Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> vol. 50 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Dietary glutamine-glutamate supplementation enhances growth performance and intestinal villi development in cage-farmed Nile tilapia fingerlings]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of associated glutamine and glutamic acid on growth performance and intestinal development of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings. Five isoproteic (~344.70 g kg−1 crude protein) and isocaloric diets (~3,925 kcal kg−1 gross energy) were developed containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid in extruded diets. Fish (n = 2,000, mean body weight of 2.12±0.53 g) were distributed into twenty 1-m3 floating net cages in an entirely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates, and each replicate comprised one floating net cage with 100 fish. Fish were hand-fed seven days per week, three times a day until apparent satiety for 45 days. There was a quadratic effect on final body weight, body weight gain, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein retention efficiency, net protein utilization, and intestinal villi height with optimized values for supplementation of associated glutamine and glutamic acid at 10.77, 10.67, 10.00, 8.85, 9.85, 10.15, and 10.98 g kg−1, respectively. There was no effect of associated glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation on feed intake, survival, and body composition. We conclude that 10.67 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid is adequate for growth performance optimization, and supplementation at 10.98 g kg−1 exerts trophic action and improves intestinal morphometry in cage-farmed Nile tilapia fingerlings. <![CDATA[Breed, heterosis, and recombination effects for lactation curves in Brazilian cattle]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the breed, heterosis, and recombination effects on different components of the lactation curve of Girolando cattle. The dataset used consisted of 12,121 purebred cows of Holstein (H) and Gyr (G) breeds, and six H×G crossbred cows (Girolando). The model used presents random effects of herd and cow, regression coefficient associated with linear effect of proportion of H breed, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of heterosis between H and G breeds, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of recombination between H and G breeds, and random effect of residual. Dijkstra's (DJ), Nelder's (ND), Wilmink's (WL), and Wood's (WD) models were tested to fit production records of these different genetic groups. These models were then tested according to evaluation criteria of quality of fit (AIC, BIC, and RMSE), and the two best models (WD and WL) were chosen for estimation of 305-day milk yield (MY305), peak yield, time to peak, and persistency of milk yield. The breed effect was significant for all traits and components of the lactation curve. The heterosis effect was significant for all traits, and was more significant for MY305 (945.62±79.17 kg). Peak yield was the component of lactation curve that presented the most significant heterosis effect, partially explaining the heterosis effect (12 to 21%) found for MY305. The recombination effect was positive only for lactation period and time to peak of lactation in Girolando cows. <![CDATA[Optimum contribution for mate selection in Santa Inês sheep]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to simulate the genetic gains expected comparing random mating strategies and mate selection by optimum contribution with different penalty levels in the inbreeding rate of Santa Inês sheep. The optimum contribution theory was thus applied to optimize genetic gain in the long term in twelve selection groups by selectively mating 500 females with the respective males, increasingly penalizing the increase in inbreeding in the objective function. Genetic algorithms were used to find the optimum contribution. Optimization was achieved via EVA software. Selection candidates had their contribution defined into four treatments, using different values to weigh the genetic merit and penalize increases in inbreeding. This made it possible to measure the degree of control over those parameters that can be obtained with this methodology. This selection offers different levels of genetic gain, which are achievable from restrictions on the coancestry. The number of males selected and their distribution into selection groups varied according to the penalty attributed to inbreeding in the objective function. Mate selection using optimum contribution should be adopted when aiming to limit the increase in inbreeding. Increasing the exchange of genetic material between groups is recommended to elevate genetic gain and maintain control over inbreeding. <![CDATA[Estimation of genetic parameters and trends for morphometric traits in Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador horses]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate genetic trends over 26 years for morphometric traits in Mangalarga