Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1516-359820160008&lang=pt vol. 45 num. 8 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( <strong><em>Oreochromis niloticus</em></strong> )]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800427&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g) and adult (220 g) Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans) were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM) (69.41%), while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%). Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI) was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48%) and high-quality protein maize (71.09%) ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79%) ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%). The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP) was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%), while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86%) and beans (87.29%) diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP ) was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11%) and maize (49.48%) ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively). The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46). Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia. <![CDATA[Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800433&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying dietary supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture on semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks aged 35-41 weeks. The experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but with different supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. The three dietary supplemental levels based on garlic and onion supplemental inclusion levels were Q0 (0 g onion and 0 g garlic per 600 g DM feed), Q1 (2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed), and Q2 (5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed) with each treatment having three replicates. A quadratic type equation was used to determine the onion and garlic levels for optimum semen quality characteristics. Daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased progressive motile cells (%), actual life sperm count (×106/nl), and live sperm (%) by 221.20%, 301.51%, and 352.43%, while 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced them by 28.67%, 12.69%, and 19.00%, respectively. However, daily supplementation with 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased sperm count (×106/nl) by 12.82%, whereas daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced it by 10.26% in Koekoek breeder cocks. Dietary onion and garlic supplemental inclusion levels of 3.009, 3.191, 4.621, 6.601, 6.719, 2.327, 2.385, and 2.247 g per 600 g DM feed supported optimum progressive motile cells (%), immotile sperm cells (%), actual dead sperm count (×106/nl), actual live sperm count (×106/nl), live sperm (%), acrosome morphology defects (%), acrosome detachment (%), and acrosome swelling (%), with probability values ranging from 0.003 to 0.783, whereas minimum progressive motile cells (%) increase was achieved at an optimum onion and garlic supplementation levels of 3.009 g per 600 g DM feed. These findings have a lot of implications on the use of supplemental onion and garlic inclusion levels to enhance reproductive efficiency in Koekoek breeder cocks. <![CDATA[Comparison of normal and PSE turkey breast meat for chemical composition, pH, color, myoglobin, and drip loss]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800441&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this investigation was to determine the differences between normal and PSE (pale, soft, exudative) turkey breast meat in terms of chemical composition, pH, color, myoglobin, and drip loss. Pale and normal skinless, boneless turkey breast fillets were taken from a poultry slaughterhouse in Van/Turkey at about 2-3 h postmortem. Spectrocolorimetry (CIE L*a*b*), pH, protein, ash, dry matter, lipid, myoglobin, and drip loss were measured in normal and pale color turkey breast muscle. The normal breast meat had significantly lower L*, a*, and b* values in comparison with the pale breast meat. Myoglobin concentration and pH were significantly higher in the normal breast meat compared with that of the pale breast meat. Protein content was found to be significantly lower for the pale group compared with the normal group. No significant difference was found in ash, dry matter, and total lipid content between normal and pale breast meat. Drip loss was significantly affected by breast meat color groups at days 1, 2, 3, and 4 postmortem. Pale, soft, exudative turkey breast meat can lead to differences in the chemical composition and shelf life of the product. <![CDATA[Interpolation method for live weight estimation based on age in Japanese quails]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800445&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to demonstrate live weight estimation based on age by using Newton Interpolation method for male and female quails for seven weeks of fattening. A total of 138-day-old quail chicks were used in the study. The study demonstrated a 6th-degree polynomial interpolation for the function values obtained at seven equal intervals from 7 to 49 days. Live weight increase prediction was calculated for male and female quails between the 7th and 49th days using Newton Interpolation. Daily live weight increase for male and female quails based on observed live weights was determined. Female quails displayed more live weight increase after the 19th day compared with males. Average live weight increase in male quails was 3.81 g, and 4.63 g for females until the 49th day. The highest live weight increase was observed during the fourth week for all quails. Sum of squared errors and coefficient of determination (R2) for fit of the model were calculated and the F test was performed. F, sum of squared errors, and R2 obtained by Newton Interpolation for male quails and female quail were very large: 0 (approximately zero) and 0.999, respectively. The interpolation method is suitable for breeding studies. <![CDATA[<strong><em>In vitro</em></strong> free radicals scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity of solid-state fermented wheat bran and its potential modulation of antioxidative molecular targets in chicken PBMC]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800451&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity in solid-state fermented wheat bran and its potential modulation of antioxidative molecular targets in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by white rot fungi for 12 d, the scavenging action of the fermented wheat bran extracts was 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and the free radicals increased significantly, approximately 1.5-fold. