two treatments are being compared. It is also important to continue to follow up and collect data , preferably for six months after the end of the intervention period, to establish whether or not the infection recurred. <![CDATA[Interventions for preventing obesity in children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-31802014000200128&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation). Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA)-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI) score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings). MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 55 studies (an additional 36 studies found for this update). The majority of studies targeted children aged v 6-12 years. The meta-analysis included 37 studies of 27,946 children and demonstrated that programmes were effective at reducing adiposity, although not all individual interventions were effective, and there was a high level of observed heterogeneity (I2 = 82%). Overall, children in the intervention group had a standardised mean difference in adiposity (measured as BMI or zBMI) of -0.15kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21 to -0.09). Intervention effects by age subgroups were -0.26kg/m2 (95% CI -0.53 to 0.00) (0- 5 years), - 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.08) (6-12 years), and -0.09 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.20 to 0.03) (13-18 years). Heterogeneity was apparent in all three age groups and could not explained by randomisation status or the type, duration or setting of the intervention. Only eight studies reported on adverse effects and no evidence of adverse outcomes such as unhealthy dieting practices, increased prevalence of underweight or body image sensitivities was found. Interventions did not appear to increase health inequalities although this was examined in fewer studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found strong evidence to support beneficial effects of child obesity prevention programmes on BMI, particularly for programmes targeted to children aged six to 12 years. However, given the unexplained heterogeneity and the likelihood of small study bias, these findings must be interpreted cautiously. A broad range of programme components were used in these studies and whilst it is not possible to distinguish which of these components contributed most to the beneficial effects observed, our synthesis indicates the following to be promising policies and strategies: school curriculum that includes healthy eating, physical activity and body image; increased sessions for physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills throughout the school week; improvements in nutritional quality of the food supply in schools; environments and cultural practices that support children eating healthier foods and being active throughout each day; support for teachers and other staff to implement health promotion strategies and activities (e.g. professional development, capacity building activities); parent support and home activities that encourage children to be more active, eat more nutritious foods and spend less time in screen based activities. However, study and evaluation designs need to be strengthened, and reporting extended to capture process and implementation factors, outcomes in relation to measures of equity, longer term outcomes, potential harms and costs. Childhood obesity prevention research must now move towards identifying how effective intervention components can be embedded within health, education and care systems and achieve long term sustainable impacts.