Marchador horses. Twelve morphometric traits were evaluated (withers and croup heights; length of head, body, shoulder, croup, neck, back, and loins; width of head and croup, and cannon bone and thorax perimeters). These traits were evaluated in 38,341 animals born between 1987 and 2012 and with a relationship matrix of 77,719 animals. Gibbs sampler was used to obtain samples of the posterior distributions of genetic parameters under animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regression of estimated breeding values in function of birth year. The heritabilities of all traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.48. However, the additive genetic coefficients of variation were low, ranging from 1.23 to 3.82%. The genetic trends of all the studied traits were significant, but of low magnitude. Negative genetic trend was observed for body length, while positive genetic trends were estimated for the other 11 traits. Although additive genetic differences accounted for a significant part of the phenotypic differences, genetic gains in the population were limited by low phenotypic variability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop data collection strategies to increase phenotypic and genetic variability in the population, such as the inclusion of animals that do not meet breed standard, but which have parents registered in the breeders’ association, in the database. <![CDATA[Effect of row spacing and maturity at harvest on the fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritional characteristics of biomass sorghum (BRS 716) silage in the semiarid region of Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of maturity at harvest and row spacing on fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritional value of biomass sorghum (BRS 716) silage. The experiment was conducted using a split-plot completely randomized block design with three row spacings (45, 70, and 90 cm) and four maturities at harvest (70, 100, 130, and 160 days) and eight replications. Polyvinyl chloride silos of known weight measuring 50 cm length and 10 cm diameter were used for silage production. Dry matter and total carbohydrate contents of the silage increased linearly, whereas crude protein and ash decreased linearly with maturity at harvest. Row spacing did not influence pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3), gas and effluent losses, and dry matter recovery of silage. The concentrations of malic, succinic, and acetic acids and ethanol responded quadratically to maturity at harvest. The levels of neutral detergent fiber, lignin, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with maturity at harvest. Ruminal degradation kinetics of dry matter of biomass sorghum silage was not influenced by row spacing. BRS 716 biomass sorghum should be planted at 70-cm row spacing and harvested at 160 days for silage production based on fermentative profile, dry matter losses, and nutritional characteristics. <![CDATA[Forage mass and canopy structure of Zuri and Quênia guineagrasses pasture under rotational stocking]]> ABSTRACT This work evaluated the productive and structural characteristics of the BRS Zuri and BRS Quênia cultivars under rotational stocking management. The evaluations were divided into five periods according to rainfall regime (high, medium, and low rainfall) during 16 months of the years 2016-2018. Pastures were grazed when canopies intercepted 95% of incident light to stubbles corresponding to 50% of the pre-grazing height. The pre- and post-grazing heights varied as a function of cultivar, with higher values for BRS Zuri (89 and 49 cm) than for BRS Quênia (78 and 45 cm). No differences in canopy lowering percentage, forage mass, and stem and dead material dry masses between cultivars were observed, with averages of 41.3%, 5,856, 1,835, and 841 kg ha−1, respectively. The post-grazing canopy height was lower in the second year, which resulted in higher values of canopy lowering percentage (51%). The highest value for leaf:stem ratio for both cultivars was observed in the high rainfall period of the second year. Higher average tiller population density was observed for BRS Quênia (477 tillers m−2) than for BRS Zuri (260 tillers m−2) for all the rainfall periods. Forage bulk density was similar between cultivars and varied according to the periods evaluated, with the highest value observed during the dry period of the year. Forage mass, as well as its component fractions, did not vary between cultivars, but was influenced by the studied periods. The cultivars showed high leaf mass in the pre-grazing forage mass with an average value of 3,174 kg ha−1. The cultivars are similar in morphological composition and offer high yield potential when managed under a rotational grazing system. <![CDATA[The neglected contribution of mound-building termites on CH<sub>4</sub> emissions in Brazilian pastures]]> ABSTRACT Based on previous reports, our study aimed to obtain the first estimate on the contribution of termite mounds to CH4 emissions in Brazilian Cerrado pastures. We estimated that termite