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 1 mg/mL fermented wheat bran extracts was increased from 100 to 150 mM trolox antioxidant capacity after 12 d of fermentation. Moreover, the extracts exhibited 50% of the chelating capacity observed for ferrous iron (Fe2+) after fermenting for 12 d. In vitro, and under the stimulus of fermented wheat bran, the antioxidant gene expression (GST, HO-1, Nrf2, and GCLC genes) of PBMC was more than double that of the PBS, ascorbic acid, and unfermented wheat bran. The expression of fermented wheat bran was the lowest for the NOX1 and ROMO1 genes. Solid-state wheat bran fermented by white rot fungi can increase the scavenging action of DPPH, the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the chelating capacity of ferrous iron; in addition, in vitro, it can regulate the expression of antioxidant molecular targets in chicken PBMC. <![CDATA[Physiological parameters for thermal stress in dairy cattle]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800458&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate changes in physiological parameters of dairy cows and understand which physiological parameters show greater reliability for verification of heat stress. Blood samples were collected for analysis and included hematocrit (Ht), erythrocyte count (ERY), and hemoglobin count (HEMO). In addition, physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and panting score (PS) were recorded in 38 lactating cows. These varied according to genetic group (1/2, 3/4, and pure bred Holstein (HO)). Analysis of variance considering the effects of genetic group, days, and their interaction as well as linear and quadratic effect of the black globe humidity index (BGHI) was performed, as well as broken-line regression. These values were higher in pure HO than in 3/4 and 1/2 groups. The average BGHI during the morning was 74, when 70, 43, and 13% of pure HO, 3/4, and 1/2, respectively, presented RR above reference value. The RR was the best indicator of heat stress and its critical value was 116 breaths/min for 1/2, 140 for 3/4, and 168 breaths/min for pure HO cows. In the HO group, physiological variables increased linearly with BGHI, without presenting inflection in the regression. The inflection point occurred at a higher BGHI for the 1/2 group compared with the other groups. Hematocrit and HEMO were different among genetic groups and did not vary with BGHI, showing that stress was not sufficient to alter these hematological parameters. The 1/2 HO group was capable of maintaining normal physiological parameters for at least 3 BGHI units above that of HO and 1 to 3 units higher than 3/4 HO for RR and RT, respectively. Respiratory rate is the physiological parameter that best predicts heat stress in dairy cattle, and the 1/2 Holstein group is the best adapted to heat stress. <![CDATA[Effect of calcium salts of fatty acids on the nutritive value of diets, feeding behavior, and serum blood parameters of lactating Saanen goats grazing on stargrass]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800466&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine effects of the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) to the concentrate on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients and the grazing behavior of lactating Saanen goats. Five multiparous goats in their third lactation and four primiparous goats were used. The animals were distributed into two Latin square designs, which, for the multiparous goats was 5 × 5, with five treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, and 6.0% CSFA); and for the primiparous goats was 4 × 4, with four treatments (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% CSFA). The addition of CSFA to the concentrate of lactating Saanen goats did not influence the time spent grazing, ruminating, or lying for multiparous goats. However, for primiparous goats, for the time spent grazing, there was a negative quadratic effect with the addition of CSFA to the concentrate. The treatments did not affect the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, or total digestible nutrients for multiparous goats. No effects were observed on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein and the ether extract, which increased the energy values of the diets with 3.5% CSFA. For primiparous goats, no effects were observed on intake or digestibility. Addition of CSFA can be used as an alternative to feed primiparous goats in grassland when the grazing time is a factor limiting intake. Addition of up to 3.5% of CSFA increases the energy value of diets for multiparous goats. These results suggest that calcium salts of fatty acids is an alternative energy supplement to feed lactating goats. <![CDATA[Behavior affected by routine oxytocin injection in crossbred cows in the tropics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800478&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to determine the effect of routine intramuscular injection of oxytocin to induce milk ejection on behavior assessed in terms of stress and rectal temperature in crossbred cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) in the tropics of Veracruz, México. Immediately after calving, cows were milked twice a day (n = 210) and randomly assigned to receive at each milking: 10 IU (0.5 mL) of oxytocin intramuscularly (n = 70); 0.5 mL of saline solution intramuscularly (n = 70); or no injection (n = 70). The following behavioral indicators of stress were observed: trampling, kicking, tail movement, failure to eat, jumping to avoid injection, vocalization, urination, and defecation. After milking, rectal temperature (RT) was measured. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-square. There were no differences in terms of behavioral stress indicators or rectal temperature in cows injected with oxytocin or saline solution, but both groups had greater behavioral indicators of stress and RT compared with non-injected cows. Cows injected with oxytocin or saline solution manifested a higher percentage of animals that trampled (96.8%), kicked (32%), ceased eating (61.2%), moved the tail (81.2%), jumped (20.9%) and avoided the injection (78.2%), compared with non-injected cows. Cows injected with oxytocin and saline solution had higher rectal temperature (39.13±0.08 ºC) compared with non-injected cows (38.96±0.12 ºC). All injected cows had higher behavioral indicators of stress measurements and rectal temperature regardless of the solution, suggesting that cows injected routinely and intramuscularly do not become habituated to this, even though some cows were injected more than 600 times throughout lactation. <![CDATA[Fatty acid profile of meat, diurnal changes in volatile fatty acids, rumen fluid parameters, and growth performance in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers fed high- and low-forage diets supplemented with chromium-methionine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800483&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forage level in diets supplemented with chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) on rumen fluid parameters, meat fatty acid composition, and performance of Korean beef (Hanwoo) steers. Twenty-three Hanwoo steers were used in this experiment. A completely randomized design and repeated measurements were used to analyze the data set. Beef steers were fed diets containing high (10 head; average body weight (BW) = 525.1±27.5; forage:concentrate (F:C) = 60:40) (60F) and low (13 head; average BW = 531.8±32.4; F:C = 40:60 ratio) (40F) forage diets supplemented with Cr-Met for 60 d. Dry matter intake, BW, and feed efficiency were not different between the two treatment groups. Fatty acid composition of meat including myristate, stearate, and gamma linoleate was not different between the two groups; however, palmitate, palimtoleate, and linoleate were higher in 60F group than 40F group. Ammonia-N showed a higher trend in 40F group, whereas pH demonstrated higher values in 60F group. Ruminal acetate was higher in 60F group than 40F group and maintained a high trend throughout the sampling time, whereas no differences were found in ruminal propionate, butyrate, and valerate between two groups. A high-forage diet (60%) improves meat quality and has no adverse effects on performance of Hanwoo steers. <![CDATA[Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800489&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G), an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C), and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC). The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing. <![CDATA[ERRATUM]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800499&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G), an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C), and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC). The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing. <![CDATA[ERRATUM]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000800500&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G), an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C), and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC). The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.