mounds occupy an area larger than 200,000 ha in degraded pastures, an important loss of grazing area considering the current scenario of land-use change of pastures to other crops in Brazil. Moreover, mound-building termites in degraded pastures may be responsible for CH4 emissions greater than 11 Mt CO2 eq. yr−1, which would notably affect the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance of grass-fed cattle production in Brazil. In this sense, it is urgent to conduct field-scale studies about the CH4 emissions by mound-building termites in pastures and its contribution to the C footprint of Brazilian beef. <![CDATA[A two-location trial for selecting corn silage hybrids for the humid tropic: forage and grain yields and <em>in vitro</em> fermentation characteristics]]> ABSTRACT The goal of our study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of dented corn hybrids for silage production. We performed a two-location trial in which 19 dented corn hybrids and five corn controls grew in four randomized blocks within two experimental areas located in the Northern (Campos dos Goytacazes) and Northwestern (Itaocara) Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. We recorded yields of fresh and dry forage matter and yields of fresh and dry grain matter, as well as chemical composition variables. We interpreted variables by assuming a Normal distribution for yield variables and a Beta distribution for chemical composition and ratios. The SAS GLIMMIX procedure fitted the linear model under those assumptions. Dual-pool models fitted the gas production profiles generated by in vitro anaerobic fermentations. We used the nlme of R software to fit the dual-pool models and the information-theoretic approach to evaluate their quality of fit. We did a cluster analysis (NbClust of R) to group corn hybrids based on fresh and DM yields and kinetic parameters of in vitro gas production. Three clusters of corn hybrids stood out, their basic differences relied on fresh and DM yields. Nonetheless, the least-squares means for gas production characteristics among groups did not present disjoint confidence intervals. Therefore, we can infer that dented corn hybrids rank by forage yield, but not by forage quality, and recommend the most productive ones that consistently outstand in both locations (hybrids UENF-2203, UENF-2192, UENF-2193, and UENF-506-11). <![CDATA[Standardized ileal phosphorus digestibility of meat and bone meal and poultry byproduct meal for broilers]]> ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted using direct method to determine the standardized ileal phosphorus (P) digestibility coefficient (SIPDC) of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry byproduct meal (PBM) for broilers. In the first experiment, three MBM from different batches were evaluated, with four treatments (MBMI, MBMII, MBMIII, and a P-free diet) and nine replicates of seven birds each, totaling 252 birds distributed across a completely randomized design. The P-free diet was used to determine endogenous P losses. Titanium dioxide (5 g kg−1) was used as an indigestible indicator. In the second experiment, three PBM from different batches were evaluated, with 189 birds distributed over three treatments (PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII) and nine replicates of seven birds each. These two experiments were conducted when birds were 19-22 days old. The birds were euthanized to collect the ileal content. Using the P-free diet, endogenous P losses were determined at 94.9 mg kg−1 dry matter intake. Standardized ileal P digestibility of MBMI (0.65) and MBMIII (0.69) was higher compared with MBMII (0.49). The SIPDC determined for three PBM sources were similar and 0.96, 0.96, and 0.93 for PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII, respectively. The present study demonstrates that P in MBM is not as available as it is believed and that the variability between batches should be considered by nutritionists, while PBM can be considered an excellent P source to broiler diets. <![CDATA[Orange essential oil in the diet of broilers: performance, organ biometrics, bone characteristics, and intestinal morphometry]]> ABSTRACT Growth performance, organ biometrics, bone characteristics, and intestinal morphometry were evaluated in broilers fed a diet containing orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oil. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments with orange essential oil (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg−1 diet) and six replications with 20 birds per experimental unit. In the pre-starter phase, feed intake and weight gain of all birds linearly increased, while feed conversion decreased with the addition of orange essential oil in the feed. At day 21, bone density (Seedor Index) and body weight were higher in the birds that received the maximum level of essential oil (400 mg kg−1) compared with those not treated with essential oil. The observed effects resulted from the better functioning of the physiological mechanisms of digestion and absorption of nutrients, characterized by the increase in villus height. Glycemia and weights of gastrointestinal tract organs of broilers at 21 days of age were not influenced by the evaluated essential oil. The results show that the addition of phytogenic additives to the diet does not cause any physiological impairment in birds. <![CDATA[Effects of chromium yeast supplementation on productive and metabolic responses of laying hens fed diets containing different energy levels]]> ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of chromium yeast (Cr yeast) and two apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels on productive performance, egg quality, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in laying hens. A total of 192 Bovans White laying hens at 47 weeks of age were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments (six replicates each) in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement: four levels of supplemental Cr (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm as Cr yeast) and two AME levels (2,780 and 2,900 kcal AME kg−1). No significant effect of Cr yeast supplementation on feed intake, egg weight, egg production, intact eggs, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, or egg quality was observed. Egg quality parameters and Cr content in the yolk were not affected by dietary treatments. Plasma glucose and lipid levels were not influenced by either Cr yeast or AME levels used in this study. However, Cr yeast supplementation improved yolk percentage and hepatic glycogen content. The inclusion of Cr yeast at 0.2 and 0.4 ppm induced the highest hepatic glycogen content with the energy levels 2,900 and 2,780 kcal AME kg−1, respectively. Laying hens fed 2,900 kcal AME kg−1 showed the highest abdominal fat. The results observed in the present study support the hypothesis that the lack of positive effects of Cr yeast supplementation on production performance and egg quality may be related to good management practices, as the birds were not subjected to stressful conditions. <![CDATA[Estrous synchronization in sheep with reused progesterone devices and eCG]]> ABSTRACT The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of long synchronization protocols based on reused progesterone devices (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) associated with different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on reproductive variables in crossbred sheep (Suffolk × Kathadin × Dorset). The CIDR were used for eleven days in a previous study in sheep from the same herd and were washed and disinfected before reusing. Sixty-four sheep, in the reproductive season, were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 16). Treatments consisted of a group with 10 d CIDR and 300 IU eCG; a group with 10 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG; a group with 12 d CIDR and 300 IU of eCG; and a group with 12 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG. A completely randomized design was used. There was an estrous presentation rate of 100% in all treatments. The begining of estrous, gestation rate, fertility rate, type of parturition, and prolificacy index were equal between groups. Progesterone serum concentration was higher in sheep from the 10 d CIDR groups. The CIDR, reused for the second time, associated with 300 or 400 IU of eCG for estrous synchronization in sheep, are effective to obtain good pregnancy rates and ensures higher prolificacy rates. <![CDATA[Effect of ensiling on the feeding value of flint corn grain for feedlot beef cattle: A meta-analysis]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to review the effect of ensiling on the feeding value of flint corn grain and performance of feedlot cattle. In this meta-analysis, ensiled corn grain included both high-moisture corn and rehydrated corn grain. The criteria for a publication enter in the database were: diet was offered as a total mixed ration, diet contained at least 300 g/kg dry matter (DM) of ensiled or dry corn grain, and ensiled grain contained a minimum of 280 g/kg of moisture. The final dataset included 21 paired comparisons from eight publications, from 2002 to 2019. A sub dataset of digestibility trials contained six paired comparisons for starch digestibility and five paired comparisons for DM digestibility. The outcomes were compared using the Mixed procedure of SAS, including a random effect of comparison within study (paired comparison). Ensiling corn grain increased total-tract digestibility of DM (+4.59%) and starch (+3.33%), decreased DM intake by 14.1% (10.3 and 8.85 kg/d for dry and ensiled, respectively) and metabolizable energy intake by 4.39%, but did not affect average daily gain (1.61 and 1.58 kg/d for dry and ensiled corn, respectively). Therefore, ensiling corn grain increased feed efficiency by 18.3% (0.164 and 0.194, for dry and ensiled, respectively). The feeding value was on average 25.7% higher for ensiled corn grain compared with dry corn grain. Ensiling is an efficient strategy to improve the caloric value of flint corn grain for finishing cattle.